Worcester College, Oxford
Worcester College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college was founded in 1714 by the benefaction of Sir Thomas Cookes, a Worcestershire baronet, with the college gaining its name from the county of Worcestershire, its predecessor, Gloucester College, had been an institution of learning on the same site since the late 13th century until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539. Founded as a men's college, Worcester has been coeducational since 1979; as of July 2016, Worcester College had a financial endowment of £73 million. Notable alumni of the college include the media mogul Rupert Murdoch, television producer and screenwriter Russell T Davies, US Supreme Court justice Elena Kagan, novelist Richard Adams; the buildings are diverse in the main quadrangle: looking down into the main quadrangle from the entrance through the main building, to the right is an imposing eighteenth century building in the neo-classical style. These cottages are the most substantial surviving part of Gloucester College, Worcester's predecessor on the same site: this was a college for Benedictine monks, founded in 1283 and dissolved with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in about 1539.
After a lapse of 20 years, the buildings of the old Gloucester College were used in the foundation of Gloucester Hall, in around 1560. The penultimate principal, Benjamin Woodroffe, attempted to establish there a'Greek College' for Greek Orthodox students to come to Oxford, part of a scheme to make ecumenical links with the Church of England; this was a going concern from 1699 to 1705. In 1714, thanks to a fortunate benefaction from a Worcestershire baronet, Sir Thomas Cookes, Gloucester Hall was transformed into Worcester College. There were only sufficient funds to rebuild the Chapel and Library and the north side of the Front Quad, known as the Terrace; the designs were by Dr. George Clarke. In 1736, Clarke generously left to the College his great collection of manuscripts; these included the papers of his father William Clarke and a large proportion of the surviving drawings of Inigo Jones. Owing to lack of funds, Worcester's eighteenth-century building programme proceeded by fits and starts.
The west end of the Terrace and the Provost's Lodgings were added in 1773–76. The medieval cottages were to have been replaced by a further classical range, but survived because money for this purpose was never available; the College Chapel was built in the 18th century. Dr George Clarke, Henry Keene and James Wyatt were responsible for different stages of its lengthy construction, owing to shortage of funds; the interior columns and pilasters, the dome and the delicate foliage plastering are all Wyatt's work. His classical interior was insufficiently emphatic for the tastes of militant Victorian churchmen, between 1864 and 1866 the chapel was redecorated by William Burges, it is unusual and decorative. Its stained glass windows were to have been designed by John Everett Millais, but Burges rejected his designs and entrusted the work to Henry Holiday. Oscar Wilde said of the Chapel, "As a piece of simple decorative and beautiful art it is perfect, the windows artistic." Worcester is unique among the Oxford colleges in that it has not one, but two chapel choirs of equal status, which share out the weekly services between them.
There is a mixed-voice choir constituted of auditioned choral scholars and volunteers, which sings twice a week: weekly on Thursday and on alternating Sunday and Monday evenings. The Boys' Choir consists of trebles from Christ Church Cathedral School and alto and bass choral scholars; this choir sings twice weekly. These choirs are run on a day-to-day basis by Worcester’s three Organ Scholars alongside the Director of Music. Burges started the redecoration of the Hall in 1877, but the work remained uncompleted at his death, in 1966 Wyatt's designs were restored. In more recent years several new residential blocks for undergraduates and graduates have been added, thanks in part to a series of generous benefactions; the latest of these include the Earl building, Sainsbury Building, Linbury Building, Canal Building, Ruskin Lane Building, the Franks Building. A modern addition to Worcester College, the Canal Building, sits next to the north entrance to the college and, as the name suggests, beside the Oxford Canal.
It houses 50 students in large en-suite single rooms. The accommodation is reserved for third and fourth year undergraduates. Although Worcester is near the centre of Oxford today, it was on the edge of the city in the eighteenth century; this has proved a benefit in the long run, since it has allowed the college to retain extensive gardens and, uniquely among Oxford colleges, contiguous playing fields. The gardens have won numerous awards, including the Oxford in Bloom college award every time they have been entered for the competition. Extensive work on the gardens was carried out between 1817 and 1820, they may have been laid out in the Picturesque style by Richard Greswell in 1827
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Fletcher Challenge is a now defunct multinational corporation from New Zealand, formed in 1981 by the merger of Fletcher Holdings, Challenge Corporation and Tasman Pulp and Paper. It was the largest company in New Zealand, with holdings in construction, forestry and energy within New Zealand and internationally; the corporation was formed in January 1981 with the mutual merger of Challenge Corporation, Fletcher Holdings and Tasman Pulp and Paper. It was based in Wellington's Challenge House, but moved in 1987 to a new head office in Penrose, Auckland. In 1987 the corporation acquired the State-owned enterprise Petrocorp, created the Fletcher Energy division. Fletcher Energy's assets were subsequently sold to Shell New Zealand. In November 1993 Fletcher Challenge's share market listing was split into two shares, the Ordinary Division and Forests Division; the Forests Division consisted of the corporation's wood plantation assets and forestry activities. The Ordinary Division consisted of the corporations pulp and paper and building assets.
In March 1996 the Ordinary Division was split further by creating three new shares - Fletcher Challenge Paper, Fletcher Challenge Building and Fletcher Challenge Energy. This structure lasted three years, until December 1999 when the Board of Directors of the company resolved to dismantle the Fletcher Challenge and establish separate companies. In 2000 the Canadian pulp and paper assets were sold to Norske Skog to form NorskeCanada. In 2001 Fletcher Challenge was split into three companies, Fletcher Challenge Forests, Fletcher Building, Rubicon. A September 1996 investment in Central North Island Forest Partnership ended in receivership and is said to have contributed to the break up of Fletcher Challenge; the rise and fall of Fletcher Challenge and some of the principal personalities involved, including Hugh Fletcher and Sir Ronald Trotter is described in the book Battle of the Titans by Bruce Wallace. Former subsidiaries were - Australian Newsprint Mills Ltd Blandin Paper Co Cape Horn Methanol Ltd - bought 1991 Cemac Ltd - founded 1971 now in Fletcher Building Challenge Livestock Ltd Challenge Properties Ltd - joint venture Challenge Realty Ltd - formed 1994 as franchise name Challenge Seeds Ltd 1987-1994 Challenge Wool Ltd Crown Paper Co Ltd Dinwiddie Construction Co Firth Industries Ltd Fletcher Challenge Canada Ltd Fletcher Challenge Methanol Ltd Fletcher Challenge Petroleum Ltd Fletcher Construction Australia Ltd Fletcher Construction Co Ltd Fletcher Construction Group Ltd Fletcher Development & Construction Co Ltd Fletcher Homes Ltd Fletcher Merchants Ltd Fletcher Pacific Construction Co Ltd Fletcher Panel Industries Ltd Fletcher Steel Sector Golden Bay Cement Co Ltd Jennings Group Ltd Pacific Coilcoaters Ltd Pacific Steel Ltd Petralgas Chemicals NZ Ltd 1980-2005 Petroleum Corporation of New Zealand Ltd Pisa-Papel de Imprensa SA Placemakers Ltd Rural Bank Tasman Asia Shipping Co Ltd Tasman Chile SA Tasman Forestry Ltd Tasman Lumber Co Ltd Tasman Pulp & Paper The Rural Bank Ltd UK Paper plc William Guppy & Son Ltd Winstone Aggregates Ltd Winstone Industries Ltd Wiremakers Ltd Wright Schuchart Inc Wrightson Wrightson Bloodstock Ltd Wrightson NMA Ltd Fletcher Challenge Archives Fletcher Construction Tenon Rubicon
Andrew D. Hamilton
Andrew David Hamilton is a British chemist and academic, the 16th and current President of New York University. From 2009 to 2015, he served as the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Before leading Oxford, he was Provost of Yale University from 2004 to 2008. Andrew Hamilton was a pupil at Guildford, he studied chemistry at the University of Exeter, graduating with a first class Bachelor of Science degree. After studying for a master's degree at the University of British Columbia, he received his PhD degree from St John's College, Cambridge in 1980 with a thesis titled "Models for oxygen-binding hemoproteins" under the supervision of Alan R. Battersby and spent a post-doctoral period at the Université Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, he received honorary doctorates from the University of Surrey, Tsinghua University, the University of Exeter, among others. In 1981, he was appointed Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Princeton University in 1988 as Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh.
In 1997 he moved to Yale as Benjamin Silliman Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Molecular biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University. Hamilton's research has spanned porphyrin, medicinal, bioorganic chemistry and chemical biology, his laboratory is most noted for the design of barbiturate hosts, farnesyl tranferase inhibitors, protein surface binders, helix mimetics. In 2004 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, he served as Provost of Yale University from October 2004 to October 2008 after his predecessor, Susan Hockfield, was appointed the 16th President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He had served as Deputy Provost for Science and Technology for one year under Hockfield, as chairman of the department of chemistry at Yale. On 3 June 2008, Oxford University announced Hamilton's nomination for the post of Vice-Chancellor. On 16 June, it was confirmed that he would succeed John Hood and assume the post for a period of seven years on 1 October 2009, he is an Honorary Fellow of Harris Manchester Kellogg College at Oxford.
On 18 March 2015, New York University announced Hamilton's appointment to begin as the 16th President of the university. His duties began in January 2016. Hamilton lives in Greenwich Village with his wife Jennifer, he has three children. "Profile for Andrew D. Hamilton". Department of Chemistry – Yale University. "Provost of Yale nominated as next Vice-Chancellor". University of Oxford Press Office. 3 June 2008. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. "Professor Andrew Hamilton confirmed as next Vice-Chancellor". University of Oxford Press Office. 16 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2008. Office of the Provost Vice-Chancellor's Office Hamilton Research Group
Lawrence Henry Summers is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank, senior U. S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration, former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama, he is a former president of Harvard University, where he is a professor and director of the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Born in New Haven, Summers became a professor of economics at Harvard University in 1983, he left Harvard in 1991, working as the Chief Economist at the World Bank from 1991 to 1993. In 1993, Summers was appointed Undersecretary for International Affairs of the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton Administration. In 1995, he was promoted to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under his long-time political mentor Robert Rubin. In 1999, he succeeded Rubin as Secretary of the Treasury. While working for the Clinton administration Summers played a leading role in the American response to the 1994 economic crisis in Mexico, the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the Russian financial crisis.
He was influential in the Harvard Institute for International Development and American-advised privatization of the economies of the post-Soviet states, in the deregulation of the U. S financial system, including the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. Following the end of Clinton's term, Summers served as the 27th President of Harvard University from 2001 to 2006. Summers resigned as Harvard's president in the wake of a no-confidence vote by Harvard faculty, which resulted in large part from Summers's conflict with Cornel West, financial conflict of interest questions regarding his relationship with Andrei Shleifer, a 2005 speech in which he suggested that the under-representation of women in science and engineering could be due to a "different availability of aptitude at the high end", less to patterns of discrimination and socialization. Remarking upon political correctness in institutions of higher education, Summers said in 2016, "There is a great deal of absurd political correctness. Now, I'm somebody who believes strongly in diversity, who resists racism in all of its many incarnations, who thinks that there is a great deal that's unjust in American society that needs to be combated, but it seems to be that there is a kind of creeping totalitarianism in terms of what kind of ideas are acceptable and are debatable on college campuses."After his departure from Harvard, Summers worked as a managing partner at the hedge fund D. E. Shaw & Co. and as a freelance speaker at other financial institutions, including Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers.
Summers rejoined public service during the Obama administration, serving as the Director of the White House United States National Economic Council for President Barack Obama from January 2009 until November 2010, where he emerged as a key economic decision-maker in the Obama administration's response to the Great Recession. After his departure from the NEC in December 2010, Summers has worked in the private sector and as a columnist in major newspapers. In mid-2013, his name was floated as the potential successor to Ben Bernanke as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, though Obama nominated Federal Reserve Vice-Chairwoman Janet Yellen for the position; as of 2017, Summers retains his Harvard University status as former president emeritus and Charles W. Eliot University Professor. Summers was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on November 30, 1954, into a Jewish family, the son of two economists, Robert Summers and Anita Summers, who are both professors at the University of Pennsylvania, he is the nephew of two Nobel laureates in economics: Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow.
He spent most of his childhood in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he attended Harriton High School. At age 16, he entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he intended to study physics but soon switched to economics, he was an active member of the MIT debating team and qualified for participation in the annual National Debate Tournament three times. He attended Harvard University as a graduate student. In 1983, at age 28, Summers became one of the youngest tenured professors in Harvard's history, it was during this time that Summers was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma. He has since remained cancer free, he was a visiting academic at the London School of Economics in 1987. Summers has three children with Victoria Joanne. In December 2005, Summers married English professor Elisa New, who has three daughters from a previous marriage, he lives in Massachusetts. As a researcher, Summers has made important contributions in many areas of economics public finance, labor economics, financial economics, macroeconomics.
Summers has worked in international economics, economic demography, economic history and development economics. His work emphasizes the analysis of empirical economic data in order to answer well-defined questions, for example: Does saving respond to after-tax interest rates? Are the returns from stocks and stock portfolios predictable? Are most of those who receive unemployment benefits only transitorily unemployed? etc. For his work, he received the John Bates Clark Medal in 1993 fro
Helen Elizabeth Clark is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, the second woman to hold that office. Clark was brought up on a farm outside Hamilton, she entered the University of Auckland in 1968 to study politics, became active in the New Zealand Labour Party. After graduating she lectured in political studies at the university. Clark was not elected to any position. Following one unsuccessful attempt, she was elected to Parliament in 1981 as the member for Mount Albert, an electorate she represented until 2009. Clark held numerous Cabinet positions in the Fourth Labour Government, including Minister of Housing, Minister of Health and Minister of Conservation, she was Deputy Prime Minister from 1989 to 1990 under Prime Ministers Geoffrey Palmer and Mike Moore. After Labour's narrow defeat in the 1993 election, Clark challenged Moore for leadership of the party and won, becoming the Leader of the Opposition.
Following the 1999 election, Labour formed a governing coalition, Clark was sworn in as Prime Minister on 5 December 1999. Clark led the Fifth Labour Government, which implemented several major economic initiatives including Kiwibank, the New Zealand Superannuation Fund, the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme and KiwiSaver, her government introduced the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004, which caused major controversy. In foreign affairs, Clark sent troops to the Afghanistan War, but did not contribute combat troops to the Iraq War, she advocated a number of free-trade agreements with major trading partners, including becoming the first developed nation to sign such an agreement with China, ordered a military deployment to the 2006 East Timorese crisis alongside international partners. After three successive election victories, her government was defeated in the 2008 election, she was succeeded as Prime Minister by John Key of the National Party, as Leader of the Labour Party by Phil Goff. Clark resigned from Parliament in April 2009 to become the first female head of the United Nations Development Programme.
Forbes magazine ranked her the 22nd most powerful woman in the world in 2016, down from 20th in 2006. In 2016, she stood for the position of Secretary-General of the United Nations, but was unsuccessful, she left her UNDP administrator post on 19 April 2017 at the end of her second four-year term and was succeeded by Achim Steiner. In 2019, Clark became the patron of The Helen Clark Foundation. Clark was the eldest of four daughters of a farming family at Te Pahu, west of Hamilton, in the Waikato Region, her mother, Margaret McMurray, of Irish birth, was a primary school teacher. Her father, was a farmer. Clark studied at Te Pahu Primary School, at Epsom Girls' Grammar School in Auckland and at the University of Auckland, where she majored in politics and graduated with an MA in 1974, her thesis focused on representation. As a teenager Clark became politically active, protesting against the Vietnam War and campaigning against foreign military bases in New Zealand. Clark has worked in the New Zealand Labour Party for most of her life.
In 1971 she assisted Labour candidates to the Auckland City Council. Following this, she stood for the Auckland City Council herself in 1974 and 1977. While polling well she never won a seat, missing out by only 105 votes in the latter. Clark was a junior lecturer in political studies at the University of Auckland from 1973 to 1975. In 1974 she lost to Richard Prebble, she instead stood for a National safe seat. Clark studied abroad on a University Grants Committee post-graduate scholarship in 1976, lectured in political studies at Auckland again while undertaking her PhD from 1977 until her election to Parliament in 1981, her father supported National that election. Clark served as a member of Labour's national executive committee from 1978 until September 1988, again from April 1989, she chaired the University of Auckland Princes Street branch of the Labour Party during her studies, becoming active alongside future Labour politicians including Richard Prebble, David Caygill, Margaret Wilson and Richard Northey.
Clark held the positions of president of the Labour Youth Council, executive member of the party's Auckland Regional Council, secretary of the Labour Women's Council and member of the Policy Council. She represented the New Zealand Labour Party at the congresses of the Socialist International and of the Socialist International Women in 1976, 1978, 1983 and 1986, at an Asia-Pacific Socialist Organisation Conference held in Sydney in 1981, at the Socialist International Party Leaders' Meeting in Sydney in 1991. Clark first gained election to the New Zealand House of Representatives in the 1981 general election, as one of eight female members in the 40th Parliament. In winning the Mount Albert electorate in Auckland, she became the second woman elected to represent an Auckland electorate, the seventeenth woman elected to the New Zealand Parliament, her first parliamentary intervention, on taking her seat was on 12 April 1982 to give notice, she would move a motion condemning the US Navy's deployment of nuclear cruise missiles in the Pacific Two weeks in her maiden speech, with unusual emphasis on defence policy and the arms race, Clark again condemned the deployment of cruise, pershing and SS20 and the global ambitions of both superpowers navies, but clai