Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. Explanations of predestination seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can be regarded as a form of religious determinism. There is some disagreement among scholars regarding the views on predestination of first-century AD Judaism, out of which Christianity came. Josephus wrote during the first century, he argued that the Essenes and Pharisees argued that God's providence orders all human events, but the Pharisees still maintained that people are able to choose between right and wrong. He wrote; the biblical scholar N. T. Wright argues that Josephus's portrayal of these groups is incorrect, that the Jewish debates referenced by Josephus should be seen as having to do with God's work to liberate Israel rather than philosophical questions about predestination.
Wright asserts that Essenes were content to wait for God to liberate Israel while Pharisees believed Jews needed to act in cooperation with God. John Barclay responded that Josephus's description was an over-simplification and there were to be complex differences between these groups which may have been similar to those described by Josephus. Francis Watson has argued on the basis of 4 Ezra, a document dated to the first century AD, that Jewish beliefs in predestination are concerned with God's choice to save some individual Jews. In the New Testament, Romans 8–11 presents a statement on predestination. In Romans 8:28–30, Paul writes, We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren, and those whom he predestined he called. Biblical scholars have interpreted this passage in several ways. Many say this only has to do with service, is not about salvation.
The Catholic biblical commentator Brendan Byrne wrote that the predestination mentioned in this passage should be interpreted as applied to the Christian community corporately rather than individuals. Another Catholic commentator, Joseph Fitzmyer, wrote that this passage teaches that God has predestined the salvation of all humans. Douglas Moo, a Protestant biblical interpreter, reads the passage as teaching that God has predestined a certain set of people to salvation. Wright's interpretation is that in this passage Paul teaches that God will save those whom he has chosen, but Wright emphasizes that Paul does not intend to suggest that God has eliminated human free will or responsibility. Instead, Wright asserts, Paul is saying that God's will works through that of humans to accomplish salvation. Origen, writing in the third century, taught, he believed God's predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of every individual's merits, whether in their current life or a previous life. In the fourth and fifth centuries, Augustine of Hippo taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom.
Prior to 396, Augustine believed that predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of whether individuals would believe, that God's grace was "a reward for human assent". In response to Pelagius, Augustine said that the sin of pride consists in assuming that "we are the ones who choose God or that God chooses us because of something worthy in us", argued that it is God's grace that causes the individual act of faith. Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination, or the belief that God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation. Catholic scholars tend to deny that he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars affirm that Augustine did believe in double predestination. Augustine's position raised objections. Julian of Eclanum expressed the view. For Vincent of Lérins, this was a disturbing innovation; this new tension became obvious with the confrontation between Augustine and Pelagius culminating in condemnation of Pelagianism at the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Pelagius denied Augustine's view of predestination in order to affirm that salvation is achieved by an act of free will. The Council of Arles in the late fifth century condemned the position "that some have been condemned to death, others have been predestined to life", though this may seem to follow from Augustine's teaching; the Second Council of Orange in 529 condemned the position that "some have been predestined to evil by divine power". In the eighth century, John of Damascus emphasized the freedom of the human will in his doctrine of predestination, argued that acts arising from peoples' wills are not part of God's providence at all. Damascene teaches that people's good actions are done in cooperation with God, but are not caused by him. Gottschalk of Orbais, a ninth-century Saxon monk, argued that God predestines some people to hell as well as predestining some to heaven, a view known as double predestination, he was condemned by several synods. Irish theologian John Scottus Eriugena wrote a refutation of Gottschalk.
Eriugena abandoned Augustine's teaching on predestination. He wrote that God's predestination should be equated with his foreknowledge
Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands and most populous city of the province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, in the centre of mainland Netherlands, had a population of 345,080 in 2017. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages, it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It remains the main religious centre in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city. Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport, it has the second highest number of cultural events after Amsterdam.
In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world's unsung places. Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age and settling in the Bronze Age, the founding date of the city is related to the construction of a Roman fortification built in around 50 CE. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north. To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today; these fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers' wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. In 11th-century official documents, it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum.
Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century, Germanic tribes invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries. Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians, this first church was destroyed. By the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Pope Sergius I appointed Saint Willibrordus, as bishop of the Frisians; the tenure of Willibrordus is considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of the bishops.
From on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. In addition, the city of Utrecht had competition from the nearby trading centre Dorestad. After the fall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands; the importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the election of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522. When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops; the territory of the bishopric not only included the modern province of Utrecht, but extended to the northeast. The feudal conflict of the Middle Ages affected Utrecht; the prince-bishopric was involved in continuous conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. The most dominant of these was the Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress; the construction of the present Gothic building was begun in 1254 after an earlier romanesque construction had been badly damaged by fire. The choir and transept were finished from 1320 and were followed by the ambitious Dom tower; the last part to be constructed was the central nave, from 1420. By that time, the age of the great cathedrals had come to an end and declining finances prevented the ambitious project from being finished, the construction of the central nave being suspended before the planned flying buttresses could be finished. Besides the cathedral there were four collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church, on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John, originating in 1040. Besides these churches, the city housed St. Paul's Abbey, the 15th-century beguinage of St. Nicholas, a 14th-century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.
Antrim Castle known as Massereene Castle was a castle in Antrim, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, on the banks of the Sixmilewater River. It was erected in stages between 1613 and 1662, it was destroyed by fire in 1922 and demolished in the 1970s. All that remain are a raised grassed platform as well as a freestanding Italian stair tower, built in 1887 and a gatehouse, built around 1818 with twin neo-Tudor towers, with older connecting walls; the gardens are a popular tourist attraction on the Randalstown Antrim. Antrim Castle was built in 1613 by English settler, Sir Hugh Clotworthy, enlarged in 1662 by his son, John Clotworthy, 1st Viscount Massereene, it was through his daughter and heiress and her marriage to Sir John Skeffington, 4th Baronet, that the estate and title came to the latter family. The castle was rebuilt in 1813. In the 1680s the castle was raided by Jacobite General Richard Hamilton and his men who looted Viscount Massereene's silver plate and other silverware and furniture up to a value of £3000, a considerable loss at the time.
For sometime the castle was used for political conferences. During a grand ball on 28 October 1922, the castle was destroyed. Although much of the evidence pointed to arson by the IRA, the official verdict was not conclusive, thus no insurance claim was paid out; the castle remained as a ruin until its demolition in 1970. Antrim Castle had been rebuilt in 1813 as a three storey Georgian-Gothic castellated mansion, designed by Dublin architect, John Bowden; the Restoration style doorway of the original castle, featuring heraldry and a head of Charles I, was re-erected as the central feature of the entrance front. It had tower-like projections at the corners of round angle turrets. A tall octagonal turret of ashlar was added to the front in 1887, when the castle was further enlarged. There was a 17th-century formal garden, unique in Ulster; the gardens featured a long canal with another canal at right angles to it, making a T shape, as well as a motte of a Norman castle. Jacobean-Revival outbuildings of coursed rubble basalt with sandstone dressings were built about 1840.
The entrance gateway to the demesne has octagonal turrets. The stable block was converted for use as a family residence and renamed Clotworthy House; this was acquired by Antrim Borough Council and converted for use as an Arts Centre in 1992. The formal gardens were the subject of a £6m restoration project, by Antrim Borough Council supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund, to preserve the historic site. Antrim Castle Gardens won the Ulster in Bloom Special Award 2012. A young Westmeath servant girl, Ethel Gilligan, was rescued from the 1922 fire which left most of the castle in ruins by a local man using a ladder to get to the window, she died from smoke inhalation. Her ghost has been seen walking in Castle Gardens, amidst the ruins of the castle before its demolition; the locals refer to her as the "White Lady". Antrim has its own paranormal research group called C. A. P. R. A.. Founded in 2007, they are a voluntary group set up to investigate alleged paranormal activity. Antrim Castle at Library Ireland
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, his reign is now remembered for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.
Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne. In February 1689, Parliament held he had'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644; the King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England. Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651.
Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes.
During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy, he declined the position.
The Rev. Prof. Ralph Cudworth was a famed English Anglican clergyman, Christian Hebraist, classicist and philosopher, a leading figure among the Cambridge Platonists. From a family background embedded in the early nonconformist environment of Emmanuel College where he studied, he became 11th Regius Professor of Hebrew, 26th Master of Clare Hall, 14th Master of Christ's College, he was a leading opponent of Thomas Hobbes's political and philosophical views, his magnum opus was his The True Intellectual System of the Universe. Cudworth’s family reputedly originated in Cudworth, moving to Lancashire with the marriage of John de Cudworth and Margery, daughter of Richard de Oldham, lord of the manor of Werneth, Oldham; the Cudworths of Werneth Hall, were lords of the manor of Werneth/Oldham, until 1683. Ralph Cudworth ’s father, Ralph Cudworth was the posthumous-born second son of Ralph Cudworth of Werneth Hall, Oldham; the philosopher's father, The Rev. Dr Ralph Cudworth, was educated at Emmanuel College, where he graduated BA (1592/93, MA.
Emmanuel College was, from its inception, a stronghold of Reformist and Calvinist teaching, which shaped the development of puritan ministry, contributed to the emigrant ministry in America. Ordained in 1599 and elected to a college fellowship by 1600, Cudworth Snr was much influenced by William Perkins, whom he succeeded, in 1602, as Lecturer of the Parish Church of St Andrew the Great, Cambridge, he was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Divinity in 1603. He edited Perkins's Commentary on St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, with a dedication to Robert, 3rd Lord Rich, adding a commentary of his own with dedication to Sir Bassingbourn Gawdy. Lord Rich presented him to the Vicariate of Coggeshall, Essex to replace the deprived minister Thomas Stoughton, but he resigned this position, was licensed to preach from the pulpit by the Chancellor and Scholars of the University of Cambridge, he applied for the Rectoriate of Aller, Somerset and, resigning his fellowship, was appointed to it in 1610. His marriage to Mary Machell, brought important connections.
Cudworth Snr was appointed as one of James I's chaplains. Mary's mother was the sister of Sir Edward Lewknor, a central figure among the puritan East Anglian gentry, whose children had attended Emmanuel College. Mary's Lewknor and Machell connections with the Rich family included her first cousins Sir Nathaniel Rich and his sister Dame Margaret Wroth, wife of Sir Thomas Wroth of Petherton Park near Bridgwater, influential promoters of colonial enterprise in New England. Aller was within their sphere. Ralph Snr and Mary settled at Aller, where their children were christened during the following decade. Cudworth continued to study, working on a complete survey of Case-Divinity, The Cases of Conscience in Family and Commonwealth while suffering from the agueish climate at Aller, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity, was among the dedicatees of Richard Bernard's 1621 edition of The Faithfull Shepherd. Ralph Snr died at Aller declaring a nuncupative will before Dame Margaret Wroth; the children of Ralph Cudworth Snr and Mary Cudworth were: General James Cudworth was Assistant Governor and Deputy Governor of Plymouth Colony and four-times Commissioner of the United Colonies, whose descendants form an extensive family of American Cudworths.
Elizabeth Cudworth married Josias Beacham of Broughton, Northamptonshire, by whom she had several children. Beacham reinstated. Ralph Cudworth Mary Cudworth John Cudworth of London and Bentley, Alderman of London, Master of the Worshipful Company of Girdlers. On his death, John left four orphans of whom both Thomas Cudworth and Benjamin Cudworth attended Christ's College, Cambridge. Jane/Joan Cudworth may have been Ralph’s sister; the second son, third of five children, Ralph Cudworth was born at Aller, where he was baptised. Following the death of his father, Ralph Cudworth Snr, The Rev. Dr John Stoughton, succeeded as Rector of Aller, married the widow Mary Cudworth. Dr Stoughton paid careful attention to his stepchildren’s education, which Ralph described as a "diet of Calvinism". Letters, to Stoughton, by both brothers James and Ralph Cudworth make this plain. Stoughton was appointed Curate and Preacher at St Mary Aldermanbury and the family left Aller. Ralph's elder brother, James Cudworth and emigrated to Scituate, Plymouth Colony, New England.
Mary Machell Cudworth Stoughton died during summer 1634, Dr Stoughton married a daughter of
William Laud was an English archbishop and academic. He was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, during the personal rule of Charles I. Arrested in 1640, he was executed in 1645. In matters of church polity, Laud was autocratic. Laudianism refers to a collection of rules on matters of ritual, in particular, that were enforced by Laud in order to maintain uniform worship in England and Wales, in line with the king's preferences, they were precursors to High Church views. In theology, Laud was accused of being an Arminian and opponent of Calvinism, as well as covertly favouring Roman Catholic doctrines. On all three grounds, he was regarded by Puritan clerics and laymen as a formidable and dangerous opponent. Laud favoured scholars, was a major collector of manuscripts, he pursued ecumenical contacts with the Greek Orthodox Church. The pun "give great praise to the Lord, little Laud to the devil" is a warning to King Charles attributed to Archibald Armstrong, the official court jester. Laud was known to be touchy about his diminutive stature.
Laud was born at Reading, Berkshire on 7 October 1573, the only son of William Laud, a clothier, Lucy, née Webbe, widow of John Robinson, another clothier of the town, sister of William Webbe, Lord Mayor of London. He was educated at Reading School, went in 1589 to St John's College, matriculating on 17 October. In 1593 he became a fellow of the college, he graduated B. A. in 1594, M. A. in 1598, D. D. in 1608. As an undergraduate Laud had for his tutor John Buckeridge, who became president of St John's College in 1605. Laud was ordained deacon on 4 January 1601, priest on 5 April in the same year. On 4 May 1603, he was one of the proctors for the year; when Buckeridge left St John's in 1611, Laud succeeded him as President, but only after a hard patronage struggle reaching high court circles. The rival candidate, John Rawlinson, was chaplain to Lord Ellesmere, both Chancellor of the university and Lord Chancellor of England. Laud was chaplain to Richard Neile, Clerk of the Closet. King James brushed aside irregularities in the election, settling matters in Laud's favour.
Laud became Dean of Gloucester in 1616. At Gloucester Cathedral he began ceremonial innovations with the communion table. By local custom, the table stood in the middle of the choir, as was usual in a parish church, rather than at the east end as was typical of cathedrals. Laud believed he had the king's blessing to renovate and improve the run-down building, but he offended his bishop, Miles Smith. Neile was Laud's consistent patron. Neile attempted, but could not obtain, Laud's appointment as Dean of Westminster, a post that John Williams retained, but at the end of 1621, despite the king's view of Laud as a troublemaker, Laud received the lowly see as the Bishop of St David's. Laud became a confidant of 1st Duke of Buckingham, at the end of the reign; the Buckingham household employed John Percy, a Jesuit, as chaplain, the king wished to counter well-founded rumours that Percy was making Catholic converts there. In a three-day series of private debates with Percy in 1622, Laud was introduced to argue the Protestant case on the final day.
He displaced John Preston as religious adviser to the Duke, a change that became clear around December 1624. Historians believe Laud had homosexual leanings, which he seems to have managed discreetly, his private diary does contain evidence of erotic dreams he had about other men. Laud ascended to a position of influence in the period 1626 to 1628, advancing not alone but with a group of like-minded clerics who obtained bishoprics. In September 1626 he took the court position of Dean of the Chapel Royal, vacant by the death of Lancelot Andrewes. A few days Buckingham told him outright that he was to succeed as Archbishop of Canterbury, when George Abbot died, he changed the Chapel services to privilege prayer over preaching, since King Charles's views were the opposite of his father's. In July 1628 Laud was translated from Bath and Wells to become Bishop of London, in moves that followed on from the death of Andrewes. After this breakthrough in church politics, it becomes meaningful to define "Laudians" or "Lauders" as his followers.
On the political stage, the personal rule of Charles I began in 1629 and Laud shortly became a key part of it, in alliance with Thomas Wentworth. Historian Mark Perry argues that by 1626 in private consultations with the king and Buckingham, in his public role in the House of Lords, Laud was a effective parliamentarian and a key adviser and policy-maker. Laud distrusted parliamentary bargaining, was always determined to resist all encroachments upon the royal prerogative in matters of taxation, his strong positions were the focus of attack during his trial in 1644. When Wentworth was posted to Ireland in 1632, Laud brought his personal correspondence from him to the king's attention, it is in 1633, that the term "Thorough" appears. In practical terms it meant the pursuit of ambitious policy objectives, on behalf of the king, disregarding special interests, legalistic prevarications. There were opponents at court: Richard Weston, 1st Earl of Portland, Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington and Queen Henrietta Maria.
Cottington observed that Laud could not keep his temper in Council meetings, by 1637 Laud found he could not follow Wentworth in imagining their push for rigid policies would succeed. Laud was 60 years old when he became archbishop and, having waited for a decade to replace George Abbot, was no longer prepared to compromise on any aspect of his po
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012