Duchy of Limburg
The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Its main territory including the capital Limbourg is today located within the Belgian province of Liège, with a part in the neighbouring province of Belgian Limburg. However finally, after the failed Brabant Revolution in 1789, the history was terminated with the occupation by French Revolutionary troops in 1793. These lands were reunited within modern Belgium only after World War I, the duchy was multilingual, being the place where Dutch and German dialects border upon each other and coexist at their geographical extremes, both now and in medieval times. Its northern and eastern borders are the boundaries of the modern state of Belgium with the Netherlands and Germany. The eastern part, which includes Eupen, is the administrative capital, of the various places known as Limburg, it is the Duchy of Limburg which is the origin of the pungent-smelling soft cheese known as Limburger, and today made in many places. The states territory was situated in the Low Countries between the river Meuse in the west and the Imperial city of Aachen in the east and its most important cities were Limbourg, the capital, and Eupen.
In the west and south, Limburg bordered on the territory of the Liège Prince-Bishops, in the north, linguistically Limburg was situated on the border of Germanic with Romance Europe. While in the northern and eastern districts Limburgish and Ripuarian dialects were spoken and they were in contact with both Gaulish and Germanic peoples. The language they spoke is not certain, and it is not certain to what extent these earlier tribes can be equated to the Tungri. By this time the area had become integrated into the Civitas Tungrorum and this was a frontier area, which took in soldiers and settlers from across the Rhine in Germany and from around the empire. The region to the north of the Duchy was dominated by Salian Franks, under the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, Frankish rule expanded from the region around Limbourg to cover larger areas, and eventually began to replace Roman imperial rule. By the time of Charlemagne, the first Frank to be called an emperor of Rome, the Duchy of Limburg, like most of modern Belgium, was within Lower Lorraine.
For a while, Lower Lorraine had its own single Duke and it is from this Duchy that the Duchy of Limbourg derived its Ducal status. The territory of the duchy of Limburg was formed in the 11th century around the town of Limbourg in present-day Wallonia, about 1020, Duke Frederick of Lower Lorraine, a descendant of Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia, had Limbourg Castle built on the banks of the Vesdre river. His estates comprised the districts of Baelen, Montzen and they were inherited by Fredericks son-in-law Count Waleran of Arlon, who about 1065 began to call himself a count of Limburg. Waleran claimed Fredericks ducal title, which was acknowledged by Emperor Henry IV in 1101 in favour of Walerans son Henry. This meant that Lower Lorraine now had two Duchies, that of Brabant, and that of Limburg, and the title of Duke of Lothier, still held by Brabant, eventually became ineffective
Most of the destruction was of art in churches and public places. The Dutch term usually refers to the wave of disorderly attacks in the summer of 1566 that spread rapidly through the Low Countries from south to north. In England there was both government-sponsored removal of images and attacks from 1535 onwards, and in Scotland from 1559. In France there were several outbreaks as part of the French Wars of Religion from 1560 onwards, the region affected was perhaps the richest in Europe, but still seethed with economic discontent among parts of the population, and had suffered a poor harvest and hard winter. However, recent historians are less inclined to see the movement as prompted by these factors than was the case a few decades ago. The Beeldenstorm grew out of a turn in the behaviour of Low Country Protestants starting around 1560, Catholic preachers were interrupted in sermons, and raids were organized to rescue Protestant prisoners from jail, who often fled into exile in France or England.
Protestant views were spread by a movement of field sermons or open-air sermons held outside towns. Prosecutions for heresy continued, especially in the south, although they were erratic, by 1565 the authorities seem to have realized that persecution was not the answer, and the level of prosecutions slackened, and the Protestants became increasingly confident in the open. A letter of July 22,1566, from officials to the Regent, warned that the scandalous pillage of churches, monasteries. Iconoclastic attacks spread rapidly northwards and resulted in the destruction of not only images but all sorts of decoration and fittings in churches, there was relatively little loss of life, unlike similar outbreaks in France, where the clergy were often killed, and some iconoclasts too. Valenciennes was the most southerly town attacked, in the east, Maastricht on September 20 and Venlo on October 5 saw attacks, but generally the outbreaks were restricted to more westerly and northern areas. Over 400 churches were attacked in Flanders alone, so that in fine, I cannot write you in x sheets of paper the strange sight I saw there and all destroyed.
Nicolas Sander, an English Catholic exile who was a professor of theology at Louvain and these fresh followers of this new preaching threw down the graven and defaced the painted images, not only of Our Lady but of all others in the town. The Blessed Sacrament of the altar and they trod under their feet and shed their stinking piss upon it. Such details are corroborated by other sources. Alcohol features largely in many accounts, perhaps in some cases because in Netherlandish law being drunk could be regarded as a mitigating factor in criminal sentencing. The destruction frequently included ransacking the priests house, and sometimes private houses suspected of sheltering church goods, there are many accounts of rituals of inversion, in which the church sometimes stood for the whole social order. Children sometimes participated enthusiastically, and street games afterwards became play battles between papists and beggars, one child was killed in Amsterdam by a stone thrown in such a game
Godfrey III, Count of Louvain
Godfrey III was count of Louvain, landgrave of Brabant, margrave of Antwerp, and duke of Lower Lorraine from 1142 to his death. He was the son of Godfrey II and Lutgarde of Sulzbach and he was still an infant at his succession of which a few Brabantian vassals sought to take advantage to become independent of the duke. On 30 March 1147, Godfrey was present at the coronation of Henry Berengar, son of Conrad III of Germany, when Conrad left on Crusade, war began anew in 1148. Peace was elusive until the election of Conrads successor, Frederick Barbarossa, by marriage to Margaret, daughter of Henry II of Limburg, Godfrey united two powerful and antagonistic houses in the region. Their son was Henry I, Duke of Brabant, in 1159 Godfrey ended the war with the Berthout, lords of Grimbergen, by burning their impressive motte at Grimbergen. In 1171, Godfrey was at war with Hainaut, but was defeated, in 1172, he bought the County of Aarschot from its wayward count Godfried III, which in future generations would give rise to the dynasty of the Dukes of Aarschot that remain to this day.
In 1179, he gave his son Henry in marriage to a niece of Philip of Alsace, between 1182 and 1184 Godfrey went on a Jerusalem campaign. In the interim, Barbarossa granted Henry the title Duke of Brabant, Godfrey died in 1190, on 10 or 21 August. He left an increased territory and built the fortress of Nedelaer, the ducal title was transmitted to his son at the Diet of Schwäbisch Hall. Godfrey married twice, Firstly to Margaret of Limbourg, daughter of Henry II, Duke of Limburg, in 1158, Henry was installed in 1180 as duke of Lower Lorraine until 1222. He was made count of Louvain in 1183, until 1198 and he was installed as Duke of Brabant in 1191. Albert was elected Bishop of Louvain in 1191, but assassinated in Reims in 1192, secondly Godfrey married Imagina of Loon, daughter of Louis I, Count of Loon, by whom he had two children, William of Louvain. Married Marie of Orbais, daughter of Enguerrand of Orbais, Godfrey of Louvain, who went to England in 1196. He married Alice de Hastings and heiress of Robert de Hastings, chronique des Ducs de Brabant, Adrian van Baerland, Antwerp.
Available at the library of Geneanet
Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy
Hugh IV of Burgundy was Duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1272. Hugh was the son of Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, Hugh married twice, first to Yolande de Dreux when he was 16 and she 17 years of age. He married Beatrice of Navarre, when he was 45. William III, in 1239, Hugh joined the Barons Crusade led by King Theobald I of Navarre and supported by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian troops allied with Richard of Cornwall and rebuilt Ascalon, Hugh was made titular king of Thessalonica in 1266, although it had been recaptured by the Epirus more than 40 years ago. Hugh IV died on 27 Oct 1272 at Villaines-en-Duismois, France
Bar-le-Duc, formerly known as Bar, is a commune in the Meuse département, of which it is the capital. The department is in Grand Est in northeastern France and it is limited towards the north-east by the Marne-Rhine Canal, on the south-west by a small arm of the Ornain, called the Canal des Usines, on the left bank of which the upper town is situated. Bar-le-Duc was at one time the seat of the countship, Duchy of Bar, though probably of ancient origin, the town was unimportant until the 10th century when it became the residence of the counts. Originally part of the medieval duchy of Upper Lorraine, at some stage in the early modern period it was acquired by the neighbouring dukes of Lorraine. The Ville Haute, which is reached by staircases and steep narrow thoroughfares, is intersected by a long, quiet street, bordered by houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. In this quarter are the remains of the château of the dukes of Bar, dismantled in 1670, the old clock-tower, and the college, built in the latter half of the 16th century.
The lower town contains the buildings and the churches of Notre-Dame, the most ancient in the town. Among the statues of distinguished natives of the town is one to Nicolas Oudinot, other sights include the Notre-Dame Bridge, with five arches surmounted by a chapel in the middle. The highly rarefied Bar-le-duc jelly, known as Lorraine Jelly, is a preparation of white currant or red currant fruit preserves. First referenced in the record in 1344, it is colloquially referred to as Bar Caviar. Bar-le-Duc was the birthplace of, Jean de Lorraine, Cardinal de Lorraine, Bishop of Metz, Archbishop of Narbonne. net, photos of Bar-le-Duc
Guy, Count of Flanders
Guy of Dampierre was the Count of Flanders and Marquis of Namur. He was a prisoner of the French when his Flemings defeated the latter at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, Guy was the second son of William II of Dampierre and Margaret II of Flanders. The death of his elder brother William in a tournament made him joint Count of Flanders with his mother. Guy and his mother struggled against the Avesnes in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault, but were defeated in 1253 at the Battle of Walcheren, by the mediation of Louis IX of France, he was ransomed in 1256. Some respite was obtained by the death of John of Hainaut in 1257, in 1270, Margaret confiscated the wares of English merchants in Flanders for non-payment of customs. This led to a trade war with England, which supplied most of the wool for the Flemish weavers. The dispute was ended by a treaty agreed at Montreuil-sur-Mer on 28 July 1274, even after her abdication in 1278, Guy often found himself in difficulties with the fractious commoners.
In 1288, complaints over taxes led Philip IV of France to tighten his control over Flanders, tension built between Guy and the king, in 1294, Guy arranged a marriage between his daughter Philippa and Edward, Prince of Wales. However, Philip imprisoned Guy and two of his sons, forced him to call off the marriage, and imprisoned Philippa in Paris until her death in 1306. After these indignities, Guy attempted to revenge himself on Philip by an alliance with Edward I of England in 1297, the French under Robert II of Artois defeated the Flemings at the Battle of Furnes, and Edwards expedition into Flanders was abortive. He made peace with Philip in 1298 and left Guy to his fate, the French invaded again in 1299 and captured both Guy and his son Robert in January 1300. The Flemish burghers, found direct French rule to be more oppressive than that of the count, after smashing a French army at the Battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, Guy was briefly released by the French to try to negotiate terms.
Guy was returned to prison, where he died, in June 1246 he married Matilda of Béthune, daughter of Robert VII, Lord of Bethune, and had the following children, married William of Jülich, son of William IV, Count of Jülich. Married in 1285 Simon II de Chateauvillain, Lord of Bremur, Robert III of Flanders, his successor. Guillaume, Lord of Dendermonde and Crèvecoeur, married in 1286 Alix of Beaumont, John of Flanders, Bishop of Metz and Bishop of Liège Baldwin. Isabelle, married 1307 Jean de Fiennes, Lord of Tingry and Chatelain of Bourbourg, mother of Robert de Fiennes, Constable of France. John I, Marquis of Namur, married Margaret of Clermont, daughter of Robert, Count of Clermont, Guy of Namur, Lord of Ronse, Count of Zeeland, married Margaret of Lorraine, daughter of Theobald II, Duke of Lorraine. Henry, Count of Lodi, married January 1309 Margaret of Cleves and had issue
Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat and he was the son of Thomas II of Savoy and Beatrice Fieschi. Amadeus succeeded his childless paternal uncle Philip I as Count of Savoy in 1285, Amadeus was a younger brother of Thomas III of Piedmont, who had died in 1282. Thomas had been succeeded by his eldest son Philip I of Piedmont who had a claim to the County than Amadeus. However Philip was about seven years old and at the time unable to press a claim, Amadeus managed to secure the support of his nephew by offering Philip control of Turin and Pinerolo. Amadeus secured the loyalty of his younger brother Louis by offering him Vaud as an hereditary barony, through his marriage to Sybilla, Countess of Bugey and Bresse, he was able to incorporate these Burgundian districts into his states. Later expansion saw his dominions further increased, on 1 October 1285, Amadeus was declared protector of Geneva after negotiations with the Bishop of Geneva.
The hereditary title belonged to Amadeus II, Count of Geneva who was in conflict with the Bishop, in 1287 Amadeus besieged the castle of Ile in the Rhône near Geneva, and captured it after fourteen weeks. In 1295, Amadeus acquired the fortress at Chambéry from its previous owner Hugh of La Rochette and he brought Georges de Aquila, a student of Giotto from Florence, to his court. Georges decorated the castle with paintings, carved wood, and frescoes and he worked there for the Savoyards until he died in 1348. Among his successes was the Treaty of Annemasse which the Count of Geneva, the treaty was the result of military victories over the both of them. In 1301, Amadeus settled his dispute over control of Valais with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion and his reign, saw friction between the County of Savoy and the Duchy of Austria. He pursued an alliance with the Kingdom of France and received Maulévrier in Normandy as a result of good relations. The eventual recovery of Lyon by the Kings of France alerted Amadeus to their tendencies towards the regions by the Alps.
He sought an ally against potential hostility in Henry VII. Henry was married to Margaret of Brabant, sister-in-law of Amadeus, the relation through marriage probably helped the alliance. Henry awarded Amadeus with the title of vicar of Lombardy. Henry elevated Aosta and Chablais to duchies, though remained a part of the realm of Savoy
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. In Brunei, the wife of the Sultan is known as a Raja Isteri with prefix Pengiran Anak, equivalent with queen consort in English, a queen consort usually shares her husbands social rank and status. She holds the equivalent of the kings monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the kings political. A queen regnant is a queen in her own right with all the powers of a monarch, where some title other than that of king is held by the sovereign, his wife is referred to by the feminine equivalent, such as princess consort or empress consort. In monarchies where polygamy has been practiced in the past, or is practiced today. In Morocco, King Mohammed VI has broken with tradition and given his wife, Lalla Salma, prior to the reign of King Mohammed VI, the Moroccan monarchy had no such title. In Thailand, the king and queen must both be of royal descent, the kings other consorts are accorded royal titles that confer status. Other cultures maintain different traditions on queenly status, a Zulu chieftain designates one of his wives Great Wife, which would be the equivalent to queen consort.
Conversely, in Yorubaland, all of a chiefs princess consorts are essentially of equal rank, in general, the consorts of monarchs have no power per se, even when their position is constitutionally or statutorily recognized. In some cases, the queen consort has been the power behind her husbands throne, e. g. Maria Luisa of Parma. Past queens consort, Queen Jang, consort to Sukjong of Joseon
Leuven or Louvain is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in Belgium. It is located about 25 kilometres east of Brussels, the municipality itself comprises the historic city and the former neighboring municipalities of Heverlee, Kessel-Lo, a part of Korbeek-Lo, Wilsele and Wijgmaal. It is the 10th largest municipality in Belgium and the fourth in Flanders with more than 100,244 inhabitants, Leuven is home to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the largest and oldest university of the Low Countries and the oldest Catholic university still in existence. The related university hospital of UZ Leuven, is one of the largest hospitals in Europe, the city is known for being the headquarters of Anheuser-Busch InBev, the worlds largest brewer and one of the five largest consumer-goods companies in the world. The earliest mention of Leuven is from 891, when a Viking army was defeated by the Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia, according to a legend the citys red and white arms depict the blood-stained shores of the river Dyle after this battle.
Situated beside this river, and near to the stronghold of the Dukes of Brabant, a token of its former importance as a centre of cloth manufacture is shown in that ordinary linen cloth is known in late-14th-century and 15th-century texts as lewyn. In the 15th century a new era began with the founding of what is now the largest and oldest university in the Low Countries. In the 18th century the brewery Den Horen flourished, Leuven has several times been besieged or occupied by foreign armies, these include the Battle of Leuven, Siege of Leuven and Battle of Leuven. Both world wars in the 20th century inflicted major damage upon the city, upon Germanys entry into World War I, the town was heavily damaged by rampaging soldiers. In all, about 300 civilians lost their lives, the university library was destroyed on 25 August 1914, using petrol and incendiary pastilles. 230,000 volumes were lost in the destruction, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts, a collection of 750 medieval manuscripts, and more than 1,000 incunabula.
The destruction of the library shocked the world, with the Daily Chronicle describing it as war not only against civilians and it was rebuilt after the war, and much of the collection was replaced. Great Britain and the United States were major providers of material for the replenishment of the collection. In World War II, after the start of the German offensive, Leuven formed part of the British Expeditionary Forces front line and was defended by units of the 3rd Division and Belgian troops. From 14 to 16 May 1940, the German Army Group B assaulted the city with heavy air, the British withdrew their forces to the River Senne on the night of 16 May and the town was occupied the next day. The new university building was set on fire by shelling on 16 May. Given the presence of the KULeuven, an important European institution for research and education. There are several biotech and ICT companies, the hospital and research centre
Henry II, Duke of Brabant
Henry II of Brabant was Duke of Brabant and Lothier after the death of his father Henry I in 1235. His mother was Mathilde of Flanders, Henry II supported his sister Mathildes son, William II, Count of Holland, in the latters bid for election as German King. His first marriage was to Marie of Hohenstaufen, daughter of Philip of Swabia, married, at Creuzburg March 10,1241, Heinrich Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, in Leuven November 1247 to William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders. Maria of Brabant, married Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and she was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity. His second marriage was to Sophie of Thuringia, daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia, married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Henry died in Leuven, aged about 40
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child