Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. He is known as Ludwig II or Louis II as Duke of Bavaria, as Louis the Strict. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate, she was a daughter of the Welf Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, her grandfathers were Henry XII the Lion and Conrad of Hohenstaufen. In 1246, the young Louis supported his brother-in-law King Conrad IV of Germany against the usurpation of Heinrich Raspe. In 1251, Louis was at war again against the bishop of Regensburg. Louis succeeded his father Otto as Duke of Bavaria in 1253; when the Wittelsbach country was divided in 1255 among Otto's sons, Louis received the Palatinate and Upper Bavaria making him the duke of Upper Bavaria, while his brother duke Henry XIII of Bavaria received Lower Bavaria making him the duke of Lower Bavaria. This partition was against the law and therefore caused the anger of the bishops in Bavaria who allied themselves with king Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1257.
During the German interregnum, after King William's death in 1256, Louis supported King Richard of Cornwall. In August 1257 King Ottokar invaded Bavaria, but Louis and Henry managed to repulse the attack, it was one of the rare concerted and harmonious actions of the two brothers, who argued. The main residences of Louis were at Alter Hof located at the north-eastern part of Munich and Heidelberg Castle; as one of the Prince-electors of the empire, he was involved in the royal elections for forty years. Together with his brother, Louis aided his young Hohenstaufen nephew Conradin in his duchy of Swabia, but it was not possible to enforce Conradin's election as German king; as a result of his support for the Hohenstaufen, Louis was banned by the pope in 1266. In 1267 when his nephew crossed the Alps with an army, Louis accompanied Conradin only to Verona. After the young prince's execution in Naples in 1268, Louis inherited some of Conradin's possessions in Swabia and supported the election of the Habsburg Rudolph I against Ottokar II in 1273.
On 26 August 1278, the armies of Rudolph and Louis met Ottokar's forces on the banks of the River March in the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen where Ottokar was defeated and killed. In 1289, the electoral dignity of Bavaria passed to Bohemia again, but Louis remained an elector as Count Palatine of the Rhine. After Rudolph's death in 1291, Louis could not enforce the election of his Habsburg brother-in-law Albert I against Adolf of Nassau. Louis died at Heidelberg on February 2, 1294, he was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Rudolf I who had Adolf of Nassau as his father-in-law a few months later. Louis was buried in the crypt of Fürstenfeld Abbey. Louis II was married three times, he had his first wife Maria of Brabant—a daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen—beheaded in 1256, on suspicion of adultery. Any actual guilt on her part could never be validated; as expiation, Louis founded the Cistercian friary Fürstenfeld Abbey near Munich. Different sources tell varying tales about how this happened: In 1256, Louis had been away from home for an extended time due to his responsibilities as a sovereign in the area of the Rhine.
His wife wrote two letters, one to her husband, another to the earl of Kyburg at Hunsrück, a vassal of Louis. Details about the actual content of the second letter vary, but according to the chroniclers, the messenger who carried the letter to Ludwig had been given the wrong one, Louis came to the conclusion that his wife had a secret love affair. Over time a great many tales of folklore sprang up around Louis' deed, most of them written long after his death: Ballad-mongers embellished the tale into a murderous frenzy during which Louis not only killed his wife after having ridden home for five days and nights, but stabbed the messenger who brought him the wrong letter. Several more restrained chronicles support the account of Marie's execution on January 18, 1256 at Mangoldstein Castle in Donauwörth by ducal decree for alleged adultery, but nothing beyond that. Louis married his second wife Anna of Glogau in 1260, they had the following children: a nun in Marienberg abbey at Boppard. Agnes.
Ludwig. He married his third wife Matilda of Habsburg, one of king Rudolph's daughters, on 24 October 1273, their children were: Rudolf I. Mechthild, married 1288 to Duke Otto II of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Agnes, married firstly in 1290 Landgrave Henry "the Younger" of Hesse and secondly 1298/1303 Henry I "Lackland", Margrave of Brandenburg. Anna, a nun in Ulm. Ludwig IV. Louis II was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Rudolf I. German wiki entry for Ludwig II. Genealogy of Ludwig II
House of Wittelsbach
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. Members of the family reigned as Dukes of Merania, Dukes and Kings of Bavaria, Counts Palatine of the Rhine, Margraves of Brandenburg, Counts of Holland and Zeeland, Elector-Archbishops of Cologne, Dukes of Jülich and Berg, Kings of Sweden and Dukes of Bremen-Verden; the family provided two Holy Roman Emperors, one King of the Romans, two Anti-Kings of Bohemia, one King of Hungary, one King of Denmark and Norway and one King of Greece. The family's head, since 1996, is Duke of Bavaria. Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria, was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern, whose third son Otto II, Count of Scheyern acquired the castle of Wittelsbach; the Counts of Scheyern left Scheyern Castle in 1119 for Wittelsbach Castle and the former was given to monks to establish Scheyern Abbey. The Wittelsbach Conrad of Scheyern-Dachau, a great-grandson of Otto I, Count of Scheyern became Duke of Merania in 1153 and was succeeded by his son Conrad II.
It was the first Duchy held by the Wittelsbach family. Otto I's eldest son Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern was father of the Count palatine of Bavaria Otto IV, the first Count of Wittelsbach and whose son Otto was invested with the Duchy of Bavaria in 1180 after the fall of Henry the Lion and hence the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach. Duke Otto's son Louis I, Duke of Bavaria acquired the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1214; the Wittelsbach dynasty ruled the German territories of Bavaria from 1180 to 1918 and the Electorate of the Palatinate from 1214 until 1805. On Duke Otto II's death in 1253, his sons divided the Wittelsbach possessions between them: Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, Louis II Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine; when Henry's branch died out in 1340 the Emperor Louis IV, a son of Duke Louis II, reunited the duchy. The family provided two Holy Roman Emperors: Louis IV and Charles VII, both members of the Bavarian branch of the family, one German King with Rupert of the Palatinate, a member of the Palatinate branch.
The House of Wittelsbach split into these two branches in 1329: Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted the Palatinate including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolf's descendants, Rudolf II, Rupert I and Rupert II. Rudolf I in this way became the ancestor of the older line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, which returned to power in Bavaria in 1777 after the extinction of the younger line, the descendants of Louis IV; the Bavarian branch kept the duchy of Bavaria until its extinction in 1777. The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV acquired Brandenburg, Holland and Hainaut for his House but he had released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329, his six sons succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut in 1347. The Wittelsbachs lost the Tyrol with the death of duke Meinhard and the following Peace of Schärding – the Tyrol was renounced to the Habsburgs in 1369. In 1373 Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, released the country to the House of Luxembourg.
On Duke Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded in the Netherlands by William. A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut; this last episode of the Hook and Cod wars left the counties in Burgundian hands in 1432. Emperor Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but from 1349 onwards Bavaria was split among the descendants of Louis IV, who created the branches Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Bavaria-Munich. With the Landshut War of Succession Bavaria was reunited in 1505 against the claim of the Palatinate branch under the Bavarian branch Bavaria-Munich. From 1549 to 1567 the Wittelsbach owned the County of Kladsko in Bohemia. Catholic by upbringing, the Bavarian dukes became leaders of the German Counter-Reformation. From 1583 to 1761, the Bavarian branch of the dynasty provided the Prince-electors and Archbishops of Cologne and many other Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire, namely Liège.
Wittelsbach princes served for example as Bishops of Regensburg, Freising, Liège, Münster, Hildesheim and Osnabrück, as Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order. In 1623 under Maximilian I the Bavarian dukes were invested with the electoral dignity and the duchy became the Electorate of Bavaria, his grandson Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria served as Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and as Duke of Luxembourg. His son Emperor Charles VII was king of Bohemia. With the death of Charles' son Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria the Bavarian branch died out in 1777; the Palatinate branch kept the Palatinate until 1918, having succeeded to Bavaria in 1777. With the Golden Bull of 1356 the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral dignity, their county became the Electorate of the Palatinate. Princes of the Palatinate branch served as Bishops of the Empire and as Elector-Archbishops of Mainz and Elector-Archbishops of Trier. After the death of the Wittelsbach king
Paganism, is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism. This was either because they were rural and provincial relative to the Christian population, or because they were not milites Christi. Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were hellene and heathen. Ritual sacrifice was an integral part of ancient Graeco-Roman religion and was regarded as an indication of whether a person was pagan or Christian. Paganism was a pejorative and derogatory term for polytheism, implying its inferiority. Paganism has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", During and after the Middle Ages, the term paganism was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion, the term presumed a belief in false god. Most modern pagan religions existing today - Modern Paganism, or Neopaganism - express a world view, pantheistic, polytheistic or animistic; the origin of the application of the term pagan to polytheism is debated.
In the 19th century, paganism was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups inspired by the ancient world. In the 20th century, it came to be applied as a self-descriptor by practitioners of Modern Paganism, Neopagan movements and Polytheistic reconstructionists. Modern pagan traditions incorporate beliefs or practices, such as nature worship, that are different from those in the largest world religions. Contemporary knowledge of old pagan religions comes from several sources, including anthropological field research records, the evidence of archaeological artifacts, the historical accounts of ancient writers regarding cultures known to Classical antiquity, it is crucial to stress right from the start that until the 20th century, people did not call themselves pagans to describe the religion they practised. The notion of paganism, as it is understood today, was created by the early Christian Church, it was a label that Christians applied to others, one of the antitheses that were central to the process of Christian self-definition.
As such, throughout history it was used in a derogatory sense. The term pagan is derived from Late Latin paganus, revived during the Renaissance. Itself deriving from classical Latin pagus which meant'region delimited by markers', paganus had come to mean'of or relating to the countryside','country dweller','villager', it is related to pangere and comes from Proto-Indo-European *pag-. The adoption of paganus by the Latin Christians as an all-embracing, pejorative term for polytheists represents an unforeseen and singularly long-lasting victory, within a religious group, of a word of Latin slang devoid of religious meaning; the evolution occurred only in the Latin west, in connection with the Latin church. Elsewhere, Hellene or gentile remained the word for pagan. Medieval writers assumed that paganus as a religious term was a result of the conversion patterns during the Christianization of Europe, where people in towns and cities were converted more than those in remote regions, where old ways lingered.
However, this idea has multiple problems. First, the word's usage as a reference to non-Christians pre-dates that period in history. Second, paganism within the Roman Empire centred on cities; the concept of an urban Christianity as opposed to a rural paganism would not have occurred to Romans during Early Christianity. Third, unlike words such as rusticitas, paganus had not yet acquired the meanings used to explain why it would have been applied to pagans. Paganus more acquired its meaning in Christian nomenclature via Roman military jargon. Early Christians saw themselves as Milites Christi. A good example of Christians still using paganus in a military context rather than religious is in Tertullian's De Corona Militis XI. V, where the Christian is referred to as paganus: Paganus acquired its religious connotations by the mid-4th century; as early as the 5th century, paganos was metaphorically used to denote persons outside the bounds of the Christian community. Following the sack of Rome by the Visigoths just over fifteen years after the Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I, murmurs began to spread that the old gods had taken greater care of the city than the Christian God.
In response, Augustine of Hippo wrote De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos. In it, he contrasted the fallen "city of Man" to the "city of God" of which all Christians were citizens. Hence, the foreign invaders were "not of the city" or "rural"; the term pagan is not attested in the English language until the 17th century. In addition to infidel and heretic, it was used as one of several pejorative Christian counterparts to gentile as used in Judaism, to kafir and mushrik as in Islam. In the Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire of the newly Christianizing Roman Empire, Koine Greek became associated with the traditional polytheistic religion of Ancient Greece, regarded as a foreign language in the west. By the latter half of the 4th century in the Greek-speaking Eastern Empire, pagans were—paradoxically—most called Hellenes; the word entirely
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
The Cumans were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. After the Mongol invasion, many sought asylum in the Kingdom of Hungary, as many Cumans had settled in Hungary, the Second Bulgarian Empire, Anatolia before the invasion. Related to the Pecheneg, they inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea and along the Volga River known as Cumania, where the Cuman–Kipchaks meddled in the politics of the Caucasus and the Khwarezm Empire; the Cumans were fierce and formidable nomadic warriors of the Eurasian steppe who exerted an enduring impact on the medieval Balkans. They were numerous, culturally sophisticated, militarily powerful. Many settled to the west of the Black Sea, influencing the politics of Kievan Rus', the Galicia–Volhynia Principality, the Golden Horde Khanate, the Second Bulgarian Empire, Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Georgia, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Nicaea, the Latin Empire and Wallachia, with Cuman immigrants being integrated into each country's elite.
The Cumans had a pre-eminent role in the Fourth Crusade and in the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Cuman and Kipchak tribes joined politically to create the Cuman–Kipchak confederation; the Cuman language is attested in some medieval documents and is the best-known of the early Turkic languages. The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual, written to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Cuman people; the original meaning of the endonym Cuman is unknown. It is often unclear whether a particular name refers to the Cumans alone, or to both them and the Kipchaks, as the two tribes lived side by side. However, in Turkic languages qu, qun, qūn, quman or qoman means "pale, cream coloured", "pale yellow", or "yellowish grey". While it is assumed that the name referred to the Cumans's hair, Imre Baski – a prominent Turkologist – has suggested that it may have other origins, including: the color of the Cumans' horses. In East Slavic languages and Polish, they are known as the Polovtsy, derived from the Slavic root *polvъ "pale.
Polovtsy or Polovec is said to be derived from the Old East Slavic polovŭ "yellow. The old Ukrainian word polovtsy, derived from polovo "straw" – means "blond, pale yellow"; the western Cumans, or Polovtsy, were called Sorochinetses by the Rus', – derived from the Turkic sary chechle "yellow-haired". A similar etymology may have been at work in the name of the Sary people, who migrated westward ahead of the Qun. However, according to O. Suleymenov polovtsy may come from a Slavic word for "blue-eyed", i.e. the Serbo-Croatian plȃv means "blue", but this word means "fair, blonde" and is in fact a cognate of the above. An alternative etymology of Polovtsy is possible: the Slavic root *pȍlje "field", which would therefore imply that Polovtsy were "men of the field" or "men of the steppe" in contrast to the Lipovtsi. In Germanic languages, the Cumans were called Folban, Vallani or Valwe – all derivations of old Germanic words for "pale". In the German account by Adam of Bremen, in Matthaios of Edessa, the Cumans were referred to as the "Blond Ones".
The Hungarian term for the Cumans is Kun, which in Old Hungarian meant "nomad", but was applied to the Cumans. As stated above, it is unknown whether the name Kipchak referred only to the Kipchaks proper, or to the Cumans as well; the two tribes fused, lived together and exchanged weaponry and languages. The word Kipchak is said to be derived from the Iranian words kip "red; this confederation and their living together may have made it difficult for historians to write about either nation. The member clans of the Cumans and/or Kipchaks were: the Terteroba, Etioba/Ietioba, Itogli, Urosoba, El'Borili, Andjogli, Djartan, Kotan/Hotan, Olelric, Toksobychi, Ulashevichi, Elobichi, Etebichi, Yetebychi, Olperliuve, Phalagi, Toksobichi or Toqsoba, Borchol or Burdjogli, Csertan or Curtan, Olas or Ulas, Kor or Kol and Koncsog; the latter seven clans settled in Hungary. The ethnic origins of the Cumanians are uncertain; the Cumans were reported to have had blond hair, fair skin and blue eyes, although their anthropological characteristics suggest that their geographical origin might be in Inner-Asia, South-Siberia, or east of the large bend of the Yellow River in China.
Robert Wolff states that it is conjectured that ethnically the Cumans may not have been Turkic. The Roman natural philosopher Pliny the Elder, in describing the "Gates of Caucasus", mentions "a fortress, the name of, Cumania, erected for the purpose of preventing the passage of the innumerable tribes
Bolesław II Rogatka
Bolesław II Rogatka or Bolesław II the Horned, known as Bolesław II the Bald, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers. After the partition, he ruled the Silesian Duchy of Legnica until his death; the second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan, occurred during his reign. Bolesław was the eldest son of the Polish high duke Henry II the Pious by his wife Anna, a daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia, his paternal grandparents were Henry the Hedwig of Silesia. Among his younger siblings were Mieszko, Henry III the White, Konrad II, Władysław, Elisabeth, who married her Piast cousin Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland. Bolesław succeeded as Duke of Silesia after his father, Henry II the Pious, was killed in the Battle of Legnica on 9 April 1241, fighting against the Mongol invaders led by Batu Khan. At the time, he and his immediate younger brother Mieszko were the only heirs who had reached majority.
Their mother Anna helped them during the transition. The Mongol forces conquered most of Silesia, but withdrew to Hungary. After Henry's death, the Silesian Piasts were not able to maintain their supremacy in the Polish lands. Bolesław's inheritance, including the Southern Greater Polish estates and the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province was threatened by neighboring Piast dukes. By July 1241, his cousin Konrad; the local nobles, led by the Kraków governor Clement of Ruszczy resisted but had to yield to Konrad's superior forces. Disappointed by Bolesław's lack of action, they turned their support to Bolesław V the Chaste, who ascended the Kraków throne in 1243. There was a similar situation in Greater Poland: after hearing the news of the defeat of Henry II in Legnica, Duke Przemysł I and his brother Bolesław the Pious retook the estates of Kalisz which once had been ruled by their father, the late Duke Władysław Odonic; the local nobility supported them as the true heirs to those lands. Bolesław renounced all his Greater Poland lands.
He tried to retain some districts, such as Santok and Międzyrzecz, but in 1247 the Dukes of Greater Poland forced Bolesław to resign all his rights to lands in Greater Poland. When in 1242, Bolesław next oldest brother Mieszko died without leaving an heir, his Lubusz estates reverted to Bolesław and his younger brothers became co-rulers of the Lower Silesian lands; when his brother Henry III the White came of age in 1247, however, he and his younger brothers revolted against Bolesław and were able to imprison him shortly thereafter. To regain freedom, Bolesław signed an agreement with Henry III, dividing the Lower Silesian lands of Legnica and Wrocław. To avoid further fragmentation, the two pledged to offer hospitality to their minor brothers, Bolesław to Konrad II, Henry to Władysław. Bolesław, as the eldest, got first choice of the districts, he chose the Legnica estates because of the gold discovery in the Kaczawa and Wierzbiak Rivers. Bolesław soon tried to recover Wrocław. Henry III refused to surrender his new duchy, war was inevitable.
Both didn't have adequate funds. Bolesław sought allies among the Ascanian relatives of his wife Hedwig, daughter of Count Henry I of Anhalt. Archbishop Wilbrand of Magdeburg contributed funds; the German aid only gave Bolesław a temporary advantage in the war against his brother. In 1249 his younger brother and co-ruler Konrad II unexpectedly returned to the country. Bolesław proposed him as Bishop of Passau, Konrad refused and began to press his own claims in Silesia. Bolesław opposed him, the young prince took refuge at the court of the Dukes of Greater Poland, Bolesław's long-time enemy. Shortly after, Konrad reinforced his bonds with Duke Przemysł I after a double marriage: the Duke of Greater Poland married Konrad's sister Elizabeth, Konrad married Duke Przemysł's sister, Salome; the final clash occurred two years when the Bolesław was defeated by the combined forces of Przemysł I and Henry III the White, who supported Konrad. In 1251 Bolesław agreed to the divide his own lands and ceded the Duchy of Głogów to Konrad.
Bolesław only retained the small district of Legnica proper. It took Bolesław another two years and the help of his brother Henry III to recover full authority over his principality. Bolesław made some agreements with the other Piast dukes with the princes of Greater Poland and with Thomas I, Bishop of Wrocław. However, Bolesław never forgave the bishop for his tendency to support the younger princes. Bolesław's conflict with the Bishop of Wrocław reached a more critical point in 1257, when the Bolesław incarcerated the Bishop at Wleń Castle. Bolesław was excommunicated, his brothers intervened and negotiated a settlement. In 1261, Bolesław's paid a large tribute and paid public penance at the gates of in Wrocław Cathedral, he had been excommunicated twice before, in 1248 and 1249, a call had been issued to the neighboring nobility to a crusade against him. He was forgiven by the Bishop, both of the previous excommunications were rescinded. Bolesław remained in hostile relations with his brother Duke Konrad of Głogów.
In 1257 Konrad kidnapped Bolesław from his castle in Legnica. The duke regained his freedom a few months later. In 1271 Bolesław took the town of Bo