Clifford Laconia Jordan was an American jazz tenor saxophone player. While in Chicago, he performed with Max Roach, Sonny Stitt, some rhythm and blues groups, he moved to New York City in 1957. He recorded with Horace Silver, J. J. Johnson, Kenny Dorham, among others, he was part of the Charles Mingus Sextet, during its 1964 European tour. Jordan toured Africa with Randy Weston, performed in Paris while living in Belgium. In years, he led his own groups, performed with Cedar Walton's quartet Eastern Rebellion, led a big band. Jordan was married to Shirley Jordan, a designer and former owner of Clothing Manufacturing Corporation in New York, he married Sandy Jordan, a graphic artist and Honorary Founders Board member of the Jazz Foundation of America. Jordan died of lung cancer at the age of 61 in New York City. 1957: Blowing in from Chicago with John Gilmore 1957: Cliff Jordan 1957: Jenkins and Timmons with John Jenkins and Bobby Timmons 1957: Cliff Craft 1960: Spellbound 1961: A Story Tale with Sonny Red 1961: Starting Time 1962: Bearcat 1965: These are My Roots: Clifford Jordan Plays Leadbelly 1968: Soul Fountain 1972: In the World 1973: Glass Bead Games 1974: Half Note 1975: Night of the Mark VII 1975: On Stage Vol. 1 1975: On Stage Vol. 2 1975: On Stage Vol. 3 1975: Firm Roots 1975: The Highest Mountain 1976: Remembering Me-Me 1977: Inward Fire 1978: The Adventurer 1978: Hello, Hank Jones 1981: Hyde Park After Dark with Victor Sproles, Von Freeman, Cy Touff 1984: Repetition 1984: Dr. Chicago 1984: Two Tenor Winner with Junior Cook 1985: The Rotterdam Session with Philly Joe Jones and James Long 1986: Royal Ballads 1987: Live at Ethell's 1989: Blue Head with David "Fathead" Newman 1989: Masters from Different Worlds with Ran Blake and Julian Priester 1990: Four Play with Richard Davis, James Williams & Ronnie Burrage 1989-90: The Mellow Side of Clifford Jordan 1990: Play What You Feel 1991: Down Through the Years With Paul Chambers Paul Chambers Quintet With Sonny Clark Sonny Clark Quintets With Richard Davis Epistrophy & Now's the Time Dealin' With Eric Dolphy Iron Man Conversations With Art Farmer Mirage You Make Me Smile Something to Live For: The Music of Billy Strayhorn Blame It on My Youth Ph.
D. Live at Sweet Basil With Dizzy Gillespie To Bird with Love With Slide Hampton Roots With John Hicks and Elise Wood Luminous With Andrew Hill Shades With J. J. Johnson J. J. Inc. With Charles McPherson Con Alma! With Carmen McRae Any Old Time Carmen Sings Monk With Charles Mingus Mingus in Europe Volume I Mingus in Europe Volume II Charles Mingus Sextet with Eric Dolphy Cornell 1964 Astral Weeks Town Hall Concert Revenge! Right Now: Live at the Jazz Workshop With Mingus Dynasty Live at the Theatre Boulogne-Billancourt/Paris, Vol. 1 Live at the Theatre Boulogne-Billancourt/Paris, Vol. 2 With Lee Morgan Here's Lee Morgan Expoobident Take Twelve With Pony Poindexter Pony's Express With Freddie Redd Lonely City With Dizzy Reece Manhattan Project – with Roy Haynes, Art Davis, Charles Davis, Albert Dailey)With Max Roach Percussion Bitter Sweet It's Time Speak, Speak! With Sahib Shihab The Jazz We Heard Last Summer With Horace Silver Further Explorations With Charles Tolliver Music Inc. With Mal Waldron What It Is With Cedar Walton Spectrum The Electric Boogaloo Song A Night at Boomers, Vol. 1 A Night at Boomers, Vol. 2 The Pentagon With Joe Zawinul Money in the Pocket Clifford Jordan Leader discography, accessed November 7, 2012 Clifford Jordan obituary in the New York Times, accessed January 24, 2019
John Lenwood "Jackie" McLean was an American jazz alto saxophonist, composer and educator, is one of the few musicians to be elected to the DownBeat Hall of Fame in the year of their death. McLean was born in New York City, his father, John Sr. played guitar in Tiny Bradshaw's orchestra. After his father's death in 1939, Jackie's musical education was continued by his godfather, his record-store-owning stepfather, several noted teachers, he received informal tutoring from neighbors Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Charlie Parker. During high school he played in a band with Kenny Drew, Sonny Rollins, Andy Kirk Jr.. Along with Rollins, he played on Miles Davis' Dig album; as a young man McLean recorded with Gene Ammons, Charles Mingus, George Wallington, as a member of Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. McLean joined Blakey after being punched by Mingus. Fearing for his life, McLean pulled out a knife and contemplated using it against Mingus in self-defense, he stated that he was grateful that he had not stabbed the bassist.
His early recordings as leader were in the hard bop school. He became an exponent of modal jazz without abandoning his foundation in hard bop. Throughout his career he was known for a distinctive tone, akin to the tenor saxophone and described with such adjectives as "bitter-sweet", "piercing", or "searing", a sharp pitch, a strong foundation in the blues. McLean was a heroin addict throughout his early career, the resulting loss of his New York City cabaret card forced him to undertake a large number of recording dates to earn income in the absence of nightclub performance opportunities, he produced an extensive body of recorded work in the 1950s and 1960s. He was under contract with Blue Note Records from 1959 to 1967, having recorded for Prestige. Blue Note offered better pay and more artistic control than other labels, his work for this organization is regarded and includes leadership and sideman dates with a wide range of musicians, including Donald Byrd, Sonny Clark, Lee Morgan, Ornette Coleman, Dexter Gordon, Freddie Redd, Billy Higgins, Freddie Hubbard, Grachan Moncur III, Bobby Hutcherson, Mal Waldron, Tina Brooks and many others.
In 1962, he recorded Let Freedom Ring for Blue Note. This album was the culmination of attempts he had made over the years to deal with harmonic problems in jazz, incorporating ideas from the free jazz developments of Ornette Coleman and the "new breed" which inspired his blending of hard bop with the "new thing": "the search is on, Let Freedom Ring". Let Freedom Ring began a period in which he performed with avant-garde jazz musicians rather than the veteran hard bop performers he had been playing with previously, his adaptation of modal jazz and free jazz innovations to his vision of hard bop made his recordings from 1962 on distinctive. McLean had a gift for spotting talent. Saxophonist Tina Brooks, trumpeter Charles Tolliver, pianist Larry Willis, trumpeter Bill Hardman, tubist Ray Draper were among those who benefited from McLean's support in the 1950s and 1960s. Drummers such as Tony Williams, Jack DeJohnette, Lenny White, Michael Carvin, Carl Allen gained important early experience with McLean.
In 1967, his recording contract, like those of many other progressive musicians, was terminated by Blue Note's new management. His opportunities to record promised so little pay that he abandoned recording as a way to earn a living, concentrating instead on touring. In 1968, he began teaching at The Hartt School of the University of Hartford, he set up the university's African American Music Department and its Bachelor of Music degree in Jazz Studies program. His Steeplechase recording New York Calling, made with his son René McLean, showed that by 1980 the assimilation of all influences was complete. In 1970, he and his wife, Dollie McLean, along with jazz bassist Paul Brown, founded the Artists Collective, Inc. of Hartford, an organization dedicated to preserving the art and culture of the African Diaspora. It provides educational programs and instruction in dance, theatre and visual arts; the membership of McLean's bands were drawn from his students in Hartford, including Steve Davis and his son René, a jazz saxophonist and flautist as well as a jazz educator.
In McLean's Hartford group was Mark Berman, the jazz pianist and broadway conductor of Smokey Joe's Cafe and Rent. In 1979 he reached No. 53 in the UK Singles Chart with "Doctor Jackyll and Mister Funk". This track, released on RCA as a 12" single, was an unusual sidestep for McLean to contribute towards the funk/disco revolution of the late 1970s. Many people, at the time, in the clubs where it was played confused the female singers on the track with his name thinking he was female, he received an American Jazz Masters fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts in 2001 and numerous other national and international awards. McLean was the only American jazz musician to found a department of studies at a university and a community-based organization simultaneously; each has existed for over three decades. McLean died on March 2006, in Hartford, Connecticut. In 2006, Jackie McLean was elected to the DownBeat Hall of Fame via the International Critics Poll, he is interred in The Bronx, New York City.
Derek Ansell's full-length biography of McLean, Sugar Free Saxophone, details the story of his career and provides a full analysis of his music on record. Ad LibPresenting... Jackie McLean PrestigeLights Out! 4, 5 and 6 Ja
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Regent Records (US)
Regent Records was an American record label in Newark, New Jersey. It was a subsidiary of Savoy from 1947 until 1964 that specialized in jazz and blues, rock and roll; the label was founded by Herman Lubinsky in 1947. List of record labels Regent Records Discogs entry Regent Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project
Alto Madness is an album by saxophonists Jackie McLean and John Jenkins recorded in 1957 and released on the Prestige label. Scott Yanow of Allmusic reviewed the album, stating "McLean became much more individual within a few years, while Jenkins would fade from the scene altogether; this likable jam session features plenty of tradeoffs by the two altoists". All compositions by John Jenkins except. "Alto Madness" – 11:48 "Windy City" – 6:59 "The Lady Is a Tramp" – 6:49 "Easy Living" – 7:35 "Pondering" – 6:15 Jackie McLean, John Jenkins – alto saxophone Wade Legge – piano Doug Watkins – bass Art Taylor – drums Bob Weinstock – supervisor Rudy Van Gelder – engineer
A jam session is a informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes and chord progressions. To "jam" is to improvise music without extensive preparation or predefined arrangements, except for when the group is playing well-known jazz standards or covers of existing popular songs. Original jam sessions, also'free flow sessions', are used by musicians to develop new material and find suitable arrangements. Both styles can be used as a social gathering and communal practice session. Jam sessions may be based upon existing songs or forms, may be loosely based on an agreed chord progression or chart suggested by one participant, or may be wholly improvisational. Jam sessions can range from loose gatherings of amateurs to evenings where a jam session coordinator or host acts as a "gatekeeper" to ensure that only appropriate-level performers take the stage, to sophisticated improvised recording sessions by professionals which are intended to be broadcast live on radio or TV or edited and released to the public.
One source for the phrase "jam session" came about in the 1920s when white and black musicians would congregate after their regular paying gigs, to play the jazz they could not play in the "Paul Whiteman" style bands they played in. When Bing Crosby would attend these sessions, the musicians would say he was "jammin' the beat", since he would clap on the one and the three, thus these sessions became known as "jam sessions". Mezz Mezzrow gives this more detailed and self-referential description, based on his experience at the jazz speakeasy known as the Three Deuces: I think the term'jam session' originated right in that cellar. Long before that, of course, the colored boys used to get together and play for kicks, but those were private sessions for professional musicians, the idea was to try to cut each other, each one trying to outdo the others and prove himself best; those impromptu concerts of theirs were known as'cuttin' contests.' Our idea…was to play together, to make the improvisation collective… Down in that basement concert hall, somebody was always yelling over to me,'Hey Jelly, what you gonna do?'—they gave me that nickname, or sometimes called me Roll, because I always wanted to play Clarence Williams" Jelly Roll'—and every time I'd cap them with,'Jelly's gonna jam some now,' just as a kind of play on words.
We always used the word'session' a lot, I think the expression'jam session' grew up out of this playful yelling back and forth. The New York scene during World War II was famous for its after-hours jam sessions. One of the most famous was the regular after-hours jam at Minton's Playhouse in New York City that ran in the 1940s and early 1950s; the jam sessions at Minton's were a fertile meeting place and proving ground for both established soloists like Ben Webster and Lester Young, the younger jazz musicians who would soon become leading exponents of the bebop movement, including Thelonious Monk, saxophone player Charlie Parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. The Minton's jams had competitive "cutting contests", in which soloists would try to keep up with the house band and outdo each other in improvisational skill. Influenced by jazz, Cuban music saw the emergence of improvised jam sessions during the filin movement of the 1940s, where boleros and other song types were performed in an extended form called descarga.
During the 1950s these descargas became the basis of a new genre of improvised jams based on the son montuno with notable jazz influences pioneered by the likes of Julio Gutiérrez and Cachao. During the 1960s, descargas played an important role in the development of salsa the salsa dura style; as the instrumental proficiency of pop and rock musicians improved in the 1960s and early 1970s, onstage jamming—free improvisation—also became a regular feature of rock music. However, they can be shorter on the recorded version. Though the Grateful Dead are credited as being the first jam band, Cream incorporated long improvisations into their songs as early as 1967. However, the Grateful Dead allowed the "jam band" to become a genre unto itself. Umphreys Mcgee, Widespread Panic, all of which feature extended improvisational sessions. Other bands, such as the Red Hot Chili Peppers regularly perform live jam sessions. Progressive rock band Coheed and Cambria end shows with a jam session to their song "The Final Cut" with different instruments.
Bluegrass music features a tradition of jamming. Bluegrass jams happen in the parking lots and campgrounds of bluegrass festivals, in music stores and restaurants and on stages. Bluegrass jams tend to be segregated by the skill level of the players. Slow jams for beginners provide an entry point. Open bluegrass jams are open to all comers, but the players in an open jam will expect a certain level of proficiency from participants; the abilities to hear chord progressions and keep time are essential, the ability to play improvised leads that contain at least a suggestion of the melody is desirable. Jams that require advanced musical proficiency are private events, by invitation only. Jamming Free improvisation Free jazz Freestyle rap Scat singing Session musician and Irish traditional music session Collaborative website for jam session Finding Bluegrass (and acousti