Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Quantico is a town in Prince William County, United States. The population was 480 at the 2010 census. Quantico is located just south of the Quantico Creek; the word Quantico is a derivation of the name of a Doeg village recorded by English colonists as Pamacocack. Quantico is surrounded on three sides by one of the largest U. S. Marine Corps bases, Marine Corps Base Quantico; the base is the site of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command and HMX-1, Officer Candidate School, The Basic School. The United States Drug Enforcement Administration's training academy, the FBI Academy, the FBI Laboratory, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command, the Air Force Office of Special Investigations headquarters are on the base. A replica of the USMC War Memorial stands at the entrance to the base; as of 2013, the mayor is Kevin P. Brown. Quantico is at 38 ° 77 ° 17' 23" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.1 square miles, of which, 0.1 square miles of it is land and none of the area is covered with water.
Quantico has a humid subtropical climate. As of the census of 2000, there were 561 people, 295 households, 107 families living in the town; the population density was 7,811.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 359 housing units at an average density of 4,998.6 per square mile. The racial makeup was 61.32% White, 20.32% African American, 10.16% Asian, 0.36% Native American, 2.32% from other races, 5.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.53% of the population. There were 295 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 21.4% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 63.4% were non-families. 53.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.90 and the average family size was 3.02. In the town the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 39.8% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 122.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 130.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,250, the median income for a family was $27,596. Males had a median income of $29,615 versus $23,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,087. About 22.4% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.4% of those under the age of 18 and none of those ages 65 or older. There are no significant highways passing through Quantico. All road vehicles must pass through MCB Quantico. Therefore, all vehicle drivers must present a valid driver’s license to the military security officer stationed at the gate, may be required to state their destination and reason for visiting. More thorough searches and checks may be undertaken, according to the discretion and authority of base security. Amtrak and Virginia Railway Express trains stop at the Quantico station. Railway passengers are not subject to the same treatment as those using road vehicles.
Robert L. Crawford, Jr. actor on Laramie Geof Isherwood, artist Shelby Lynne, singer, producer, owner of Everso Records, actress Langley, Virginia Behavioral Analysis Unit Hostage Rescue Team Marine Corps Base Quantico Quantico station Quantico National Cemetery Town of Quantico Prince William County Government Dumfries Magisterial District Supervisor FBI
Chevrolet Chevy II / Nova
The Chevrolet Chevy II/Nova was a small automobile manufactured by Chevrolet, produced in five generations for the 1962 through 1979, 1985 through 1988 model years. Nova was the top model in the Chevy II lineup through 1968; the Chevy II nameplate was dropped, Nova becoming the nameplate for the 1969 through 1979 models. Built on the X-body platform, the Nova was replaced by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation introduced in the spring of 1979; the Nova nameplate returned in 1985, produced through 1988 as a S-car based, NUMMI manufactured, subcompact based on the front wheel drive, Japan home-based Toyota Sprinter. Chevrolet designer Clare MacKichan recalled about creating the Chevy II: "There was no time for experimentation or doodling around with new ideas from either the engineers or from us in design; the 1962 Chevy II rode a 110-inch wheelbase, compared to 109.5 for the Ford Falcon, at which Chevy's new compact was aimed. "I think, the quickest program we did at any time," he continued. "We worked night and day on that car, it didn't take long to run it through our shop because we had a deadline."
And that's what made the Chevy II one of the fastest new-car development programs in GM history – just 18 months after the designers got the green light, the first production Chevy II rolled off the Willow Run, assembly line in August 1961, in time for its September 29 introduction. Unlike the Corvair, the 1962 Chevy II was deliberately never intended to be revolutionary in concept or execution; when he announced the Chevy II to the press, Chevrolet General Manager Ed Cole described the car as offering "maximum functionalism with thrift." There was a lot of debate within the Chevrolet organization over just what to call this new car, the decision to go with "Chevy II" was a late one. Among the finalists was Nova, it lost out because it didn't start with a "C," but was selected as the name for the top-of-the-line series. The Nova badge would replace Chevy II, but that wouldn't happen until 1969. In every way, the creators of the Chevy II used Falcon as a benchmark; the 1962 model range included sedans and wagons, as well as a two-door hardtop and a convertible, just like Falcon.
The only body styles it didn't offer which the Falcon did were a sedan delivery and coupe utility, most to avoid competing with Chevrolet's own El Camino. After the rear-engine Chevrolet Corvair was outsold by the conventional Ford Falcon in 1960, Chevrolet completed work on a more conventional compact car that would become the Chevy II; the car was of semi-unibody construction having a bolt on front section joined to its unitized cabin and trunk rear section, available in two-door coupe and four-door sedan configurations as well as convertible and station wagon versions. The 1962 Chevy II came in three series and five body styles—the 100 Series, 300 Series and Nova 400 Series. A 200 series was introduced, but was discontinued immediately; the sportiest-looking of the lot was the $2,475 Nova 400 convertible—23,741 were produced that year. Available engines for the Chevy II in 1962 and 1963 included Chevrolet's inline-four engine of 153 cu in and a new third generation 194 cu in Chevrolet straight-6 engine.
All Chevy II engines featured overhead valves. A V8 engine was not available in 1962 and 1963. Absent documentation, dealer installed "options" of a V8 in a 1962 or 1963 is a myth. Refer to the GM Heritage Center 1963 Chevrolet Nova information available on the GM Heritage site. In addition, that documentation does not list a V8 engine as a possible dealer installed option. In 1962 and 1963 the Nova option for the Chevy II was available in a convertible body style, a two-door hardtop was available from 1962 to 1965, although the hardtop was dropped when the 1964 models were first introduced, but subsequently brought back to the line in the model year. Like all Chevy two-door hardtops, the body style was marketed as the Sport Coupe. For 1963, the Chevy II Nova Super Sport was released, under RPO Z03, it featured special emblems, instrument package, wheel covers, side moldings, bucket seats, floor shifter, was available only on the 400 series sport coupe and convertible. Cost of the package was US$161.40, equal to $1,320.85 today.
As mentioned above, the Nova option could not have V8 engines at this time—the standard SS engine was the six-cylinder —but small-block V8 engine swaps were commonplace among enthusiasts. For 1964, sales were hit hard by the introduction of the new Chevelle, the Chevy II received its first factory V8 option, a 195 hp 283 cu in, as well as a 230 cu in straight six; the six-cylinder was the third generation engine, replacing the second generation Stovebolt. Rival manufacturer Chrysler had earlier developed the Slant Six in their Plymouth Valiant, a Chevy II competitor, when the cars were introduced to the public in late 1959 as 1960 models. At introduction in the fall, the hardtop coupe was missing in the lineup, contributing to a loss of sales. Chevrolet subsequently reintroduced the Sport Coupe in the lineup in the model year, it remained available through 1967; the 1965 Chevrolet Chevy II and Nova were updated with cleaner front-end styling courtesy of a fresh full-width grille with new integrated headlight bezels.
Parking lights moved down to the deep-section bumper, sedans gained a new roofline. Taillight and backup lights were restyled; the 1965 Chevy II came in entry-level 100 fo
Cannibalism involves consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food. To consume the same species, or show cannibalistic behavior, is a common ecological interaction in the animal kingdom, has been recorded in more than 1,500 species. Human cannibalism is well-documented, both in recent times; the rate of cannibalism increases in nutritionally-poor environments as individuals turn to other conspecific individuals as an additional food-source. Cannibalism regulates population numbers, whereby resources such as food and territory become more available with the decrease of potential competition. Although it may benefit the individual, it has been shown that the presence of cannibalism decreases the expected survival rate of the whole population and increases the risk of consuming a relative. Other negative effects may include the increased risk of pathogen transmission as the encounter rate of hosts increases. Cannibalism, does not—as once believed—occur only as a result of extreme food shortage or of artificial/unnatural conditions, but may occur under natural conditions in a variety of species.
Cannibalism seems prevalent in aquatic ecosystems, in which up to 90% of the organisms engage in cannibalistic activity at some point in their life-cycle. Cannibalism is not restricted to carnivorous species: it occurs in herbivores and in detritivores. Sexual cannibalism involves the consumption of the male by the female individual before, during or after copulation. Other forms of cannibalism include intrauterine cannibalism. Behavioural and morphological adaptations have evolved to decrease the rate of cannibalism in individual species. In environments where food availability is constrained, individuals can receive extra nutrition and energy if they use other conspecific individuals as an additional food source; this would, in turn, increase the survival rate of the cannibal and thus provide an evolutionary advantage in environments where food is scarce. A study conducted on wood frog tadpoles showed that those that exhibited cannibalistic tendencies had faster growth rates and higher fitness levels than non-cannibals.
An increase of size and growth would give them the added benefit of protection from potential predators such as other cannibals and give them an advantage when competing for resources The nutritional benefits of cannibalism may allow for the more efficient conversion of a conspecific diet into reusable resources than herbaceous diet. This facilitates for faster development. Studies have shown that there is a noticeable size difference between animals fed on a high conspecific diet which were smaller compared to those fed on a low conspecific diet. Hence, individual fitness could only be increased if the balance between developmental rate and size is balanced out, with studies showing that this is achieved in low conspecific diets. Cannibalism regulates population numbers and benefits the cannibalistic individual and its kin as resources such as extra shelter and food are freed. However, this is only the case if the cannibal recognizes its own kin as this won't hinder any future chances of perpetuating its genes in future generations.
The elimination of competition can increase mating opportunities, allowing further spread of an individual's genes. Animals which have diets consisting of predominantly conspecific prey expose themselves to a greater risk of injury and expend more energy foraging for suitable prey as compared to non-cannibalistic species. In order to combat the risk of personal injury, a predator targets younger or more vulnerable prey. However, the time necessitated by such selective predation could result in a failure to meet the predator's self-set nutritional requirements. In addition, the consumption of conspecific prey may involve the ingestion of defense compounds and hormones, which have the capacity to impact the developmental growth of the cannibal's offspring Hence, predators partake in a cannibalistic diet in conditions where alternative food sources are absent or not as available. Failure to recognize kin prey is a disadvantage, provided cannibals target and consume younger individuals. For example, a male stickleback fish may mistake their own "eggs" for their competitor's eggs, hence would inadvertently eliminate some of its own genes from the available gene pool.
Kin recognition has been observed in tadpoles of the spadefoot toad, whereby cannibalistic tadpoles of the same clutch tended to avoid consuming and harming siblings, while eating other non-siblings. The act of cannibalism may facilitate trophic disease transmission within a population, though cannibalistically spread pathogens and parasites employ alternative modes of infection. Cannibalism can reduce the prevalence of parasites in the population by decreasing the number of susceptible hosts and indirectly killing the parasite in the host, it has been shown in some studies that the risk of encountering an infected victim increases when there is a higher cannibalism rate, though this risk drops as the number of available hosts decreases. However, this is only the case. Cannibalism is an ineffective method of disease spread as cannibalism in the animal kingdom is a one-on-one interaction, the spread of disease requires group cannibalism.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
Lincoln is the capital of the U. S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Lancaster County. The city covers 94.267 square miles with a population of 284,736 in 2017. It is the 71st-largest in the United States; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area in the southeastern part of the state called the Lincoln Metropolitan and Lincoln-Beatrice Combined Statistical Areas. The statistical area is home to 353,120 people, making it the 106th-largest combined statistical area in the United States; the city was founded in 1856 as the village of Lancaster on the wild salt marshes of what was to become Lancaster County. In 1867, the village of Lancaster was renamed Lincoln; the Bertram G. Goodhue-designed state capitol building was completed in 1932 and is the second tallest capitol in the United States; as the city is the seat of government for the state of Nebraska, the state and the United States government are major employers. The University of Nebraska was founded in Lincoln in 1867.
The university is the largest in Nebraska with 26,079 students enrolled and is the city's third-largest employer. Other primary employers fall within the service and manufacturing industries, including a growing high-tech sector; the region makes up a part of. Designated as a "refugee-friendly" city by the U. S. Department of State in the 1970s, the city was the twelfth-largest resettlement site per capita in the United States by 2000. Refugee Vietnamese, Karen and Yazidi people, as well as other refugees from Iraq & the Middle East, have been resettled in the city. Lincoln Public Schools during the school year of 2017–18 provided support for 3,100 students from 100 countries, who spoke 50 different languages. Prior to the expansion westward of settlers, the prairie was covered with buffalo grass. Plains Indians, descendants of indigenous peoples who occupied the area for thousands of years, lived in and hunted along Salt Creek; the Pawnee, which included four tribes, lived in villages along the Platte River.
The Great Sioux Nation, including the Ihanktowan-Ihanktowana and the Lakota located to the north and west, used Nebraska as a hunting and skirmish ground, although they did not have any long-term settlements in the state. An occasional buffalo could still be seen in the plat of Lincoln in the 1860s. Lincoln was founded in 1856 as the village of Lancaster and became the county seat of the newly created Lancaster County in 1859; the village was sited on the east bank of Salt Creek. The first settlers were attracted to the area due to the abundance of salt. Once J. Sterling Morton developed his salt mines in Kansas, salt in the village was no longer a viable commodity. Captain W. T. Donovan, a former steamer captain, his family settled on Salt Creek in 1856. In the fall of 1859, the village settlers met to form a county. A caucus was formed and the committee, which included Captain Donovan, selected the village of Lancaster to be the county seat; the county was named Lancaster. After the passage of the 1862 Homestead Act, homesteaders began to inhabit the area.
The first plat was dated August 6, 1864. By the close of 1868, Lancaster had a population of 500 people; the township of Lancaster was renamed Lincoln with the incorporation of the city of Lincoln on April 1, 1869. In 1869, the University of Nebraska was established in Lincoln by the state with a land grant of about 130,000 acres. Construction of University Hall, the first building, began the same year. Nebraska was granted statehood on March 1, 1867; the capital of the Nebraska Territory had been Omaha since the creation of the territory in 1854. After much of the territory south of the Platte River considered annexation to Kansas, the territorial legislature voted to locate the capital city south of the river and as far west as possible. Prior to the vote to remove the capital city from Omaha, a last ditch effort by Omaha Senator J. N. H. Patrick attempted to derail the move by having the future capital city named after assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. Many of the people south of the Platte River had been sympathetic to the Confederate cause in the concluded Civil War.
It was assumed that senators south of the river would not vote to pass the measure if the future capital was named after the former president. In the end, the motion to name the future capital city Lincoln was ineffective in blocking the measure and the vote to change the capital's location south of the Platte River was successful with the passage of the Removal Act in 1867; the Removal Act called for the formation of a Capital Commission to locate a site for the capital on state-owned land. The Commission, composed of Governor David Butler, Secretary of State Thomas Kennard and Auditor John Gillespie, began to tour sites on July 18, 1867, for the new capital city; the village of Lancaster was chosen, in part due to the salt marshes. Lancaster had 30 residents. Disregarding the original plat of the village of Lancaster, Thomas Kennard platted Lincoln on a broader scale; the plat of the village of Lancaster was not abandoned. To raise money for the construction of a capital city, a successful auction of lots was held.
Newcomers began to arrive and Lincoln's population grew. The Nebraska State Capitol was completed on December 1, 1868; the Kennard house, built in 1869, is the old