The Pretenders are an English-American rock band formed in Hereford and Akron, United States in March 1978. The original band consisted of initiator and main songwriter Chrissie Hynde, James Honeyman-Scott, Pete Farndon, Martin Chambers. Following the drug-related deaths of Honeyman-Scott and Farndon, the band has experienced numerous subsequent personnel changes, with Hynde as the only consistent member, Chambers returning after an absence of several years. Hynde launched a solo career in 2014 and the Pretenders were dormant as a band between 2012 and 2016. However, The Pretenders are once again active, having issued an album and toured in 2016. Hynde from Akron, moved to London in 1973, working at the weekly music paper NME and at Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood's clothes store, she was involved with early versions of the Clash and the Damned and played in short-lived bands such as Masters of the Backside and the Moors Murderers. The Pretenders formed in 1978, he arranged a rehearsal studio in Denmark Street, where a 3-piece band consisting of Hynde, Mal Hart on bass, Phil Taylor of Motörhead on drums played a selection of Hynde's original songs.
Dave Hill arranged a day at Studio 51 to record another demo. Although it was rough, he felt he had seen and heard enough "star potential" to suggest that Hynde form a more permanent band to record for his new label, Real Records. Hynde formed a band composed of Pete Farndon on bass, James Honeyman-Scott on guitar, Gerry Mcilduff replacing Jon Adkin on drums; this band without a name, recorded five tracks at Regents Park Studio in July 1978, including "Stop Your Sobbing". Shortly thereafter Gerry Mcilduff was replaced on drums by Martin Chambers and Hynde named the band "The Pretenders" after the Platters song "The Great Pretender", the favourite song of one of her former boyfriends; the band's first single, a cover of the Kinks song "Stop Your Sobbing" was released in January 1979 and gained critical attention. It was followed in June with "Kid", in January 1980 the band got to No. 1 in the UK with "Brass in Pocket", successful in the US, reaching No. 14 on the Billboard Hot 100. Their self-titled debut album was released in January 1980 and was a success in the United Kingdom and the United States both critically and commercially.
The band played at the Heatwave festival during August 1980 near Toronto. During March 1981, the EP Extended Play was released, containing the UK and US success "Message of Love" and "Talk of the Town", "Porcelain", "Cuban Slide" and a live version of "Precious", recorded in Central Park; the second full-length album, Pretenders II, was released during August 1981. Pretenders II included the Extended Play singles, the MTV video success "Day After Day", popular album-radio tracks "The Adultress", "Birds of Paradise", "Bad Boys Get Spanked", "The English Roses". On 18 September 1981 the Pretenders were the musical guest on the US late night sketch comedy show Fridays; the band performed "The Adulteress", "Message of Love" and "Louie, Louie". Andy Kaufman was the guest host of the programme on that night. Farndon's drug abuse escalated and he was fired after a meeting between Hynde, Honeyman-Scott, Chambers, on 14 June 1982. Two days on 16 June 1982, James Honeyman-Scott died of heart failure as a result of cocaine intolerance.
Farndon was in the midst of forming a new band with former Clash drummer Topper Headon, when he was found dead on 14 April 1983 by his wife. After taking heroin and passing out, Farndon had drowned in his bathtub; that left the Pretenders with two living members. Hynde continued with the band. During July 1982, a caretaker team of Hynde, Rockpile guitarist Billy Bremner, Big Country bassist Tony Butler was assembled to record the single "Back on the Chain Gang"; the song was released in October and became their biggest success in the US, staying at No. 5 for three consecutive weeks. The single's B-side, "My City Was Gone" has been the theme music for The Rush Limbaugh Show since its inception. Hynde set up a more permanent lineup for the band, keeping Chambers and adding Robbie McIntosh on guitar and Malcolm Foster on bass. "Middle of the Road" was this line-up's first single, released in the US in November 1983 and reaching the Top 20 there. The US B-side, "2000 Miles", was released as a single in the UK.
The third Pretenders album, Learning to Crawl, was released in January 1984. As well as the three recent singles, the album included a cover version of The Persuaders' "Thin Line Between Love and Hate", which featured Paul Carrack on keyboards. For the next bout of touring, Rupert Black joined the live band on keyboards. In July 1985, the band played at Live Aid. Further upheavals followed. Soon after recording sessions for the next album began and one track had been completed, Hynde declared that Chambers was no longer playing well and dismissed him. Discouraged at the loss of his bandmate, Foster quit Hynde and McI
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Acacia Ridge, Queensland
Acacia Ridge is a suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. Acacia Ridge is 15 kilometres south of the central business district, it is within the local government area of City of Brisbane. Residential, Acacia Ridge is known for its heavy industrial area in the suburb's east, occupying much of the suburb's area east of Beaudesert Road. Acacia Ridge is home to one of Brisbane's few ice skating rinks; the name Acacia Ridge derives from the number of Acacia species growing in the area. The suburb was established after the Second World War to house returning servicemen and their families. Many of the original post-war dwellings still stand today. In the 2011 census, Acacia Ridge recorded a population of 50.1 % female and 49.9 % male. The median age of the Acacia Ridge population was 34 years, 3 years below the national median of 37. 61.6% of people living in Acacia Ridge were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 67.8% spoke only English at home. From 1966 until the mid-1980s, Acacia Ridge accommodated one of Holden's main vehicle manufacturing plants, which produced both full-sized and smaller models including the Holden Gemini.
When local production of the Gemini ceased in October 1984, the manufacturing plant closed down. The manufacturer remained, retaining a small area of the site for its regional headquarters until the early 2000s, when it relocated to Murarrie. Since closure of the plant, Woolworths occupied the area, utilising its space as a regional distribution centre until when an independent retail grocery chain resumed the site for similar purposes. On the opposite side of Beaudesert Road from the former manufacturing plant, Toyota has based its southern Queensland regional headquarters; this site is used for managerial and distribution related duties, as opposed to vehicle production. Acacia Ridge is home to one of Queensland's largest railway freight yards, dealing with interstate freight and the break-of-gauge from 1,067 mm to 1,435 mm. In 2008, the Beaudesert Road level crossing was replaced by an overbridge, so that the sidings in the yard could be extended for the shunting of longer 1500m trains; because space is not available for all potential users of this yard, another hub at Bromelton has been proposed.
In 2009, the line between Acacia Ridge and Bromelton was converted to dual gauge to suit a break-of-gauge hub at Bromelton. Acacia Ridge borders one corner of Archerfield Airport. Watson Road State School at Acacia Ridge opened on 23 January 1967. Acacia Ridge State School is a Prep to Year 6 school and it opened on 1 April 1869; the Catholic Primary School, Our Lady of Fatima is on Acacia Ridge. It caters for Prep to Year 6 and was opened on 25 January 1954; the Murri School known as the Aboriginal and Islander Independent Community School was opened 1 January 1986. It caters for students from Prep to Year 12. Acacia Ridge State High School opened on 25 January 1971 and closed on 31 December 1997, it amalgamated with Salisbury State High School to form Nyanda State High School. Acacia Ridge has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 174 Mortimer Road: Acacia Ridge Air Raid Shelter Steven Herrick Steve Price Johnathan Thurston Joel Turner Jeff Horn List of Brisbane suburbs List of rail yards University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Acacia Ridge
Squeeze are a British rock band that came to prominence in the United Kingdom during the new wave period of the late 1970s, continued recording in the 1980s and 1990s. They are known in the UK for their hit songs "Cool for Cats", "Up the Junction", "Slap and Tickle", "Another Nail in My Heart", "Pulling Mussels", "Tempted", "Labelled with Love", "Black Coffee in Bed" and "Hourglass". Though not as commercially successful in the United States, Squeeze had American hits with "Tempted", "Hourglass" and "853-5937", were considered a part of the Second British Invasion; the vast majority of their material is composed of lyrics by Chris Difford and music by Glenn Tilbrook who are guitarists and vocalists in the band. The duo were hailed as "the heirs to Lennon and McCartney's throne" during their peak of popularity in the late 1970s; the group formed in Deptford, London, in 1974, first broke up in 1982. Squeeze reformed in 1985, disbanded again in 1999; the band reunited for tours through the United States and United Kingdom in 2007.
In 2010, they issued an album of newly recorded versions of older material. The band's first album of all-new material since 1998, Cradle to the Grave, was released in October 2015, followed by another album, The Knowledge, in October 2017; the band's founding members in March 1974 were Chris Difford, Glenn Tilbrook. Difford claims that in 1973, he stole 50p from his mother's purse to put a card in a local sweetshop window to advertise for a guitarist to join his band, although he was not in a band at the time. Tilbrook was the only person. Difford and Tilbook began writing songs together, soon added Jools Holland and Paul Gunn to form an actual band; the group performed under several names, most "Captain Trundlow's Sky Company" or "Skyco", before selecting the band name "Squeeze" as a facetious tribute to the Velvet Underground's oft-derided 1973 album Squeeze. Gilson Lavis replaced Gunn on drums, Harry Kakoulli joined on bass in 1975. Squeeze's early career was spent around Deptford in south-east London, where they were part of a lively local music scene which included Alternative TV and Dire Straits.
Though the group was signed to Miles Copeland III's BTM Records, the label went under in late 1976, so their early singles and debut EP, 1977's Packet of Three, were released on the Deptford Fun City label. Squeeze's first EP and most of its self-titled debut album were produced by John Cale for A&M Records. Cale had been a member of Velvet Underground from. However, the debut album's two hit singles were produced by the band themselves, as the label found Cale's recordings uncommercial. In the United States and Canada, the band and album were dubbed UK Squeeze owing to legal conflicts arising from a contemporary American band called "Tight Squeeze"; the "U. K." was dropped for all subsequent releases. In Australia, the same name change was used due to legal conflicts arising from an existing Sydney-based band called "Squeeze". Albums in Australia were credited to UK Squeeze up to and including 1985's Cosi Fan Tutti Frutti; the band's second album, Cool for Cats, contained the band's two highest charting UK singles in "Cool For Cats" and "Up The Junction", both of which peaked at No. 2.
John Bentley replaced Harry Kakoulli on bass in 1979 following the release of the LP. Argybargy, the band's third album, was a UK hit, it was additionally a mild breakthrough in North America, as the single "Another Nail in My Heart" was a No. 56 hit in Canada, second single "Pulling Mussels" received airplay on US rock radio stations. Keyboardist Jools Holland left the band for a solo career in 1980. Keyboard duties were taken over by rated singer-keyboardist Paul Carrack, a former member of both British soul-pop band Ace and progressive rock band Roxy Music. In 1981, the band released East Side Story, it was produced by Elvis Costello and Roger Bechirian, featured Carrack's lead vocals on the radio hit "Tempted". Carrack himself left after the release of East Side Story, was replaced by Don Snow; this line-up recorded the Sweets from a Stranger LP in 1982. Negative reviews, the stresses of touring, conflict between band members led Difford and Tilbrook to break up the band that year, after releasing a final single, "Annie Get Your Gun".
Difford and Tilbrook continued to work together, released one self-titled album as the duo Difford & Tilbrook in 1984. Although it is not a Squeeze album, to many fans Difford & Tilbrook is considered a "lost" Squeeze LP because Difford and Tilbrook were themselves the only constant members of Squeeze. Several Difford & Tilbrook tracks have been featured on sanctioned Squeeze compilations, Tilbrook's official site lists Difford & Tilbrook as a Squeeze album; the duo contributed to a musical written and staged in Deptford during this period, entitled Labelled with Love and based in large part on the music of Squeeze. Squeeze re-formed to play a one night charity gig in 1985, with all five members from the 1980 Argybargy period—Difford, Holland and Bentley; the performance was such a success that the band unanimously agreed to resume recording and touring as Squeeze. Searching for a different sound, the band replaced Bentley with bassist Keith Wilkinson from the Difford & Tilbrook sessions; this line-up released the 1985 LP Cosi Fan Tutti Frutti.
The new LP featured complex double-tracked keyboard parts which could not be duplicated by a single keyboard player in a live setting.
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Amanda Brown (musician)
Amanda Gabrielle Brown is an Australian composer, classically trained musician and songwriter. She is known for her role as the violinist of the band The Go-Betweens and more a session musician and soundtrack composer. Brown's early bands during the early 1980s were Climbing Frame, Tender Mercies and Blood Brothers, in which she played violin, oboe and keyboards. In 1986, The Go-Betweens – soon after signing a new contract – discovered Amanda Brown playing live in a café, she joined the band in London, her addition expanding the line-up to a five-piece, for which she provided backing vocals, oboe and keyboards and arrangements. Brown played on Tallulah and 16 Lovers Lane; the Go-Betweens toured for 18 months following the release of 16 Lovers Lane, ending in Munich, Germany. They broke up after a farewell tour of England. Following the break-up of the Go-Betweens, Brown formed the band Cleopatra Wong, with Go-Betweens drummer Lindy Morrison, resulting in two marginally successful mini-CDs on the rooArt label and Cleopatra's Lament, including the single "Thank You".
During this period, she undertook session work with Tactics, the Shane Howard Band and Wendy Matthews Band and sang back-up vocals on former Go-Betweens member Grant McLennan's 1991 debut album Watershed. Work included playing with Sydney band Love Me and diverse session appearances with artists including R. E. M; the Reels, Died Pretty, David Bridie, David Lane, The Cruel Sea, The Apartments, Boxcar. Brown was the first musician to guest host the music video programme RAGE, on ABC TV, in February 1990. A graduate of the Australian Film Television and Radio School, Brown has established a career as a screen composer, writing for television and film soundtracks. In 2003 she released the Incognita soundtrack CD, a mixture of songs and instrumentals accompanying a performance by the Stalker Theatre Company; the performance of Incognita toured Australia and Europe, commencing at the Sydney Festival 2003, the show explored issues of Australia's past and present. Brown has composed scores for feature films, including Preservation, Look Both Ways Monkey Puzzle and Son of a Lion.
Documentaries she has composed the music for include Suburb For A Well Founded Fear. Brown is the occasional'sixth' member of Toni Collette's live band, The Finish, has continued to record and perform with various artists including The Vines, Youth Group and Josh Pyke. In the winter 2007–08 she duetted with the Danish singer Michael Møller on the song "A Sunday Routine" from his debut solo outing from his band Moi Caprice. In 2008 Brown won the IF Inside Film Award for Best Music for her score of Son of a Lion. A soundtrack album was released in late 2008. In 2009 she won the APRA/Australian Guild of Screen Composers Award for Best Music in a Documentary for the score of Sidney Nolan: Mask and Memory. Brown continues to diversify. On her 50th birthday in 2015, Brown was elected to the APRA Board as a Writer Director, she resides in the Sydney suburb of Maroubra with partner Simon Marnie. David Nichols "The Go-Betweens" Puncture Publications ISBN 1-891241-16-8 Robert Forster "Grant & I: Inside and Outside the Go-Betweens" Penguin Books Australia ISBN 978-0-67007-822-6 Amanda Brown discography Amanda Brown on IMDb
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t