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John Kirby (musician)

John Kirby, was a jazz double-bassist who played trombone and tuba. In addition to sideman work, Kirby is remembered for leading a successful chamber jazz sextet in the late 1930s and early 1940s, which scored several hit songs including "Loch Lomond" and the debut recording of "Undecided", a jazz standard. John Kirby was born John Kirk in Winchester, Virginia on 31 December 1908, his mother, Dolly Kirk gave him up for adoption and he was raised at 442 North Kent Street by Reverend Washington Johnson and his wife, Nancy. Kirby was a student at the Winchester Colored School and started trombone lessons around 1917 under the guidance of Professor Powell Gibson. Kirby, stated that Bach's work fascinated him as a kid and that he learned to play music just as it was written. Kirby's formal education ended around 1923; that same year, he met Mary Moten of Airmont and they married on 25 August 1925. On 14 December 1925, Mary gave birth to Yvonne Constance Kirk. Based on known affiliations, Kirby's father lived in Baltimore and was a frequent visitor to the Winchester area.

By 1936, Kirby was a successful sideman on the New York City jazz scene, his eleven-year-old daughter, Yvonne heard stories about her successful father from Powell Gibson. In 1927, Kirby arrived in Baltimore, where he met trombonist Jimmy Harrison, saxophonist Coleman Hawkins and composer Duke Ellington. Harrison persuaded Kirby to switch from trombone to tuba. Shortly after his arrival in New York, Kirby played tuba with Bill Brown and His Brownies at the Star Ballroom on Forty-Second Street, he performed with pianist Charlie Sheets at the Bedford Ballroom in Brooklyn and with John C. Smith's Society Band at Harlem's Alhambra Ballroom. Kirby joined Fletcher Henderson's orchestra as a tuba player in 1929. In the early 1930s, he performed some complicated tuba work on a number of Henderson's recordings, but switched to double-bass when tuba fell out of favor. In the early 1930s, Kirby took bass lessons from Wellman Braud. About 1933 Kirby left Henderson to play two stints with drummer Chick Webb, before returning to Henderson, join Lucky Millinder.

Jazz enthusiast John Hammond assembled what he felt was the greatest jazz band to record with Billie Holiday and pianist Teddy Wilson. This band included Ben Webster, John Truehart, Cozy Cole and Kirby on bass. Hammond said, "He is by far the best bass player around, it had to be Kirby on the first Teddy Wilson-Billie Holiday recording date."Securing a gig at the Onyx Club on 52nd Street in 1937 confirmed Kirby's status as a bandleader, although in the first Onyx Club lineup, it was singer-drummer Leo Watson who got featured billing. Kirby's sextet was soon known as the Onyx Club Boys, took the shape it would hold until World War II with Charlie Shavers, Buster Bailey, Russell Procope, Billy Kyle, O'Neill Spencer. "The Biggest Little Band in the Land," as it was called it began recording in August 1937 with a swing version of "Loch Lomond." The group's name would vary with time and depending on, credited as session leader: John Kirby and His Onyx Club Boys, John Kirby and His Orchestra, Buster Bailey and His Rhythm Busters, Buster Bailey and His Sextet.

The band would become one of the more significant "small groups" in the Big Band era and was notable for making the first recording of Shavers's song "Undecided". Vocals were performed by Maxine Sullivan, who became Kirby's second wife in 1938. In 1938 four members of the group participated in two recording sessions for Vocalion Records accompanying singer Billie Holiday as Billie Holiday and her Orchestra. Kirby tended toward a lighter, classically influenced style of jazz referred to as chamber jazz, which has both strong defenders and ardent critics, he was prolific and popular from 1938 -- 1941. Kirby kept trying to lead a group in clubs and in the studio managing to attract such talents as Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Carter, Ben Webster, Clyde Hart, Budd Johnson, Zutty Singleton; as Kirby's career declined, he drank and was beset by diabetes. After the war, Kirby got the surviving sextet members back together, with Sarah Vaughan as vocalist, but the reunion did not last. A concert at Carnegie Hall in December 1950, with Bailey plus drummer Sid Catlett, attracted only a small audience, which "crushed Kirby's spirit and badly damaged what little was left of his career.

Kirby moved to Hollywood, where he died just before a planned comeback. In 1961, saxophonist Dave Pell recorded the tribute album. Featuring the same instrumental lineup as Kirby's classic groups, Pell recording songs associated with Kirby -- sometimes in note-for-note transcriptions. Clarinetist Don Byron recorded the album Bug Music in 1996, a tribute to Kirby and several other musicians of the same era. In 1993 Kirby was inducted into the Big Jazz Hall of Fame. Unlike other then-popular "novelty" jazz groups, the Kirby sextet is not well remembered today, although in New York the Wayne Roberts Sextet pays tribute, while in France the sextet is comm

Tron (hacker)

Boris Floricic, better known by his pseudonym Tron, was a German hacker and phreaker whose death in unclear circumstances has led to various conspiracy theories. He is known for his Diplom thesis presenting one of the first public implementations of a telephone with built-in voice encryption, the "Cryptophon". Floricic's pseudonym was a reference to the eponymous character in the 1982 Disney film Tron. Floricic was interested in defeating computer security mechanisms, he was subsequently sentenced to 15 months in jail for the physical theft of a public phone but the sentence was suspended to probation. From December 2005 to January 2006, media attention was drawn to Floricic when his parents and Andy Müller-Maguhn brought legal action in Germany against the Wikimedia Foundation and its German chapter Wikimedia Deutschland e. V; the first preliminary injunction tried to stop Wikipedia from publishing Floricic's full name, a second one followed, temporarily preventing the use of the German Internet domain as a redirect address to the German Wikipedia.

Floricic grew up in a suburb in southern Berlin. His interests in school focused on technical subjects, he left school after ten years and completed a three-year Vocational education offered by the Technical University of Berlin and graduated as a specialist in communication electronics with a major in information technology. He subsequently earned the Abitur and began studies in computer science at the Technical University of Applied Sciences of Berlin. During his studies, Floricic attended an internship with a company developing electronic security systems. In the winter term 1997/1998, Floricic finished his studies and published his diploma thesis, in which he developed and described the "Cryptophon", an ISDN telephone with built-in voice encryption. Since parts of this work, which were to be provided by another student, were missing, he could not finish his work on the Cryptophon, his thesis, was rated as exceptional by the evaluating university professor. After graduation, Floricic was unsuccessful.

In his spare time he continued, among other activities, his work on the Cryptophon. Floricic was interested in electronics and security systems of all kinds, he engaged in, amongst other things, attacks against Pay TV systems. As part of his research he exchanged proposals with other hackers and scientists. On the mailing list "tv-crypt", operated by a closed group of Pay TV hackers, Floricic reported about himself in 1995 that his interests were microprocessors, programming languages, electronics of all kinds, digital radio data transmission and breaking the security of systems perceived as secure, he claimed to have created working clones of a chipcard used for British Pay TV and would continue his work to defeat the security of the Nagravision/Syster scrambling system, used by the German Pay TV provider "PREMIERE". American scientists outlined a theoretical attack against SIM cards used for GSM mobile phones. Together with hackers from the Chaos Computer Club, Floricic created a working clone of such a SIM card, thus showing the practicability of the attack.

He engaged in cloning the German phonecard and succeeded. While Floricic only wanted to demonstrate the insecurity of the system, the proven insecurity was abused by criminals which led to the attention of law enforcement agencies and the German national phone operator Deutsche Telekom. After Deutsche Telekom changed the system, Floricic tried to remove a complete public card phone from a booth by force on 3 March 1995 in order to, as he told, adapt his phonecard simulators to the latest changes, he and a friend were, caught by the police upon this attempt. Floricic was sentenced to a prison term of 15 months, suspended to probation. "Cryptophon" was the name Floricic chose for his prototype of an ISDN telephone with integrated voice encryption. It was created in the winter term 1997–1998 as part of his diploma thesis, titled "Realisierung einer Verschlüsselungstechnik für Daten im ISDN B-Kanal", at the Technische Fachhochschule Berlin. Floricic focused on making the Cryptophon easy to build for hobbyists.

The phone encrypts telephone calls using the symmetric encryption algorithm IDEA. As IDEA is patented, the cipher was implemented on a replaceable daughter module which would have allowed the user to exchange IDEA for another algorithm. In addition, the system was about to be supplemented with a key exchange protocol based on the asymmetric algorithm RSA in order to achieve security against compromised remote stations; the Cryptophon is built on the foundation of an 8051 compatible microprocessor which controls the whole system and peripherals. For the cryptography, Floricic used cheap DSPs from Texas Instruments which he scrapped out of old computer modems, but which could be bought at affordable prices; as this type of DSP is not powerful enough for the cryptography algorithm chosen, Floricic used two of them for the Cryptophon – one for sending and one for receiving. He planned to extend the phone so it would be possible to encrypt data-connections. Floricic developed both the operating software of the phone as well as the cryptography implementation in the DSPs.

He found a new way to imple


Ahar is a city and capital of Ahar County, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. According to the 2016 census, Ahar was the fourth most populated city of the province with a population of 100,641 in 20,844 families. Ahar was the capital of Karadag Khanate in 19th centuries. In the wake of Russo-Persian War Ahar, with 3500 inhabitants, was the only city of Qaradağ. Around the mid 1830s the population was estimated to be from five to six thousand inhabitants in about six hundred houses. By 1956 the population had increased to 19816. At the 2016 census, its population was 100,641, in 20,844 families. Despite this population boom the city has been losing its former importance to the much smaller neighboring Kaleybar city as the is gaining nationwide fame as a tourist destination. Ahar is one of the ancient cities of Azerbaijan, its name before Islam was "meimad". In the 12th-13th centuries, Ahar was a minor and short-lived, but prosperous emirate ruled by the Pishteginid dynasty of Georgian origin. Yaqut al-Hamawi, writing in early thirteenth century, describes Ahar as flourishing despite its small extent.

The city lost most of its importance during the rule of Ilkhanate. Hamdallah Mustawfi, writing in mid fourteenth century, describes Ahar as a little town, he estimates the tax revenue of the town to be comparable to that of Mardanaqom, which presently is a medium-sized village. Ahar was in the focus of Safavid dynasty's agenda for casting of Azerbaijan as a Safavid dominion. Thus, Shah Abbas rebuilt the mausoleum of Sheikh Sheikh Shihab-al-din in Ahar. Ahar suffered enormously during Russo-Persian War. Western travelers in 1837-1843 period had found Ahar, a city with around 700 households, in wretched condition, their impression was that the Qajar princes, who were dispatched as the governors of Qaradagh hastened to collect as much wealth as possible before their removal. Ahar was one of the epicenters of Persian Constitutional Revolution due to the involvement of Arasbaran tribes in armed conflicts; when in 1925 Rezā Shāh deposed Ahmad Shah Qajar and founded the Pahlavi dynasty, Ahar's gradual decline started.

The new king insisted on ethnic nationalism and cultural unitarism and implemented his policies with forced detribalization and sedentarization. He renamed Qaradağ as Arasbaran to deny the Turkic identity of the inhabitants; this policy, in particular, resulted in suppression of ethnic Azeris. For further information on the history of Ahar and Arasbaran region one may consult the following scholarly books: H. Bayburdi "The history of Arasbaran", Ḥusayn Dūstī, "The history and geography of Arasbaran", N. Sedqi, "The contemporary political and social history of Arasbaran", S. R. Alemohammad, "The book of Arasbaran". Two concise English language articles are the following: "The Tribes of Qarāca Dāġ: A Brief History" by P. Oberling; the entry "AHAR", in Encyclopædia Iranica. Until the early 1960s Ahar was the economic hub of Arasbaran region. Arasbaran nomadic tribes bartered their produce in Ahar's bazaar; the charcoal produced in villages adjacent to Arasbaran forests was carried by muleteers to Ahar and from there was transported to Tabriz.

In addition, Ahar was a distribution center for the Arasbaran rug. The gradual settlement of nomads, widespread use of fossil fuels, changing life-styles, establishment of new marketplaces such as Kaleybar through facilitated transportation, have diminished Ahar's economical importance; the main tourist site in the city is the mausoleum of Sheikh Shaabe-deen, the teacher of Safi-ad-din Ardabili, the founder of the family of Safavid dynasty. The monument has been described by James Morier in early nineteenth century as the following, "The mausoleum is of brick, with a foundation of stone, faced by an elevated portico, flanked by two minors or pillars encrusted with green tiles. A little wooden door was opened for us in the back of the building, which introduced us into the spot that contained the tomb of the Sheikh, enclosed by a stone railing, carved into open work, surrounded by a sculptured arabesque ornament, of good taste; the tomb is distinguished by a marble cover, on, an Arabic inscription in relieve.".

All notable people from Arasbaran region would have counted Ahar as their home town. Here we list some prominent figures who have spent parts of their lives in Ahar or the neighboring villages: Sattar Khan was from Qaradağ, he is considered as a national hero of Iran and is referred to as سردار ملی. He headed Constitutionalist rebels from the Amirkhiz district of Tabriz in early twentieth century. Amir Arshad, the headman of Haji-Alilu tribe, was a legendary military commander in early twentieth century, he is credited with fending off the communism from Iran. Qasem Ahari was born in Ahar in 1884, he was the first European trained ophthalmologist of Iran. Qasem Ahari served four terms in National Consultative Assembly, he was the first representative of Azerbaijan in Senate of Iran. Abbas Eslami, known with his pen-name Barez, was a great poet, he described the melancholic demise of Qaradağ in a book titled mourning Sabalan. Houssein Rezapour a contemporary poet with the pen-name "Razi". Prof. Mahmoud Akhondi was born ii 1933.

He is an eminent Swiss-trained law professor. His 10 volume book on criminal prosecution is a major textbook in Iranian law schools. Colonel Husein bayburdi was borne in Ahar and retired from Army in 1959, he published a book on the history of Arasbaran. This book is the only comp


Volkstaat is the set of proposals to establish self-determination for Afrikaners in South Africa, either on federal principles or as a independent Boer/Afrikaner homeland. Following the Great Trek of the 1830s and 1840s, Boer pioneers expressed a drive for self-determination and independence through the establishment of several Boer republics over the rest of the 19th century; the end of apartheid and the establishment of universal suffrage in South Africa in 1994 left some Afrikaners feeling disillusioned and marginalised by the political changes, which resulted in a proposal for an independent Volkstaat. Several different methods have been proposed for the establishment of a Volkstaat. Besides the use of force, the South African Constitution, international law present certain possibilities for their establishment; the geographic dispersal of minority Afrikaner communities throughout South Africa presents a significant obstacle to the establishment of a Volkstaat, because Afrikaners do not form a majority in any separate geographic area that could be sustainable independently.

Supporters of the proposal have established several land cooperatives in Orania in the Northern Cape province and Kleinfontein in Gauteng as practical implementations of the idea. Initiatives in Balmoral and Morgenzon, both in Mpumalanga, failed to develop beyond their initial phase. Boers have exhibited a drive for independence which resulted in the establishment of different republics in what is now the modern Republic of South Africa; the Voortrekkers proclaimed separate independent republics, most notably Natalia Republic, the Orange Free State and the South African Republic. However, after the Second Anglo-Boer War, British rule led to the dissolution of the last two remaining Boer states. Under apartheid, the South African government promoted Afrikaner culture and English were the official languages, the majority of the politicians running the country were Afrikaners; the underlying principle of apartheid was racial separatism, the means by which this was implemented, such as the homeland system of bantustans, were biased against the non-European majority as they excluded them from exercising their rights in the broader South Africa.

In the 1980s, a group of Afrikaners, led by HF Verwoerd's son-in-law, formed a group called the Oranjewerkers. They planned a community based on "Afrikaner self-determination", attempted to create a neo-"boerstaat" in the remote Eastern Transvaal community of Morgenzon. In 1988, Professor Carel Boshoff founded Avstig. Avstig proposed a Volkstaat in the Northern Cape province, in a rural and minimally developed region. Avstig bought the town of Orania in 1991, turned it into a model Volkstaat. Boshoff continued to be a representative of the Freedom Front, a political party advocating the Volkstaat concept. Orania lies at the far eastern apex of the original Volkstaat state, near where the boundaries of the three provinces Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, Free State meet. During the 1994 general election, Afrikaners were asked by the Freedom Front to vote for the party if they wished to form an independent state or Volkstaat for Afrikaners; the results of the election showed that the Freedom Front had the support of 424,555 voters, the fourth highest in the country.

The FF did not however gain a majority in any of South Africa's voting districts, their closest being 4,692 votes in Phalaborwa, representing 30.38% of that district. Two surveys were conducted among white South Africans, in 1993 and 1996, asking the question "How do you feel about demarcating an area for Afrikaners and other "European" South Africans in which they may enjoy self determination? Do you support the idea of a Volkstaat?" The 1993 survey found that 29% supported the idea, a further 18% would consider moving to a Volkstaat. The 1996 survey found that this had decreased to 22% supporting the idea, only 9% wanting to move to a Volkstaat. In the second survey, the proportion of white South Africans opposed to the idea had increased from 34% to 66%; the 1996 survey found that "those who in 1996 said that they would consider moving to a Volkstaat are Afrikaans speaking males, who are supporters of the Conservative Party or Afrikaner Freedom Front, hold racist views, call themselves Afrikaners and are not content with the new democratic South Africa."

The study used the Duckitt scale of subtle racism to measure racist views. A 1999 pre-election survey suggested that the 26.9% of Afrikaners wanting to emigrate, but unable to, represented a desire for a solution such as a Volkstaat. In January 2010, Beeld, an Afrikaans newspaper, held an online survey. Out of 11,019 respondents, 56% said that they would move to a Volkstaat if one were created, a further 17% would consider it while only 27% would not consider it as a viable option; the newspaper's analysis of this was that the idea of a Volkstaat was doodgebore and that its advocates had been doing nothing but tread water for the past two decades, although it did suggest that the poll was a measure of dissatisfaction among Afrikaners. Hermann Giliomee cited the Beeld poll in saying that over half of "northern Afrikaners" would prefer to live in a homeland. In 2015, the Sunday newspaper Rapport held an online survey, in which 93% of the respondents said they support Afrikaner self-determination.

Penuell Maduna, one of the leading ANC negotiators during the transition era, noted that Afrikane

Biological Records Centre

The Biological Records Centre established in 1964, is a national focus in the UK for terrestrial and fresh water species recording. The term "biological records centre" is used in the context of local centres, now referred to as "local environmental records centres"; the Biological Records Centre was set up in 1964 by the Nature Conservancy at its opened Monks Wood Experimental Station near Huntingdon. BRC developed from the Atlas of the British Flora project of the Botanical Society of the British Isles to map the distribution of British flowering plants, which had established basic principles for biological recording in the UK; the former BSBI project leader, Dr Franklyn Perring, established BRC with the project’s original data and data processing equipment. As part of the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, BRC provides a focus for the collation, management and interpretation of species observations. BRC is now based near Oxford. Most records are collected by volunteer recording schemes and societies, which are integral to the work of BRC.

These activities are supported through a long-term funding partnership between the Natural Environment Research Council and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Together with more than 80 recording schemes and societies, BRC supports biological recording for a wide range of plant and animal groups. BRC helps the recording community to publish atlases and other online resources, providing information for research and the conservation of wildlife. Through the use of technology BRC helps to harness the enthusiasm and knowledge of naturalists and to enable them to collate and analyse their records. To celebrate the BRC's 50th Anniversary, a special issue of the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society was published with 23 research and review articles covering the Centre's work. In addition to its work with recording schemes and societies, BRC has played a key role in the greater integration of biological recording activities in the UK, most through the National Biodiversity Network. BRC helped to found the National Federation for Biological Recording in 1986 and carried out much of the survey and analysis for the report of the Coordinating Commission for Biological Recording published in 1995, both of which helped shape the future of biological recording in the UK.

A network of local biological records centres or local environmental records centres covers most areas of the UK. All local centres are independent of the Biological Records Centre; the first such local centre was the Natural History Record Bureau at what is now Tullie House Museum in Carlisle which opened in 1902. As with many LERCs it grew out of the biological recording work of the local natural history society. LERCs have a complementary role to BRC and recording schemes as systems "for collating biological data from a wide range of sources, for ensuring that data are properly validated and catalogued, for providing access to them, thereby acting as a focus for biological information." Local Environmental Records Centres are non-profit, partnership-led organisations and organised on a county or multi-county basis. They are becoming better networked through the activities of the Association of Local Environmental Records Centres, the National Biodiversity Network, Natural England, The Wildlife Trusts partnership and NFBR, which became the National Forum for Biological Recording in 2013.

RECOrd is an example of a Local Environmental Records Centre. Atlases of the flora and fauna of Britain and Ireland Biological recording Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Biological Records Centre: Official website Natural Environment Research Council: Official website Centre for Ecology & Hydrology: Official website Botanical Society of the British Isles: Official website Joint Nature Conservation Committee: Official website National Biodiversity Network: Official website Natural England: Official website Special Issue: Fifty years of the Biological Record Centre Association of Local Environmental Records Centres National Biodiversity Network National Forum for Biological Recording National Federation for Biological Recording Directory of Local Biological Records Centres Map of Local Biological Records Centres

Encore: Movie Partners Sing Broadway

Encore: Movie Partners Sing Broadway is the thirty-fifth studio album by American singer and songwriter Barbra Streisand, released on August 26, 2016 by Columbia Records. Encore debuted at the top of the US Billboard 200 chart, extending Streisand's record as the woman with the most number-one albums in chart history; the album reached number one in Australia and the United Kingdom, where it became her third and seventh chart-topper respectively. Encore: Movie Partners Sing Broadway received a nomination for Best Traditional Pop Vocal Album at the 59th Annual Grammy Awards held in February 2017; the first leg of Barbra: The Music, The Mem'ries, The Magic concert tour preceded the album release, helping promote the duets collection. Encore: Movie Partners Sing Broadway debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, selling 149,000 album-equivalent units in its first week, of which 148,000 were pure sales. Of that figure, physical album sales equated to 126,000, the largest sales week for a physical album in 2016.

Blink-182's California held the biggest physical week for an album of 2016, with 107,000 sold. Encore extended her record for the most number one albums among women, tying her with Bruce Springsteen for the third-most among all acts; the only artists with more number ones are The Beatles and Jay Z. Streisand surpassed her own record for the longest span between number ones on the Billboard 200 as Encore arrived 51 years and 10 months after her first chart-topper, spent its initial week at number one. Further, Streisand continued to be the only act to have achieved number one albums in the last six decades; the album debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart with combined units of 20,000 in its first week, giving Streisand her seventh number one album in the United Kingdom. With that achievement, Streisand ranks second as the female solo artist with the most number one albums in UK, behind only Madonna, who has twelve number one albums, it peaked at number 3 in Canada, selling 10,318 copies in its first week.

The album debuted at number one spot in Australia. Encore was the #45 best selling album of 2016, according to IFPI, selling 600,000 that year