Rockingham Forest is a former royal hunting forest in the county of Northamptonshire, England. It is an area of some 200 sq mi lying between the River Welland and River Nene and the towns of Stamford and Kettering, it has a rich and varied landscape, with farmland, open pasture, pockets of woodland and villages built from local stone. The forest was named after the village of Rockingham; the boundaries were marked by the River Nene on the eastern side and on the western side what is now the A508 road from Market Harborough to Northampton. Over the years the forest shrank, today only a patchwork of the north-eastern forest remains; the bulk of the remaining forest is located within a square, of which the corners are Corby, Kettering and Oundle. The area became a royal hunting ground for King William I after the Norman conquest; the term forest remained so until the 19th century. A Cistercian abbey was established in 1143. In 1298 the de Lacys were granted permission to inclose 30 acres pertaining to the manor of Wadenhoe, lying within the forest, in order to make a park.
The forest boundaries were set in 1299, although the boundaries returned to a smaller area as a result of King Charles I's actions. King Charles II gave away or sold much of it. By 1792 there was no significant royal ownership of the forest area. Parliamentary enclosure of the bailiwicks and disafforestation of Rockingham bailiwick in 1832 resulted in a much smaller forest area with much of the land turned over to agriculture; the Forestry Commission took over the remnants of public woodland in 1923. The forest stretched from Stamford down to Northampton. Areas managed by the Forestry Commission include: Southey Wood, Peterborough Wakerley Great Wood Bedford Purlieus National Nature Reserve Fineshade Wood Fermyn WoodsIt is famous for its population of red kites which now number 300. In the spring of 2018 chequered skipper butterflies from Belgium were released at a secret site as part of the Back from the Brink project. A further release of butterflies from Belgium will take place in the spring of 2019, to supplement the newly emerged offspring of last years release.
Invasive scrub has been removed from more than 8 km of woodland rides by Butterfly Conservation and their partners, if the reintroduction is successful they will be the first native-born chequered skippers to emerge in England in more than 40 years. List of forests in the United Kingdom List of Ancient Woods in England Forestry Commission
Delapré Abbey is an English neo-classical mansion in Northamptonshire. The mansion and outbuildings incorporate remains of a former monastery, the Abbey of St Mary de la Pré, near the River Nene 1 mile south south-east of Northampton, it was founded as a nunnery about the year 1145 devoted to the congregation of the major Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, France. The Abbey's expansive sloping grounds are a nationally-protected Wars of the Roses battlefield, as a one-time site of the advance of the Yorkists during the Battle of Northampton; the abbey was founded by an Anglo-Norman Earl of two counties, Simon de Senlis, during the reign of King Stephen and benefited from its paying for a Royal Charter granted by King Edward III. At its founding the abbey was endowed the 3,060 acres in its ancient parish "almost entirely" save, for example, two corn mills, a fulling mill and 10 acres of marsh-meadow of St James's Abbey, Northampton: Hardingstone and held the rectories at Earls Barton, Great Doddington, Fotheringhay, appointing stipended vicars on a perpetual basis from 1224- see related term "vicarious".
Edward I added to Delapré the churches of Wollaston and Filgrave — a total of five Northamptonshire well-endowed churches — and gave Delapré the right to nominate the priest at Fyfield, Hampshire. He is recorded as giving ten beams towards the repair of the church in 1232, another five oaks for work on the Refectory in 1258. Delapré was one of two Cluniac nunneries in England; the Cluniac congregation was a reform movement of Benedictine life. Monasteries in the congregation were supervised directly by the great abbey at Cluny. A dozen to twenty nuns resided at any one time; the Guild of Weavers at Northampton made an annual procession to the Abbey church each Easter Monday where, according to the ordinances of the Guild in 1431, they would offer up:...tapers before the ymages of the Trynitie and our Lady." From its first foundation the abbey gave 21s. 8d. Yearly to the poor distributed by the parish church in money and fish, a further 5s. Yearly from benefactions; as with others the abbey was surrendered to the crown as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, closing in 1538.
After much use and alteration as a private residence and in World War II service, the house and its cluster of outbuildings which replaced the abbey in phased building works spanning the 16th to 18th centuries served as the Northamptonshire Record Office and the library of the related records society. The building is Grade II* listed for heritage. A heritage shop and café overlooking its grand courtyard opened in 2017; the main building opens for educational visits and weddings at the end of 2017. The Delapré Abbey Preservation Trust manages the buildings. One of three remaining Eleanor Crosses of the twelve erected, an octagonal, deeply-carved tower featuring statues hewn from stone is at the south-west of the meadows and tree-lined grounds; the body of Queen Eleanor, wife of Edward I, rested at the Abbey on its journey from Lincoln to London. The king erected the crosses to mark the passage; the cross was begun in 1291 by John of Battle. Its lower tier of stone books may have featured prayers for her biography.
The grounds of Delapré are a Scheduled Ancient Monument due to their partial battlefield status. In the north-west corner of the walled town depicted in John Speed's map of 1610 was the Cluniac Priory of St Andrews founded by Simon de Senlis, Earl of Northampton the father of the founder of Delapré. 1145 - Delapré Abbey was built by Simon, the son of Simon de Senlis, the 2nd Earl of Northampton. 1290 - The death of Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward I and Queen of England. Eleanor died on 28 November at Nottinghamshire, her body was embalmed at Lincoln, on 4 December a funeral procession set out for Westminster Abbey accompanied by the King. The cortège stopped at Delapré Abbey for the night; the King stayed at Northampton Castle. The cortège left the following day and, at the top of the hill, the ground was consecrated. On this spot, one of the Eleanor Crosses was erected. 1460 - The Battle of Northampton between the Yorkists and Lancastrians took place at Delapré. 1538 - Under the dissolution of the English Reformation, King Henry VIII forced the Abbey to surrender to the Crown.
1543 - The Crown rented the site and grounds of the former abbey to a tenant. 1550 - The Crown sold the Delapré estate to the Tate family. 1756 - Sir Charles Hardy, Governor of New York, husband of Mary Tate, sold the estate to Edward Bouverie for £22,000. 1905 - The Bouverie family rented the estate to John Cooper, a Northampton boot and shoe manufacturer. 1914 - Miss Mary Bouverie moved back to the Abbey. 1940 - The War Office took over the Abbey. Miss Bouverie moved to Duston and returned to a room over the stables in 1942. 1946 - The Northampton Corporation purchased the estate for £56,000. 1948 - The War Office gave up its use of the Abbey house, after which there were proposals to demolish the building. 1956-7 - The availability of funds raised by the Northamptonshire Record Society enabled repairs to be carried out to the building so that it could be used by Northamptonshire Record Office and the Northamptonshire Record Society. 1959 - Official opening of Northamptonshire Record Office at Delapré Abbey, following its relocation from Lamport Hall.
2004 - Seven people began living in the south & west wings as
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area; the name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany. Definitions of what constitutes; the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, established in the 6th century consisted of the modern counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and expanded west into at least part of Cambridgeshire. The modern NUTS 2 statistical unit of East Anglia comprises Norfolk and Cambridgeshire; those three counties have formed the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia since 1976, were the subject of a possible government devolution package in 2016. Essex has sometimes been included in definitions of East Anglia, including by the London Society of East Anglians. However, the Kingdom of Essex to the south, was a separate element of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and did not identify as Angles but Saxons.
The county of Essex by itself forms a NUTS 2 statistical unit in the East of England region. Other definitions of the area have been proposed over the years. For example, the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969, which followed the Royal Commission on the Reform of Local Government, recommended the creation of eight provinces in England; the proposed East Anglia province would have included northern Essex, southern Lincolnshire and a small part of Northamptonshire as well as Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. The kingdom of East Anglia consisted of Norfolk and Suffolk, but upon the marriage of the East Anglian princess Etheldreda, the Isle of Ely became part of the kingdom; the kingdom was formed about the year 520 by the merging of the North and the South Folk and was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon heptarchy kingdoms. For a brief period following a victory over the rival kingdom of Northumbria around the year 616, East Anglia was the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England, its King Raedwald was Bretwalda.
However, this did not last and over the next forty years East Anglia was defeated by the Mercians twice and continued to weaken in relation to the other kingdoms. In 794, Offa of Mercia had king Æthelberht killed and took control of the kingdom himself. Although independence was temporarily restored by rebellion in 825, on 20 November 869 the Danes killed King Edmund and captured the kingdom. By 917, after a succession of Danish defeats, East Anglia was incorporated into the Kingdom of England by Edward the Elder, afterwards becoming an earldom. Despite some engineering work in the form of sea barriers constructed by the Roman Empire, much of East Anglia remained marshland and bogs until the 17th century. From this point onward a series of systematic drainage projects using drains and river diversions along the lines of Dutch practice, converted the alluvial land into wide swathes of productive arable land. In the 1630s thousands of Puritan families from East Anglia settled in the American region of New England, taking much East Anglian culture with them that can still be traced today.
East Anglia, which based much of its earnings on wool and arable farming, was a rich area of England until the effects of the Industrial Revolution saw manufacturing and development shift to the Midlands and the North. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces constructed many airbases in East Anglia for the heavy bomber fleets of the Combined Bomber Offensive against Nazi-occupied Europe. East Anglia was ideally suited to airfield construction as it comprises large areas of open, level terrain and is close to mainland Europe; the reduced flight time to mainland Europe therefore reduced the fuel load required and enabled a larger bomb load to be carried. Building the airfields was a massive civil engineering project and by the end of the war there was one every 8 miles. Many of these airfields can still be seen today from aerial photographs, a few remain in use today, the most prominent being Norwich International Airport. Pillboxes, which were erected in 1940 to help defend the nation against invasion, can be found throughout the area at strategic points.
East Anglia is bordered to the north and east by the North Sea, to the south by the estuary of the River Thames and shares an undefined land border to the west with the rest of England. Much of northern East Anglia is flat, low-lying and marshy, although the extensive drainage projects of the past centuries make this one of the driest areas in the UK. Inland much of the rest of Suffolk and Norfolk is undulating, with glacial moraine ridges providing some areas of steeper areas relief; the supposed flatness of the Norfolk landscape is noted in literature, such as Noël Coward's Private Lives – "Very flat, Norfolk". On the north-west corner East Anglia is bordered by a bay known as The Wash, where owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation, the coastline has altered markedly within historical times. Conversely, over to the east on the coast exposed to the North Sea the coastline is subject to rapid erosion and has shifted inland since historic times. Major rivers include Suffolk's Stour, running through country beloved of the painter John Const
Sir John Cavendish was an English judge and politician from Cavendish, England. He and the village gave the name Cavendish to the aristocratic families of the Dukedoms of Devonshire and Portland. John Cavendish was descended from the Norman Robert de Gernon, who lived during the reign of Henry I and who gave a large amount of property to the Abbey of Gloucester. Robert's son called Robert de Gernon, of Grimston Hall, married the heiress of John Potton of Cavendish and obtained a landed estate in the lordship and manor of Cavendish. In consequence, his four sons exchanged. John was the eldest of the sons. Sir John Cavendish married Alice de Odingsells, became a lawyer and was appointed as a Justice of the Common Pleas in 1371 and Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1372; as Chief Justice he was obliged to suppress the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. Although Wat Tyler, the leader of the revolt was struck down by William Walworth, mayor of London, during negotiations on 15 June, John Cavendish, the second son of the Chief Justice, gave the finishing stroke to Wat Tyler, the lord mayor having only wounded him in the neck.
"Cavendish, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Rootsweb: Descendants of Luke Dillon and Susannah Garrett: PAFG189: John de Cavendish and Alice Odyngseles Stirnet: GZmisc01 Stirnet: Cavendish01
Southwick is a small village and civil parish in Northamptonshire, England. It is 3 miles north of the town of Oundle and is set in a valley of the river Nene; the village falls within the Non-Metropolitan District of East Northamptonshire, which itself lies within the East Midlands region. At the time of the 2001 census, the parish's population was 180 people, increasing marginally to 181 at the 2011 Census. Excavations were carried out at Southwick in 1996 and the results were published in a paper in Northamptonshire Archaeology. Excavations of two connected sites produced evidence of thriving iron-smelting industry in the village in the 10th century. A medieval stone hall dating from the mid-13th century, which may have been a manse owned by St Mary's Priory, was subsequently converted into a kitchen and brewhouse before being relegated to use as an outbuilding for the 16th century Vicarage Farm. In the north-west of Southwick parish there is a chalybeate spring; the first mention of a Knyvett at Southwick is in 1194.
The Knyvetts were in the village for at least a century. Richard Knyvett, a prominent wool merchant, was the keeper of the forest of Clive, now part of Rockingham Forest, from 1324; the family built the medieval manor house, known as Knyvett's Place but is now known as Southwick Hall. Dating from this period are two towers, one at the front of the house and the other in the courtyard at the rear. Richard Knyvett's son, Sir John Knyvet, was Chief Justice of the King's Bench and Lord Chancellor between 1372 and 1377. Another family member was the Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire and another was the Sheriff of Northamptonshire, taken prisoner whilst fighting in the Hundred Years' War: a ransom of a thousand pounds was demanded for his release; the Knyvetts allowed Southwick to pass to the Lynn family after inheriting a better seat for themselves at Buckenham Castle in Norfolk. The first Lynn at Southwick was John Lynn, who married Joan Knyvett, a descendant of the John Knyvet established there in 1194.
The Lynn family held the manor of Southwick from 1442 until 1840, it was during their tenure that most of Southwick Hall was built, although the oldest parts date from the 14th century. The family ended in an heiress, Martha Lynn, who married but died childless in 1796, her heirs were the Johnson family, who took the name and arms of Lynn but sold Southwick to the Capron family in 1840. The Caprons were lords of the nearby manor of Stoke Doyle, the first Capron lord of the manor of Southwick, George Capron, had made a fortune as a lawyer at the time of the railway boom of the early 19th century, in which he acted for railway companies in acquisitions of land. A connection is traced between the three families which have owned the manor of Southwick from the 12th to the 21st centuries: Knyvett and Capron. One of George Capron's great-uncles was Shukburgh, his mother, Judith Thynne, was descended through the Thynnes of Longleat from the Lynn family. John Shukburgh's only son, Rev. John Shukburgh, left George Capron the residue of his estate when he died unmarried in 1818.
George's uncle John was a co-heir, but in 1839 he died unmarried, leaving the Caprons as sole heirs in residue. It was in the following year; the pub in Southwick is called the Shuckburgh Arms because of this connection. The Caprons rebuilt and enlarged the east wing of Southwick in 1870. According to the Return of Owners of Land, 1873 the Capron estates centred on Southwick Hall and Stoke Doyle comprised over 5,000 acres, including woodland and generated an income of over £4,000 a year; these have now been much reduced, but the Capron family remain as lords of the manors and members of the family are in residence at Southwick Hall. The village church, adjacent to the Hall, is dedicated to St Mary; the church has a 14th-century west tower. Parts of the church were modernised in Victorian times; the church had a cup dating to around 1570, a 17th-century cover platen and a flagon dating to circa 1667. Inside the church is a monument to George Lynn by Louis-François Roubiliac and which dates to 1758.
The modern cross and candlesticks used in the church were made from the wood of a tree which had grown in the churchyard and were a thanks offering from Edith Capron following recovery from a severe illness in 1931. The altar rails date from the 18th century. Other features in the church include: The wooden panelling now found in the sanctuary was from Southwick Hall; the pulpit is of panelled oak and is a part of a three-decker pulpit installed in the church in 1905. A discoid of a 13th- or 14th-century grave marker; the old oak headstock of the church's medieval tenor bell, cast and hung by Thomas Newcombe of Leicester. Before its replacement in 1967, it had given the church 400 years of use; the churchyard was built on land that had earlier been used by the Romans to extract the local ironstone. Due to settling of the infilled quarry, the church has required heavy buttressing on the tower and the rebuilding of the nave and the chancel. Southwick Wood is now a nature reserve managed by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, C
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales and the President of the Courts of England and Wales. The officeholder was the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, but became the top judge as a result of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, which removed the judicial functions from the office of Lord Chancellor, altered the duties of the Lord Chief Justice and changed the relationship between the two offices; the Lord Chief Justice ordinarily serves as President of the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal and Head of Criminal Justice, but under the 2005 Act can appoint another judge to these positions. The Lord Chief Justice's equivalent in Scotland is the Lord President of the Court of Session, who holds the post of Lord Justice-General in the High Court of Justiciary. There is a Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland, successor to the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland of the pre-Partition era. For the entire United Kingdom judiciary, there is a President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, though that court does not have final jurisdiction over Scottish criminal law.
The current Lord Chief Justice is Lord Burnett of Maldon, who assumed the role on 2 October 2017. Each of the three high common law courts, the King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of the Exchequer, had its own chief justice: the Lord Chief Justice, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Chief Baron of the Exchequer; the Court of the King's Bench had existed since 1234. In 1268 its foremost judge was given the title of chief justice before when one of the justices would be considered the senior judge, fulfil an analogous role; the three courts became divisions of the High Court in 1875, following the deaths of the Lord Chief Justice and Lord Chief Baron in 1880, the three were merged into a single division creating a single Lord Chief Justice of England. The suffix "and Wales", now found in statutes and elsewhere, was unilaterally appended by holder Lord Bingham of Cornhill between 1996 and 2000; the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 made the Lord Chief Justice the president of the Courts of England and Wales, vesting the office with many of the powers held by the Lord Chancellor.
While the Lord Chief Justice retains the role of President of the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, the CRA separated the role of President of the Queen's Bench Division. The CRA provides that he or she is chosen by a specially appointed committee convened by the Judicial Appointments Commission. Category:Lord Chief Justices of England and Wales Category:English judges Category:Judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales Campbell, Lives of the Chief Justices of England, in four volumes, 3rd ed. London, John Murray 1874