A maternally-descended line, the Komnenodoukai, founded the Despotate of Epirus in the 13th century, with another branch ruling over Thessaly. Nothing is known for certain about the familys origin and this tradition is, evidently an invention meant to glorify the family, at the time the Empires ruling dynasty, by 11th-century court chroniclers. In fact, it is likely that the surname derives from the relatively common military rank of doux. Nothing is known about the familys origin, the first representative of the family appears in the mid-9th century, during the regency of Empress Theodora, when he was sent to forcibly convert the Paulicians to Orthodoxy. He is only known as the son of Doux, although Skylitzes interpolates the name of Andronikos and this name is used by some modern sources, e. g. in the Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit. The first branch of the family to prominence was in the early 10th century, with Andronikos Doukas. Both were senior generals during the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise, in circa 904, Andronikos engaged in an unsuccessful rebellion and was forced to flee to Baghdad where he was killed in circa 910.
Constantine managed to escape and was restored to office, becoming Domestic of the Schools. He was killed, along with his son Gregory and nephew Michael and it is likely, as the 12th-century historian Zonaras records, that the Doukai line died out, and that the bearers of the name were descendants through the female line only. Towards the end of the 10th century, there appeared a second family and its members were Andronikos Doux Lydos and his sons and Bardas, the latter known with the sobriquet Mongos. The family was involved in the 976–979 rebellion of Bardas Skleros against Emperor Basil II, Bardas the Mongos is attested as late as 1017, when he led a military expedition against the Khazars. These Doukai seem to have come from Paphlagonia, and were exceedingly wealthy, further dynastic matches were made with the clans of the Anatolian military aristocracy, including the Palaiologoi and the Pegonitai. It is hence impossible to distinguish the numerous holders of the name or to discern their exact relationship with the 11th-century Doukid dynasty.
The actual bloodline of Constantine X died out probably before 1100, and the last known descendants of his brother, the Caesar John, lived in the first half of the 12th century. In this way, mingled with other families or adopted de novo even by humble families unrelated to the original lineage. From them the surname Doukas was used by the Greek, and Serbian, rulers of Epirus, other examples include John III Doukas Vatatzes, Nicaean emperor and his relatives, the late Byzantine historian Doukas, and the megas papias Demetrios Doukas Kabasilas in the mid-14th century. The name spread far and wide across the Greek-speaking world as well as in Albania, several variations developed, such as Doukakes, Doukatos, Makrodoukas or Makrydoukas, etc. Other variants like Doukaites or Doukides seem to derive not from the surname, but from a locality, new York and Oxford, Oxford University Press
Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus was a notable Byzantine general in the 1070s and one of the major supporters of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, who was his younger brother. Alexios created the title of sebastokrator for Isaac, Isaac was the second-eldest son and third child of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassene. As such he belonged to the highest aristocracy of mid-11th century Byzantium, in 1071 or 1072, the Emperor Michael VII Doukas married him to Irene, a Georgian princess and cousin to Michaels empress, Maria of Alania. In the 1070s, following the disastrous Battle of Manzikert, Isaac was employed as commander in Anatolia against the Seljuk Turks. In 1073, as Domestic of the Schools of the East, he was captured by the Turks, and was released only after ransom was paid. In the next year, he was again sent East as doux of Antioch, he quelled local unrest, the Doukids continued to work against Isaac, until Isaac proved his loyalty by placing the emperors purple boots on him.
Thereafter he proved one of his most loyal and enthusiastic supporters, Alexios in turn rewarded him by awarding him with the new title of sebastokrator which marked him as a near-equal, in the words of Anna Komnene, an emperor without the purple. He was physically similar to his brother Alexius, though paler and he reportedly enjoyed hunting and war, putting himself in the vanguard of battles. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Basile, Les personnages byzantins de IAlexiade, Analyse prosopographique et synthese, Nauwelaerts
Prōtostratōr was a Byzantine court office, originating as the imperial stable master. From the mid-11th century, the post rose in importance, becoming more an honorific dignity for senior members of the court, from the 13th century on, the post could be held by several persons, and ranked eighth in the overall hierarchy of the court. Throughout its history, it was a title borne by senior military commanders. The female form of the title, given to the wives of the prōtostratores, was prōtostratorissa, a domestikos tōn stratorōn appears under Justinian II and a prōtostratōr of the Opsikion named Rouphos in 712. The spatharios Constantine is the first known holder of the post of imperial prōtostratōr, in the Klētorologion of 899 he is recorded as one of the special dignities and ranked 48th among the sixty most senior palace officials. Holders of the post could aspire to some of the highest court ranks, the imperial prōtostratōr had a prominent place in imperial ceremonies, riding beside the Byzantine emperor on processions or during the hunt.
During campaigns, he and the Count of the Stable stood by near the imperial tent, on certain occasions, he even had the task of introducing foreign envoys at imperial audiences. In the 9th–11th centuries, his subordinates included the stratores, the armophylakes, by the mid-11th century, the post seems to have risen in importance, and was now awarded as an honorific court dignity to distinguished members of the court. The office continued to exist during the Palaiologan period until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 and it remained one of the highest dignities of state, ranking eighth overall in the hierarchy, although from the late 13th century on, multiple persons could hold it. In the mid-14th century Book of Offices of Pseudo-Kodinos, the prōtostratōr is the fifth highest non-imperial office, coming after the megas doux and its insignia of office were similar to those of the megas doux, i. e. Only his staff of office differed, with only the topmost carved knots in gold, the knobs in the staff remained gold, bordered with silver braid.
In war, the prōtostratōr was responsible for the irregulars and scouts who preceded the army, the title is attested in the medieval Kingdom of Georgia, where it was held by the duke of Svaneti, Iovane Vardanisdze, under King David IV. A variant of the title, was used in the Kingdom of Cyprus in the 15th century. Note, the list does not include holders known only through their seals, the Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, Tome I, new York and Oxford, Oxford University Press. Kyrris, Costas P. Στράτορος = τράτωρ, or Strator, a Military Institution in XVth Century Cyprus. Lilie, Ralph-Johannes, Claudia, Beate, Thomas, george Akropolites, The History – Introduction and Commentary. The Making of the Georgian Nation, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Empire of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea. The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople in 1261, the Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, and briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency and inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire in 1479, having long ceased to contest the Byzantine throne. While the Empire of Nicaea had become the resurrected Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond continued until 1461 when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered it after a month-long siege and took its ruler and his family into captivity. The Crimean Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond, lasted another 14 years and its demographic legacy endured for several centuries after the Ottoman conquest in 1461 and the region retained a substantial number of Greek Orthodox inhabitants until 1923.
These are usually referred to as Pontic Greeks and their displacement was formalized, and the few still remaining were required to leave, in 1923 with the population exchange between Greece and Turkey. Many were resettled in Greek Macedonia and those living in the Crimea and the Russian province of Kars Oblast, much of which lies in modern Georgia, stayed longer, with some Greek speaking villages remaining in both locations today. Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane and Artvin. In the 13th century, some believe the empire controlled the Gazarian Perateia. However, after Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople in 1261, in 1282, John II Komnenos stripped off his imperial regalia before the walls of Constantinople before entering to marry Michaels daughter and accept his legal title of despot.
However, his successors used a version of his title and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians, rulers of Trebizond were known as Prince of Lazes. Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity, cervantes described the eponymous hero of his Don Quixote as imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond. Rabelais had his character Picrochole, the ruler of Piedmont, other allusions and works set in Trebizond continue into the 20th century. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos confirmed him as governor of Chaldia, but kept his son at Constantinople as a hostage for his good conduct. Nevertheless, Gabras proved himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond, one of his successors, Gregory Taronites rebelled with the aid of the Sultan of Cappadocia, but he was defeated and imprisoned, only to be made governor once more. Another successor to Theodore was Constantine Gabras, whom Niketas describes as ruling Trebizond as a tyrant, although that effort came to nothing, this was the last rebel governor known to recorded history prior to the events of 1204.
Henceforth, the links between Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature and extent have been disputed, both men were the grandsons of the last Komnenian Byzantine emperor, Andronikos I Komnenos, by his son Manuel Komnenos and Rusudan, daughter of George III of Georgia
Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power, the basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were the catalyst that contributed to the convoking of the Crusades. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena, Alexios father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was thus succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes, Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks. Under Michael VII Doukas Parapinakes and Nikephoros III Botaneiates, he was employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, Thrace. In 1074, western mercenaries led by Roussel de Bailleul rebelled in Asia Minor, in 1078, he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nikephoros III.
Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor and this did not, lead to a demotion, as Alexios was needed to counter the expected invasion of the Normans of Southern Italy, led by Robert Guiscard. While Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, the Doukas faction at court approached Alexios, the mother of Alexios, Anna Dalassena, was to play a prominent role in this coup détat of 1081, along with the current empress, Maria of Alania. First married to Michael VII Doukas and secondly to Nikephoros III Botaneiates, she was preoccupied with the future of her son by Michael VII, furthermore, to aid the conspiracy Maria had adopted Alexios as her son, though she was only five years older than he. Maria was persuaded to do so on the advice of her own Alans and her eunuchs, given Annas tight hold on her family, Alexios must have been adopted with her implicit approval. As a result and Constantine, Marias son, were now adoptive brothers, by secretly giving inside information to the Komnenoi, Maria was an invaluable ally.
As stated in the Alexiad and Alexios left Constantinople in mid-February 1081 to raise an army against Botaneiates, when the time came, Anna quickly and surreptitiously mobilized the remainder of the family and took refuge in the Hagia Sophia. From there she negotiated with the emperor for the safety of family members left in the capital, the tutor discovered they were missing and eventually found them on the palace grounds, but Anna was able to convince him that they would return to the palace shortly. However, before they were to gain entry into the sanctuary and she refused to go with them and demanded that they allow her to pray to the Mother of God for protection. This request was granted and Anna manifested her true theatrical and manipulative capabilities, Nikephoros III Botaneiates was forced into a public vow that he would grant protection to the family. Straboromanos tried to give Anna his cross, but for her it was not sufficiently enough for all bystanders to witness the oath. She demanded that the cross be personally sent by Botaneiates as a vow of his good faith and he obliged, sending a complete assurance for the family with his own cross
Romanos IV Diogenes
While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, and when released he was quickly defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was blinded and sent to a monastery, Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes and a member of a prominent and powerful Cappadocian family, connected by birth to most of the great aristocratic nobles in Asia Minor. His mother was a daughter of Basil Argyros, brother of the emperor Romanos III, courageous and generous, but impetuous, Romanos rose with distinction in the army due to his military talents, and he served on the Danubian frontier. However, he was convicted of attempting to usurp the throne of the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. The problem Romanos and Eudokia had in executing this plan was that Eudokias deceased husband, the Senate agreed, and on January 1,1068 Romanos married the empress and was crowned Emperor of the Romans. Romanos IV was now the emperor and guardian of his stepsons and junior co-emperors, Michael VII, Konstantios Doukas.
By 1067, the Turks had been making incursions at will into Mesopotamia, Syria and Cappadocia, culminating with the sack of Caesarea and that winter they camped on the frontiers of the empire and waited for the next years campaigning season. Romanos was confident of Byzantine superiority on the field of battle and he did not take into account the degraded state of the Byzantine forces, which had suffered years of neglect from his predecessors, in particular Constantine X. It was soon evident that while Romanos possessed military talent, his impetuosity was a serious flaw, the first military operations of Romanos did achieve a measure of success, reinforcing his opinions about the outcome of the war. Antioch was exposed to the Saracens of Aleppo who, with help from Turkish troops, returning south, Romanos rejoined the main army, and they continued their advance through the passes of Mount Taurus to the north of Germanicia and proceeded to invade the Emirate of Aleppo. Romanos captured Hierapolis, which he fortified to provide protection against further incursions into the provinces of the empire.
He engaged in fighting against the Saracens of Aleppo. With the campaigning season reaching its end, Romanos returned north via Alexandretta, here he was advised of another Seljuk raid into Asia Minor in which they sacked Amorium but returned to their base so fast that Romanos was in no position to give chase. He eventually reached Constantinople by January 1069, possibly due to Romanos not paying them on time, they began plundering the countryside near where they were stationed at Edessa, and attacking the imperial tax collectors. Although Crispin was captured and exiled to Abydos, the Franks continued to ravage the Armeniac Theme for some time, in the meantime, the land around Caesarea was again overrun by the Turks, forcing Romanos to spend precious time and energy in expelling the Turks from Cappadocia. Desperate to begin his campaign proper, he ordered the execution of all prisoners, philaretos was soon defeated by the Turks, whose sack of Iconium forced Romanos to abandon his plans and return to Sebaste.
He sent orders to the Dux of Antioch to secure the passes at Mopsuestia, the Turks were soon hemmed in in the mountains of Cilicia, but they managed to escape to Aleppo after abandoning their plunder. Romanos once again returned to Constantinople without the great victory he was hoping for, Romanos was detained at Constantinople in 1070, while he dealt with many outstanding administrative issues, including the imminent fall of Bari into Norman hands
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium is a three volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press. It contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire and it was edited by Dr. Alexander Kazhdan, and was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington and he contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A. K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online and it covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important social and religious events. It includes biographies of eminent political and literary personalities and describes in detail religious, cultural topics include music and the arts
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Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates, was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. He belonged to a family claiming descent from the Byzantine Phokas family, Nikephoros Botaneiates had served as general from the reign of Constantine IX. Drawn to politics, he had been a participant in the uprising that brought Isaac I to the throne in 1057. Although considered a competent general, he had suffered a number of humiliating setbacks throughout his career. In 1064, he, together with Basil Apokapes, doux of Paradounavon, defended the Balkan frontiers against the invading Oghuz Turks, but was defeated and suffered the humiliation of being taken captive. The outbreak of an epidemic soon began decimating the Turks, however, in 1067, Nikephoros had been considered as a possible husband for the empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, widowed wife of Constantine X, but she eventually set her heart on Romanos IV Diogenes. Excluded from Romanoss campaign at Manzikert, he retired to his estates in Anatolia, under Michael VII Doukas, he became strategos of the Anatolic theme and commander of the troops in Asia Minor.
In 1078 he revolted against Michael VII and his finance minister Nikephoritzes, with the support of the Seljuk Turks, who provided him with valuable troops, he marched upon Nicaea, where he proclaimed himself emperor. In the face of another general, Nikephoros Bryennios, his election was ratified by the aristocracy and clergy, while Michael VII abdicated. On 24 March 1078, Nikephoros III Botaneiates entered Constantinople in triumph and was crowned by Patriarch Kosmas I of Constantinople, with the help of his general Alexios Komnenos, he defeated Bryennios and other rivals but failed to clear the invading Turks out of Asia Minor. To solidify his position after the death of his wife, Nikephoros III sought to marry Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the mother of Michael VII. Nikephoros administration did not win him support, as his favored courtiers alienated much of the older court bureaucracy. Apart from the discontent of the Byzantine aristocracy, several Armenian princes in Asia Minor attempted to establish their independence from the empire, two Paulician leaders launched their own rebellion in Thrace, in a brutal religious conflict that was not easily suppressed.
The deposed emperor retired into the monastery he had endowed at the Church of St. Mary Peribleptos, where he died the same year
Isaac I Komnenos
Isaac I Komnenos was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenos dynasty. During his brief reign he attempted to restore the finances of the empire. Isaac was the son of Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, who served as strategos autokrator of the East under Emperor Basil II. Manuels native language was Greek, according to Steven Runciman, he was either Greek or a Hellenized Vlach and it is said that the family name was derived from the city of Komne, near Philippopolis in Thrace. Manuel came to the notice of Basil II because of his defence, in 978, in recognition of Manuels loyalty, Basil gave him lands near Kastamuni in Paphlagonia. On his deathbed in 1020, Manuel commended his two surviving sons Isaac and John to the emperors care, Basil had them carefully educated at the monastery of Stoudion and afterwards advanced them to high official positions. Manuel had a daughter, born in 1012 and married around 1031 to Michael Dokeianos, Catepan of Italy, during the disturbed reigns of Basils seven immediate successors, Isaac by his prudent conduct won the confidence of the army.
From 1042 to 1057, he served as commander of the army in Anatolia. In 1057, after being humiliated by the Emperor, Michael VI, he rebelled in Paphlagonia, the army proclaimed Isaac emperor on June 8,1057, and he defeated an imperial army at the Battle of Petroe. Privately Isaac showed himself more open to negotiation, and he was promised the status of co-emperor, during the course of these secret negotiations, a riot in favor of Isaac broke out in Constantinople. With the deposition of Michael VI, Patriarch Michael Keroularios crowned Isaac I emperor on September 1,1057, taking much of the credit for Isaacs acceptance as monarch. The first act of the new emperor was to reward his noble partisans with appointments that removed them from Constantinople, Isaacs only military expedition was against King Andrew I of Hungary and the Pechenegs, who began to ravage the northern frontiers in 1059. Shortly after this campaign, he concluded peace with the Kingdom of Hungary. Here he became ill, and believed he was dying.
He was already deeply shaken after narrowly avoiding being struck by lightning while leaning against a tree on campaign against the Pechenegs, and he saw his illness as a sign of Gods displeasure. This situation was exploited by the courtiers, led by Michael Psellos, Isaac abdicated on 22 November 1059, against the wishes of his brother and of his empress Catherine of Bulgaria. Like Isaac, his wife and daughter entered a monastery and his Scholia to the Iliad and other works on the Homeric poems are still extant. He died late in 1060 or early in 1061, Isaac married Catherine, a daughter of Ivan Vladislav, the last Tsar of Bulgaria
Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. The ecumenical patriarchs in ancient times helped in the spread of Christianity, in the Middle Ages they played a major role in the affairs of the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as in the politics of the Orthodox world, and in spreading Christianity among the Slavs. Within the five sees of the Pentarchy, the Ecumenical Patriarch is regarded as the successor of Andrew the Apostle. The current holder of the office is Bartholomew I, the 270th holder of the title, in his role as head of the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, he holds the title Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome. The see of Byzantium, whose foundation was ascribed to Andrew the Apostle, was originally a common bishopric. It gained importance when Emperor Constantine elevated Byzantium to a second capital alongside Rome, the sees ecclesiastical status as the second of five Patriarchates were developed by the Ecumenical Councils of Constantinople in 381 and Chalcedon in 451.
The Turkish government recognizes him as the leader of the Greek minority in Turkey. The Patriarch was subject to the authority of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, according to Turkish law, he is subject to the authority of the state of Turkey and is required to be a citizen of Turkey to be Patriarch. The Patriarch of Constantinople has been dubbed the Ecumenical Patriarch since the 6th century, the monastic communities of Mount Athos are stauropegic and are directly under the jurisdiction of Ecumenical Patriarch, who is the only bishop with jurisdiction thereover. The Ecumenical Patriarch has a role among Orthodox bishops, though it is not without its controversy. He is primus inter pares, as he is senior among all Orthodox bishops and this primacy, expressed in canonical literature as presbeia, grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to preside at pan-Orthodox synods. Additionally, the literature of the Orthodox Church grants to the Ecumenical Patriarch the right to hear appeals in cases of dispute between bishops.
Historically, the Ecumenical Patriarch has heard such appeals and sometimes was invited to intervene in other disputes and difficulties. Even as early as the 4th century, Constantinople was instrumental in the deposition of multiple bishops outside its traditional jurisdiction. This still occurs today, as when in 2006 the patriarchate was invited to assist in declaring the archbishop of the Church of Cyprus incompetent due to his having Alzheimers disease. Additionally, in 2005, the Ecumenical Patriarchate convoked a synod to express the Orthodox worlds confirmation of the deposition of Patriarch Irenaios of Jerusalem. That is, his role is one of promoting and sustaining Church unity. Such a title is acceptable if it refers to this unique role, the five patriarchs of the ancient Pentarchy are to be given seniority of honour, but have no actual power over other bishops other than the power of the synod they are chairing
Michael VI Bringas
Michael VI Bringas, called Stratiotikos or Stratioticus or Gerontas, reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1056 to 1057. Apparently a relative of the powerful courtier Joseph Bringas, Michael Bringas was an elderly patrician, Michael Bringas was chosen by the empress Theodora as her successor shortly before her death in early September,1056. The appointment had been secured through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos, although Michael managed to survive a conspiracy organized by Theodosios, a nephew of the former emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, he was faced with the disaffection of the military aristocracy. After dismissing Bryennioss grievances in an audience, the emperor completely alienated the military, Michael compounded his error by rebuffing Bryennios after he had already ordered the restored general to lead a division of 3,000 men to reinforce the army in Cappadocia. Although Michael lost heart, the bureaucrats around him attempted to defend their position, on 26 August 1057, the governments army was routed at the Battle of Petroe near Nicaea, and Isaac Komnenos advanced on Constantinople.
Privately Isaac showed himself more open to negotiation, and he was promised the status of co-emperor, during the course of these secret negotiations, a riot in favor of Isaac broke out in Constantinople. Patriarch Michael Keroularios convinced Michael VI to abdicate in Isaacs favor on 31 August 1057, the emperor duly followed the patriarchs advice and became a monk. He retired to his home and died there by 1059. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. article name needed