The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
Ernest Orlando Lawrence was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron. He is known for his work on uranium-isotope separation for the Manhattan Project, as well as for founding the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A graduate of the University of South Dakota and University of Minnesota, Lawrence obtained a PhD in physics at Yale in 1925. In 1928, he was hired as an associate professor of physics at the University of California, becoming the youngest full professor there two years later. In its library one evening, Lawrence was intrigued by a diagram of an accelerator that produced high-energy particles, he contemplated how it could be made compact, came up with an idea for a circular accelerating chamber between the poles of an electromagnet. The result was the first cyclotron. Lawrence went on to build a series of larger and more expensive cyclotrons, his Radiation Laboratory became an official department of the University of California in 1936, with Lawrence as its director.
In addition to the use of the cyclotron for physics, Lawrence supported its use in research into medical uses of radioisotopes. During World War II, Lawrence developed electromagnetic isotope separation at the Radiation Laboratory, it used devices known as calutrons, a hybrid of the standard laboratory mass spectrometer and cyclotron. A huge electromagnetic separation plant was built at Oak Ridge, which came to be called Y-12; the process was inefficient. After the war, Lawrence campaigned extensively for government sponsorship of large scientific programs, was a forceful advocate of "Big Science", with its requirements for big machines and big money. Lawrence backed Edward Teller's campaign for a second nuclear weapons laboratory, which Lawrence located in Livermore, California. After his death, the Regents of the University of California renamed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory after him. Chemical element number 103 was named lawrencium in his honor after its discovery at Berkeley in 1961.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence was born in Canton, South Dakota on August 8, 1901. His parents, Carl Gustavus and Gunda Lawrence, were both the offspring of Norwegian immigrants who had met while teaching at the high school in Canton, where his father was the superintendent of schools, he had a younger brother, John H. Lawrence, who would become a physician, was a pioneer in the field of nuclear medicine. Growing up, his best friend was Merle Tuve, who would go on to become a accomplished physicist. Lawrence attended the public schools of Canton and Pierre enrolled at St. Olaf College in Northfield, but transferred after a year to the University of South Dakota in Vermillion, he completed his bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1922, his Master of Arts degree in physics from the University of Minnesota in 1923 under the supervision of William Francis Gray Swann. For his master's thesis, Lawrence built an experimental apparatus that rotated an ellipsoid through a magnetic field. Lawrence followed Swann to the University of Chicago, to Yale University in New Haven, where Lawrence completed his Doctor of Philosophy degree in physics in 1925 as a Sloane Fellow, writing his doctoral thesis on the photoelectric effect in potassium vapor.
He was elected a member of Sigma Xi, and, on Swann's recommendation, received a National Research Council fellowship. Instead of using it to travel to Europe, as was customary at the time, he remained at Yale University with Swann as a researcher. With Jesse Beams from the University of Virginia, Lawrence continued to research the photoelectric effect, they showed that photoelectrons appeared within 2 x 10−9 seconds of the photons striking the photoelectric surface—close to the limit of measurement at the time. Reducing the emission time by switching the light source on and off made the spectrum of energy emitted broader, in conformance with Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In 1926 and 1927, Lawrence received offers of assistant professorships from the University of Washington in Seattle and the University of California at a salary of $3,500 per annum. Yale promptly matched the offer of the assistant professorship, but at a salary of $3,000. Lawrence chose to stay at the more prestigious Yale, but because he had never been an instructor, the appointment was resented by some of his fellow faculty, in the eyes of many it still did not compensate for his South Dakota immigrant background.
Lawrence was hired as an associate professor of physics at the University of California in 1928, two years became a full professor, becoming the university's youngest professor. Robert Gordon Sproul, who became university president the day after Lawrence became a professor, was a member of the Bohemian Club, he sponsored Lawrence's membership in 1932. Through this club, Lawrence met William Henry Crocker, Edwin Pauley, John Francis Neylan, they were influential men who helped him obtain money for his energetic nuclear particle investigations. There was great hope for medical uses to come from the development of particle physics, this led to much of the early funding for advances Lawrence was able to obtain. While at Yale, Lawrence met Mary Kimberly Blumer, the eldest of four daughters of George Blumer, the dean of the Yale School of Medicine, they first met in 1926 and became engaged in 1931, were married on May 14, 1932, at Trinity Church on the Green in New Haven, Connecticut. They had six children: Eric, Mary, Robert and Susan.
Lawrence named his son Robert after theoretical phys
History of astronomy
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, cosmological and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy. It was not separated in Europe during the Copernican Revolution starting in 1543. In some cultures, astronomical data was used for astrological prognostication. Ancient astronomers were able to differentiate between stars and planets, as stars remain fixed over the centuries while planets will move an appreciable amount during a comparatively short time. Early cultures identified celestial objects with spirits, they related these objects to phenomena such as rain, drought and tides. It is believed that the first astronomers were priests, that they understood celestial objects and events to be manifestations of the divine, hence early astronomy's connection to what is now called astrology. Ancient structures with astronomical alignments fulfilled astronomical and social functions.
Calendars of the world have been set by observations of the Sun and Moon, were important to agricultural societies, in which the harvest depended on planting at the correct time of year, for which the nearly full moon was the only lighting for night-time travel into city markets. The common modern calendar is based on the Roman calendar. Although a lunar calendar, it broke the traditional link of the month to the phases of the Moon and divided the year into twelve almost-equal months, that alternated between thirty and thirty-one days. Julius Caesar instigated calendar reform in 46 BCE and introduced what is now called the Julian calendar, based upon the 365 1⁄4 day year length proposed by the 4th century BCE Greek astronomer Callippus. Since 1990 our understanding of prehistoric Europeans has been radically changed by discoveries of ancient astronomical artifacts throughout Europe; the artifacts demonstrate that Neolithic and Bronze Age Europeans had a sophisticated knowledge of mathematics and astronomy.
Among the discoveries are: Paleolithic archaeologist Alexander Marshack put forward a theory in 1972 that bone sticks from locations like Africa and Europe from as long ago as 35,000 BCE could be marked in ways that tracked the Moon's phases, an interpretation that has met with criticism. The Warren Field calendar in the Dee River valley of Scotland's Aberdeenshire. First excavated in 2004 but only in 2013 revealed as a find of huge significance, it is to date the world's oldest known calendar, created around 8000 BC and predating all other calendars by some 5,000 years; the calendar takes the form of an early Mesolithic monument containing a series of 12 pits which appear to help the observer track lunar months by mimicking the phases of the Moon. It aligns to sunrise at the winter solstice, thus coordinating the solar year with the lunar cycles; the monument had been maintained and periodically reshaped up to hundreds of times, in response to shifting solar/lunar cycles, over the course of 6,000 years, until the calendar fell out of use around 4,000 years ago.
Goseck circle belongs to the linear pottery culture. First discovered in 1991, its significance was only clear after results from archaeological digs became available in 2004; the site is one of hundreds of similar circular enclosures built in a region encompassing Austria and the Czech Republic during a 200-year period starting shortly after 5000 BC. The Nebra sky disc is a Bronze Age bronze disc, buried in Germany, not far from the Goseck circle, around 1600 BC, it measures about 30 cm diameter with a mass of 2.2 kg and displays a blue-green patina inlaid with gold symbols. Found by archeological thieves in 1999 and recovered in Switzerland in 2002, it was soon recognized as a spectacular discovery, among the most important of the 20th century. Investigations revealed that the object had been in use around 400 years before burial, but that its use had been forgotten by the time of burial; the inlaid gold depicted the full moon, a crescent moon about 4 or 5 days old, the Pleiades star cluster in a specific arrangement forming the earliest known depiction of celestial phenomena.
Twelve lunar months pass in 354 days, requiring a calendar to insert a leap month every two or three years in order to keep synchronized with the solar year's seasons. The earliest known descriptions of this coordination were recorded by the Babylonians in 6th or 7th centuries BC, over one thousand years later; those descriptions verified ancient knowledge of the Nebra sky disc's celestial depiction as the precise arrangement needed to judge when to insert the intercalary month into a lunisolar calendar, making it an astronomical clock for regulating such a calendar a thousand or more years before any other known method. The Kokino site, discovered in 2001, sits atop an extinct volcanic cone at an elevation of 1,013 metres, occupying about 0.5 hectares overlooking the surrounding countryside in North Macedonia. A Bronze Age astronomical observatory was constructed there around 1900 BC and continuously served the nearby community that lived there until about 700 BC; the central space was used to observe the rising of full moon.
Three markings locate sunrise at the two equinoxes. Four more give the minimum and maximum declinations of the full moon: in summer, in winter. Two measure the lengths of lunar months. Together, they reconcile solar and lun
Lowell High School (San Francisco)
Lowell High School is a selective co-educational, public magnet school in San Francisco, California with 2,600 students. The school opened in 1856 as the Union Grammar School and attained its current name in 1896. Lowell moved to its current location in the Merced Manor neighborhood in 1962, it is the oldest public high school west of the Mississippi. Admission is contingent on submission of an application and based on evaluation of test scores and prior academic record. Lowell High School has been named a California Distinguished School seven times and a National Blue Ribbon School four times. Lowell High School began in 1856 as the Union Grammar School. In 1894, the school was renamed to honor the distinguished poet James Russell Lowell, chiefly by Pelham W. Ames, a member of the school board and ardent admirer of James Russell Lowell; the school relocated in January 1913 to an entire block on Hayes Street between Masonic. Lowell remained there for 50 years and established its position as the city's college preparatory high school.
In 1952, the school sought a new location near Lake Merced and moved there in 1962. 1856 Union Grammar School Founded 1858 Name changed to San Francisco High School 1864 Genders separated, name changed to Boys High School 1875 Moved to Sutter Street between Gough and Octavia 1886 Girls reintegrated into college prep program 1894 Name changed to Lowell High School in honor of poet James Russell Lowell 1898 First issue of the school newspaper "The Lowell" published 1908 Funds secured by bonds for new building 1913 School moved to new, larger campus on Hayes Street between Masonic Avenue and Ashbury Street 1962 School moved to current campus to make room for future expansion and add a library and larger auditorium 1966 Enrollment limited, school switched from neighborhood to GPA/test based admission 1969 20-period modular schedule instated 2003 New academic/science wing opened on campus 2004 Unit 6 building section renovation completed. U. S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer visited. 2010 Because of state class-time requirements, modular schedule abandoned in favor of mod/block schedule.
School day lengthened to twenty three minutes. Lowell ranked 2nd internationally in AP exam scores. 2019 Citing student stress, Principal Andrew Ishibashi abandons mod/block scheduling for block scheduling. School day is shortened to forty minutes. In 1983, the San Francisco Unified School District attempted to ensure racial desegregation at Lowell and other schools by implementing a race-based admissions policy as a result of San Francisco NAACP v. San Francisco Unified School District and the 1983 Consent Decree settlement; because of the Consent Decree, SFUSD strived to create a more equal distribution of race at Lowell, predominantly Chinese American trying to introduce more African American and Hispanic students into the school's population. As a result of this policy, effective in 1985, Chinese-American freshman applicants needed to score 62 out of a possible total of 69 eligibility points, whereas Caucasian and other East Asian candidates needed only 58 points. In 1994, a group of Chinese-American community activists organized a lawsuit to challenge the 1983 Consent Decree race-based admissions policies used by SFUSD for its public schools.
The lawsuit was led by Lee Cheng. In 1999, both parties agreed to a settlement which modified the 1983 Consent Decree to create a new "diversity index" system which substituted race as a factor for admissions with a variety of factors such as socioeconomic background, mother's educational level, academic achievement, language spoken at home, English Learner Status. Critics of the diversity index created by Ho v. San Francisco Unified School District point out that many schools, including Lowell, have become less racially diverse since it was enacted. On November 15, 2005, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California denied a request to extend the Consent Decree, set to expire on December 31, 2005 after it had been extended once before to December 31, 2002; the ruling claimed "since the settlement of the Ho litigation, the consent decree has proven to be ineffective, if not counterproductive, in achieving diversity in San Francisco public schools" by making schools more racially segregated.
The expiration of the Consent Decree means that SFUSD's admissions policies, including the "diversity index" and the special admissions policies granted to Lowell, many of its "Dream School" initiatives are no longer codified and mandated by the Consent Decree. As a result, these policies may be challenged at the community and local levels as well instead of just at the judicial level by filing a lawsuit. Lowell is located north of Lake Merced, south of San Francisco's Parkside District; the school spans several blocks between Sylvan Dr. in the west and 25th Ave. in the east, Eucalyptus Drive in the north to Winston Drive and Lake Merced Blvd. in the south. The school is accessible via the San Francisco Municipal Railway K, M, 57, 18, 23, 28, 28R, 29 lines; the campus is located next to Lakeshore Elementary School, a public school, St. Stephen School, a private K-8 school; the campus itself consists of a main three-story academic building with two extensions, a two-story science building finished on September 21, 2003, a world-language building, a two-story visual and performing arts building with the 1,500-seat Carol Channing auditorium, a library, extensive arts and science laboratories, six computer labs, a fo
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was renamed the Max Planck Society; the MPS now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions. Planck came from a intellectual family, his paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen. One of his uncles was a judge. Planck was born in Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig, he was baptized with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck. However, by the age of ten he used this for the rest of his life, he was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage.
War was common during Planck's early years and among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Second Schleswig War in 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics, it was from Müller. Planck graduated early, at age 17; this is. Planck was gifted, he took singing lessons and played piano and cello, composed songs and operas. However, instead of music he chose to study physics; the Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field everything is discovered, all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, but only to understand the known fundamentals of the field, so began his studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics.
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz was never quite prepared, spoke miscalculated endlessly, bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in prepared lectures which were dry and monotonous, he soon became close friends with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose thermodynamics as his field. In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, he taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich. By the year 1880, Planck obtained two highest academic degrees offered in Europe; the first was a doctorate degree after he completed his paper detailing his research and theory of thermodynamics. He presented his thesis called Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen Temperaturen, which earned him a habilitation.
With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an unpaid Privatdozent in Munich, waiting until he was offered an academic position. Although he was ignored by the academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a central role in his work. In April 1885 the University of Kiel appointed Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its treatment as applied in physical chemistry, followed, he published his Treatise on Thermodynamics in 1897. He proposed a thermodynamic basis for Svante Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissociation. In 1889 he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin – thanks to Helmholtz's intercession – and by 1892 became a full professor. In 1907 Planck turned it down to stay in Berlin. During 1909, as a University of Berlin professor, he was invited to become the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer in Theoretical Physics at Columbia University in New York City.
A series of his lectures were translated and co-published by Columbia University professor A. P. Wills, he retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck, sister of a school fellow, moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel, they had four children: Karl, the twins Emma and Grete, Erwin. After the apartment in Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstrasse 21. Several other professors from University of Berlin lived nearby, among them theologian Ad