Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, United States,92 miles southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 5,575, the city is the county seat of Cochise County. Bisbee was founded as a copper and silver mining town in 1880, in 1929, the county seat was moved from Tombstone to Bisbee, where it remains. Mining in the Mule Mountains proved quite successful, in the early 20th century the population of Bisbee soared, in 1917, open-pit mining was successfully introduced to meet the copper demand during World War I. A high quality turquoise promoted as Bisbee Blue was a by-product of the copper mining, many high-quality mineral specimens have come from Bisbee area mines and are to be found in museum collections worldwide. Some of these include, aragonite, malachite, azurite. Miners attempted to organize to gain better working conditions and wages, earlier that year, industry police conducted the Jerome Deportation, a similar event to expel striking miners. Continued underground work enabled the town to survive changes in mining, neighboring towns had mines that closed, with a resulting dramatic loss of population.
But, by 1950, the population of Bisbee had dropped to less than 6,000, in 1975 the Phelps Dodge Corporation halted its Bisbee copper-mining operations. They worked to compensate for the loss due to the end of the mining industry in the area. Community volunteers cleared tons of rock and re-timbered the old workings. Eventually, this effort came to the attention of the federal Economic Development Administration. It approved a grant to the City of Bisbee to help the mine tour project and other improvements in downtown Bisbee. The Queen Mine Tour was officially opened to visitors on February 1,1976, more than a million visitors, from all 50 states and more than 30 countries, have taken the underground mine tour train. From 1950 to 1960, the population decline changed and the number of residents of Bisbee increased by nearly 160 percent when open-pit mining was undertaken. The peak population was in 1960, at 9,914, in the following decade, there was a decline in jobs and population, although not as severe as from 1930 to 1950.
But, the economic volatility resulted in a crash in housing prices, coupled with an attractive climate and picturesque scenery, Bisbee became a destination in the 1960s for artists and hippies of the counter culture. Artist Stephen Hutchison and his wife Marcia purchased the Copper Queen Hotel, the company had tried to find a local buyer, offering the deed to any local resident for the sum of $1, but there were no takers
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts and people that are the news of the day and that informs society to at least some degree. The word applies to the occupation, the methods of gathering information, journalistic media include, television, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the role for journalism varies between countries. In some nations, the media is controlled by a government intervention. In others, the media is independent from the government. In the United States, journalism is protected by the freedom of the clause in the First Amendment. The role and status of journalism, along with that of the media, has undergone changes over the last two decades with the advent of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet. Notably, in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced their staff and coverage as traditional media channels, such as television, for instance, between 2007 and 2012, CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of their original time length.
This compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience attrition, in the United States, journalism is produced by media organizations or by individuals. Bloggers are often, but not always, the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who receive free promotional gifts, write about products, must disclose that they received the products for free. This is to eliminate conflicts of interest and protect consumers, fake news is news that is not truthful or is produced by unreliable media organizations. Fake news is spread on social media. Readers can determine fake news by evaluating whether the news has been published by a news organization. In the US, a news organization is an incorporated entity, has an editorial board. All of these organizations have codes of ethics that members abide by, many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists professional publications. The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered particularly rigorous, when they write stories, journalists are concerned with issues of objectivity and bias.
Some types of stories are intended to represent the authors own opinion, in a physical newspaper, information is organized into sections and it is easy to see which stories are supposed to be opinion and which are supposed to be neutral. Online, many of these distinctions break down, readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalists intent
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of liberal/progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It is published by The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place and it is associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has bureaus in Washington, D. C, London and South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, and the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, the Nation was established in July 1865 on Newspaper Row at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. The publisher was Joseph H. Richards, and the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmens Bureau, and ordinary people he met by the side of the road. The articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as examples of masterly journalism, closely related to this was the publications advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system.
Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906, the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post. The offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Posts headquarters at 210 Broadway, in 1900, Henry Villards son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, selling off the latter in 1918. Villards takeover prompted the FBI to monitor the magazine for roughly 50 years, the FBI had a file on Villard from 1915. Villard sold the magazine in 1935 and it became a nonprofit in 1943. Almost every editor of The Nation from Villards time to the 1970s was looked at for subversive activities and ties. S, during the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences.
Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, before Pearl Harbor, The Nation repeatedly called on the United States to enter World War II to resist Fascism, and after the US entered the war, supported the American war effort. It supported the use of the bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed by The Nations Freda Kirchwey, the new publication would have been called The Nation and New Republic. Kirchwey was the most hesitant, and both attempts to merge failed, the two magazines would take very different paths, with The Nation having a higher circulation and The New Republic moving more to the right. In the 1950s, The Nation was attacked as pro-communist because of its advocacy of friendship with the Soviet Union, one of the magazines writers, Louis Fischer resigned from the magazine afterwards, claiming The Nations foreign coverage was too pro-Soviet
United Press International
At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. It was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955, at the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, and 1,500 abroad. In 1958 it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service, at its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees, and 200 news bureaus in 92 countries, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. With the rising popularity of news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category. Its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company, the E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearsts smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982, since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization.
With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus, since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches. It no longer services media organizations in a major way, in 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, UPIs content is presented in text and photo formats, in the English and Arabic languages. UPIs main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States, Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, Scripps United Press was considered a scrappy alternative news source to the AP. UP reporters were called Unipressers and were noted for their aggressive and competitive streak. UP became a training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and that was part of the spirit. But we knew we could do a good job despite that
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Phelps Dodge Corporation was an American mining company founded in 1834 as an import-export firm by Anson Greene Phelps and his two British sons-in-law William Earle Dodge, Sr. and Daniel James. The latter two ran Phelp, James & Co. the part of the based in Liverpool. The import-export firm at first exported United States cotton from the Deep South to England, with the expansion of the western frontier in North America, the corporation acquired mines and mining companies, including the Copper Queen Mine in Arizona and the Dawson, New Mexico coal mines. It operated its own mines and acquired railroads to carry its products, by the late 19th century, it was known as a mining company. On March 19,2007, it was acquired by Freeport-McMoRan, Anson G. Phelps started a partnership in New York City during 1821 with Elisha Peck, a merchant who had been in trade in Berlin, Connecticut. In 1834 Peck left the business and was replaced in Liverpool by Daniel James and it was at this time that the concern of Phelps Dodge and Company was begun.
When Anson G. Phelps passed, his sons-in-law purchased his portion of the company, but retained the name, in 1880, the company invested in the Detroit Copper Company of Clifton, AZ, at the time a very small copper camp in eastern Arizona Territory. Phelps-Dodge interested Dr. James Douglas of Phoenixville, Pennsylvania to inspect the property, Dr. Douglas inspected the Detroit Copper Co of Clifton and ventured south to the Warren District. On his advice Phelps-Dodge began its own mining operations in the Warren District with the purchase of the Atlanta Copper Mine in 1882, when both mines discovered the same ore body, instead of fighting over it, they merged in 1885, creating the Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Company. The Copper Queen Mine in Bisbee, became one of the most productive in the state of the early 20th century, the company focused largely on providing copper wire and cables to industry, products that were in high demand as the Industrial Revolution took hold. As the company diversified, it began investing in new railroads, essential in the efforts to become established in the West.
It used its own lines to transport products to and from major railroads for its markets on the eastern/northeastern shores. In 1895, the first contract was signed by Phelps Dodge and Company and this economically symbiotic relationship lasted until 1922, in which Phelps Dodge provided 90% of the blister copper Nichols Copper Company used to produce 100% pure copper. During the 1920s, Phelps Dodge invested $3.5 million in the Nichols Copper Companys plant modernization projects in exchange for stock in Nichols Copper Company and this dramatically increased copper production of the plant. In 1930, Dr. William Henry Nichols died, Phelps Dodge purchased the Laurel Hill plant that same year. During the late 19th century, in concert with its metal interests, in Tombstone, Arizona during 1900 E. B. Gage, Frank Murphy, and William Staunton consolidated their various mining properties into a single entity and they worked to drain mines that had filled with water, laid a rail spur into town, and revived mining.
They experienced some success until the pumps failed in 1909, the new company filed for bankruptcy and the Phelps-Dodge Corporation acquired its claims
Julia Carolyn Child was an American chef and television personality. A press release issued by Smith in 2004 states that her major was history, Child grew up with a cook who served her family. She did not observe or learn how to cook from the familys chef and her grandmother from Illinois would make doughnuts and crullers. Child did not learn to cook until she met her husband, Paul. Following her graduation from college, Child moved to New York City, Child joined the Office of Strategic Services after finding that she was too tall to enlist in the Womens Army Corps or in the U. S. Navys WAVES. As a research assistant in the Secret Intelligence division, she typed 10,000 names on white note cards to keep track of officers. She was posted to Kunming, where she received the Emblem of Meritorious Civilian Service as head of the Registry of the OSS Secretariat, still in use today, the experimental shark repellent marked Childs first foray into the world of cooking. For her service, Child received an award that cited her many virtues, including her drive, as with other OSS records, her file was declassified in 2008, unlike other files, her complete file is available online.
While in Kunming, she met Paul Cushing Child, an OSS employee, a New Jersey native who had lived in Paris as an artist and poet, Paul was known for his sophisticated palate, and introduced his wife to fine cuisine. He joined the United States Foreign Service, and in 1948 the couple moved to Paris when the US State Department assigned Paul there as an officer with the United States Information Agency. In Paris, she attended the famous Le Cordon Bleu cooking school and studied privately with Max Bugnard and she joined the womens cooking club Le Cercle des Gourmettes, through which she met Simone Beck, who was writing a French cookbook for Americans with her friend Louisette Bertholle. Beck proposed that Child work with them, to make the appeal to Americans. In 1951, Child and Bertholle began to teach cooking to American women in Childs Paris kitchen, for the next decade, as the Childs moved around Europe and finally to Cambridge, the three researched and repeatedly tested recipes. Child translated the French into English, making the recipes detailed, interesting, in 1963, the Childs built a home near the Provence town of Plascassier in the hills above Cannes on property belonging to co-author Simone Beck and her husband, Jean Fischbacher.
The Childs named it La Pitchoune, a Provençal word meaning the little one, the three would-be authors initially signed a contract with publisher Houghton Mifflin, which rejected the manuscript for seeming too much like an encyclopedia. Lauded for its illustrations and precise attention to detail, and for making fine cuisine accessible. Following this success, Child wrote magazine articles and a column for The Boston Globe newspaper. She would go on to publish nearly twenty titles under her name, though not all, were related to her television shows
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply