Moderator of the General Assembly
The moderator of the General Assembly is the chairperson of a General Assembly, the highest court of a presbyterian or reformed church. Kirk sessions and presbyteries may style the chairperson as moderator. Presbyterian churches are ordered by a presbyterian polity, including a hierarchy of councils or courts of elders, from the local church Session through presbyteries to a General Assembly; the moderator presides over the meeting of the court, much as a convener presides over the meeting of a church committee. The moderator is thus the chairperson, is understood to be a member of the court acting primus inter pares; the moderator calls and constitutes meetings, presides at them, closes them in prayer. The moderator has a casting, but not a deliberative vote. During a meeting, the title moderator is used by all other members of the court as a form of address, but this may not be continued outside the meetings, thus this convention expresses deference to the authority of the court rather than an honour for the moderator as an individual.
Many moderators act as ambassadors for their general assembly when it is not sitting, visit many of the local churches in their denomination. Lists of moderators of the General Assembly: Church of Scotland Presbyterian Church in the United States of America Presbyterian Church in the United States United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America Presbyterian Church Other articles: Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland Moderators and clerks in the Church of Scotland Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland Equivalent elected chairs in united churches with Presbyterian roots: Moderator of the United Church of Canada The presiding bishop of the Church of North India The presiding bishop of the Church of South India The President of Assembly of the Uniting Church in Australia McHugh, J. A.. "Presbyterianism". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Westminster Assembly, 1645 "The Form of Presbyterial Church-Government" online at reformed.org
John Laird (American politician)
John Laird was Secretary of the California Natural Resources Agency from 2011-2019 and a former legislator who represented the 27th district in the California State Assembly until 2008. The 27th district stretches from Santa Cruz County down through the Monterey Bay and down the coast below the San Luis Obispo County line into Santa Barbara County. Laird was one of the first two gay men to serve in the California legislature. Laird become one of the United States first gay mayors in 1983 when he took over the mayoralty of the city of Santa Cruz, California. Laird was raised in Vallejo and educated in Vallejo public schools. Laird's parents were both educators, he graduated from Adlai Stevenson College of the University of California Santa Cruz in 1972 with an A. B. in Politics with general college honors, honors from the Board of Politics, honors on an undergraduate thesis on the history of water development in California. Laird served for two years on the district staff of United States Representative Jerome Waldie, worked during the summer of 1974 for Rep. Bill Gunter of Florida in his run for the U.
S. Senate. Laird moved to Santa Cruz and joined the staff of the Santa Cruz County Administrator in 1974 and served in the personnel and social services departments. In 1981, Laird received the most votes in a field of eight to be elected to a seat on the Santa Cruz City Council, he was re-elected as top vote-getter in 1985, serving until term limits ended his Council service in 1990. He was elected by the City Council to one-year Mayor's terms in 1983–84 and 1987–88. During his time on the Santa Cruz City Council, he worked with the environmental organization Save Our Shores to lead local governments in the fight against proposed offshore oil drilling and in favor of the designation of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Laird ran unopposed in the 2002 Democratic primary and won election to the California Assembly. Laird served as chair of both the Assembly Budget Committee and the Special Session Committee on Budget Process, he served on the Judiciary Committee, the Labor and Employment Committee, the Natural Resources Committee.
Before being elected to the assembly in 2002, Laird served as an elected member of the Cabrillo College Board of Trustees from 1994 to his election to the Assembly in 2002. He was re-elected to the assembly in 2004 and 2006 before being termed out in 2008, his election campaigns have won the backing of the Gay & Lesbian Victory Fund. Laird ran for the 15th District California State Senate seat held by Republican Abel Maldonado, whom Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger named as Lieutenant Governor in November 2009, he lost to Sam Blakeslee in a special election primary held on June 22, 2010 and subsequently in the runoff election held on August 17, 2010. Laird lost by a 7.59 % margin in a 3.93 % margin in the runoff. Laird was appointed by Governor Edmund G. Brown, Jr. on January 5, 2011 as California's Secretary for Natural Resources. Laird has been active in the Santa Cruz community, serving as Vice Chair of the City Charter Review Committee, a founder of the Santa Cruz Community Credit Union, a board member of the Santa Cruz Area Chamber of Commerce.
He has been active on a variety of community boards. He has been active with the lesbian and gay community, as a columnist for the Lavender Reader, a commentator on "Closet Free Radio", a founding member of the International Network of Gay and Lesbian Officials—and was an original board member of BAYMEC, the gay and lesbian political action committee for San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Counties. In the Assembly, he served as chair of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, he has served on the Santa Cruz Community Foundation's Advisory Committee for the Lesbian and Gay Grants Partnership. Laird lives in Santa Cruz with his spouse John Flores, he is fluent in Spanish. The Living Room Biographies Native Son: Good Times talks with Assemblymember John Laird about how he's tackling the big issues in Sacramento. Official Senate Campaign Site
John Laird (minister)
Rev Dr John Laird DD was a 19th-century Scottish minister of the Free Church of Scotland who served as Moderator of the General Assembly to the Free Church 1889/90. He was born in the manse at Portmoak on the banks of Loch Leven, the son of Rev Hugh Laird DD, his father was minister of the parish from 1802 to 1849. He studied Divinity at Edinburgh University and was ordained by the Church of Scotland at Arbroath in 1835, he was translated to Inverkeillor in 1836. He joined the Free Church of Scotland. In 1847 he became minister of the Free St George's Church in Montrose. In 1853 he translated to the Free Church in Cupar. In 1870 he organised the rebuilding of the Free Church in Cupar; this was designed by Campbell Douglas and occupied from 1875 but the huge spire was not completed until 1879. In 1889 he was elected Moderator of the General Assembly, he was succeeded in 1890 by Thomas Brown. He died in 1896. In 1840 he married Agnes Maule Anderson, their son Rev David Laird was minister of the Free Church of Durris.
Two of his brothers, A O Laird of Dundee, Henry Laird of Leslie, Fife were Free Church ministers. Two of his sisters married Free Church ministers: Rev Spiers of Kinglassie and Rev James Swinton of Portmoak
John Laird, Baron Laird
John Dunn Laird, Baron Laird, of Artigarvan was a Northern Irish politician, life peer and former chairman of the cross-border Ulster-Scots Agency. In 2013 Laird offered to lobby for a firm against parliamentary rules, he resigned from the Ulster Unionist Party. Whilst Chairman of the Ulster Young Unionist Council in 1970, Laird became the youngest member of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, after winning the seat of Belfast Saint Anne's in a by-election caused by the death of his father, Dr Norman Laird OBE, he was expelled from the Ulster Unionist Parliamentary Party in January 1972 when he voted for a Democratic Unionist Party censure motion opposing a ban on certain processions planned for The Twelfth. He topped the poll in Belfast West in the 1973 Northern Ireland Assembly election opposed to the proposals of the former Prime Minister Brian Faulkner, he repeated this feat as an Ulster Unionist candidate in the 1975 Constitutional Convention election. He established John Laird Public Relations in 1976, now called JPR, is Northern Ireland's longest established PR company still in existence.
He was created a life peer on 16 July 1999 as Baron Laird, of Artigarvan in the County of Tyrone. Laird studied at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. A proponent of Ulster Scots as a language, Lord Laird wanted road signs in Irish and Ullans on all roads in Ireland, as "parity of esteem" as signed up for under the Good Friday Agreement, he said that the Garda Síochána should be renamed to An Garda Síochána/Hannin Polis. Laird served as head of the Ulster-Scots Agency, before resigning in April 2004, in protest at a cut in government funding for the agency. Lord Laird found himself at the centre of a minor scandal in 2005, when it was revealed that while chairman of the Ulster-Scots agency, Laird had spent in excess of £2500 of public money on taxis between Belfast and Dublin. Laird sat in the House of Lords as an independent. Laird used parliamentary privilege to speak out against the Irish Republican Army in the House of Lords. In May 2005 he claimed that Phil Flynn, an advisor to the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, was active in the IRA.
In December that year he said that there were 200 IRA "sleepers" in high places in the Republic of Ireland. In November 2007 he again used parliamentary privilege to name senior IRA members who he said were responsible for the murder of south Armagh man Paul Quinn in October, he was suspended from the House on 18 December 2013. Laird claimed parliamentary expenses of £73,000 in 2008/09, making him the most expensive peer in the House of Lords for that parliamentary year. In December 2006 Laird announced plans to stand in Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West on what he termed a radical Ulster-Scots ticket, he said he intended to use the publicity platform of his candidacy to highlight what he called the double standards of the Irish Government in relation to the Ulster-Scots movement. However, after suffering a mild heart attack he did not stand; the following is a list of books and films for which Lord John Laird has been responsible: Videos Trolleybus Days in Belfast Swansong of Steam in Ulster Waterloo Sunset Rails on the Isle of Wight The Twilight of Steam in Ulster A Struggle to be Heard – by a True Ulster Liberal List of Northern Ireland Members of the House of Lords Lord Laird Passes Away Lord Laird website John Laird, Crossbencher Stratagem Ulster's'Braveheart' on rebel hunt, Interview with the Sunday Tribune, 22 January 2006 Debrett's Limited Parliamentary answers 2010/11
John Laird (shipbuilder)
John Laird was a shipbuilder and key figure in the development of the town of Birkenhead. He was the elder brother of Macgregor Laird, he was one of the first to use iron in the construction of ships. Born in Greenock, the eldest son of Scottish entrepreneur and Agnes Laird, John Laird was raised in Liverpool and educated at that city's Royal Institution. In 1824 the Laird family moved to Birkenhead, where William Laird and Daniel Horton established the Birkenhead Iron Works; this manufactured boilers near Wallasey Pool. This partnership was dissolved in 1828 and William Laird was joined in his business by John Laird, a solicitor's articled clerk; the company was renamed William Son. Laird realised that the techniques of bending iron plates and riveting them together to build ships were similar to the principles involved in making boilers. Laird's first vessel was a 60 ft pre-fabricated iron lighter in 1829 – displacement sixty tons –, used on canals and lakes in Ireland; this was followed by further orders for more lighters and in 1833 the paddle steamer Lady Lansdowne was built for the same firm.
Many of the orders were for pre-fabricated river steamers. In 1834, he built the paddle steamer John Randolph for Savannah, stated to be the first iron ship seen in America. For the East India Company, he built in 1839 the first iron vessel carrying guns. In 1839 Lairds built their first screw-propelled steamer, Robert F. Stockton, a 63 ft tug for use on North American waterways. By 1840, Lairds had built another 21 iron paddle-steamers including four gun boats for anti-piracy patrols for the British East India Company. Further orders for paddle frigates included the 1,400 ton HMS Birkenhead of 1848, famously wrecked off South Africa with the loss of over 400 soldiers in 1852, their most famous vessel was the Confederate raider CSS Alabama. In 1857 the business moved to a new yard upstream from the Woodside Ferry. In 1844 John Laird started the construction of the Birkenhead Docks in the tidal Wallasey Pool; these were intended to compete with the Port of Liverpool but the venture was not a success and the system was merged with Liverpool docks in 1858.
In October 1863, Laird and his shipbuilding company were caught making two naval ram vessels for the Confederate States Navy: El Toussoun and El Monastir. The Royal Navy additionally deployed a gunship, HMS Heron, to the area to prevent the half constructed ships from leaving the port. Laird sued the British government for impeding on his construction because their construction did not violate the 1819 Foreign Enlistment Act nor British neutrality. In fact, the Lincoln Administration had requested Laird to build armed iron clads for the Union in 1861. In 1829 Laird married Elizabeth Hurry. In 1860, John Laird was joined in partnership by his three sons, William and Henry. However, John Laird retired in 1861 and the business was taken over by his sons, it merged with Charles Cammell & Co to form Cammell Laird in 1903. He was the first mayor of Birkenhead and as chairman of the Birkenhead Improvement Commission, he played a key role in the development of the town, he was one of the first Commissioners in 1833, which were appointed to erect a market, to light and clean the streets and to maintain a police force.
When Birkenhead became a Parliamentary Borough in 1861, John Laird retired from shipbuilding to become its first Member of Parliament for Birkenhead. He served from 1861 to 1874 as a Conservative, he was Deputy Lieutenant of Cheshire and Justice of the Peace. He contributed a great deal to the continuous improvement of the town as a benefactor. Laird was responsible for the building of the Dock Cottages, he made some generous donations for the erection of Saint James Church, the Borough Hospital and the Laird School of Art. He died at his home, 63 Hamilton Square, following a riding accident, he is buried in the grounds of Birkenhead Priory, next to his yard. An appeal for donations for a statue of John Laird raised more than required from nearly 2,400 donors; the statue was sculpted by Albert Bruce-Joy. Over 2,000 people walked in procession for the statue's unveiling in 1877, it was unveiled by Lord Tollemache. The statue now stands in Hamilton Square in the centre of Birkenhead, though it was moved from its original position to make way for a cenotaph.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Laird, Macgregor". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 84. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Laird Portraits of John Laird at the National Portrait Gallery, London Wirral Archives Service