David Cardinal Beaton was Archbishop of St Andrews and the last Scottish Cardinal prior to the Reformation. Cardinal Beaton was the sixth and youngest son of eleven children of John Beaton of Balfour in the county of Fife, his wife Mary, daughter of Sir David Boswell of Balmuto; the Bethunes of Balfour were part of Clan Bethune, the Scottish branch of the noble French House of Bethune. The Cardinal is said to have been born in 1494, he was educated at the universities of St Andrews and Glasgow, in his sixteenth year was sent to Paris, where he studied civil and canon law. In 1519 King James V of Scotland named him ambassador in France. In 1520, his uncle, James Beaton, Archbishop of Glasgow, named David Beaton Rector and Prebendary at Cambuslang. After his uncle became Archbishop of St. Andrews in 1522, he resigned the position of Commendator of Arbroath in favour of his nephew. In 1525 David Beaton returned from France and took a seat as Lord Abbot of Arbroath in the Scottish Parliament. In 1528 the King named him Lord Privy Seal.
Between 1533 and 1542 he acted several times as King James V of Scotland's ambassador to France. He took a leading part in the negotiations connected with the King's marriages, first with Madeleine of France, afterwards with Mary of Guise. In 1537 he was made coadjutor to his uncle with right of succession. In December 1537 Beaton was made Bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc on the recommendation of King Francis I, consecrated the following summer, he was ordained around that time. In 1538 he was appointed a Cardinal by Pope Paul III, under the title of St Stephen in the Caelian Hill. In February 1539 Cardinal Beaton succeeded his uncle as Archbishop of St. Andrews. In 1544, he was made Papal legate in Scotland. Politically, Beaton was preoccupied with the maintenance of the Franco-Scottish alliance, opposing Anglophile political attitudes, which were associated with the clamour for Protestant reform in Scotland. Relations became strained between James V and his uncle, Henry VIII of England, who sought to detach Scotland from its allegiance to the Holy See and bring it into subjection to himself.
Henry sent two successive embassies to Scotland to urge James to follow his example in renouncing the authority of the Pope in his dominions. King James declined to be drawn into Henry's plans and refused to leave his kingdom for a meeting with Henry. Hostilities broke out between the two kingdoms in 1542; the Cardinal was blamed by many for the war with England that led to the defeat at Solway Moss in November 1542. James V died at Falkland Palace on 14 December 1542. Beaton tried to become one of the regents for the infant sovereign Queen of Scots, he based his claim on an alleged will of the late King. A copy of the alleged will was preserved by Regent Arran. Dated 14 December 1542 in the King's bedchamber at Falkland Palace, it was witnessed by James Learmonth of Dairsie, Master Household. However, the clerk who wrote the instrument, Henry Balfour, a canon of Dunkeld, was not a recognised notary. By order of the Regent, he was committed to the custody of Lord Seton, was imprisoned at Dalkeith Palace and Blackness Castle.
A papal interdict followed the arrest of the Cardinal Primate, according to which all churches of the country should be closed and administering the sacraments should be suspended. With Beaton out of power, the Anglophile party persuaded Regent Arran to make a marriage treaty with England on behalf of the infant Queen, to appoint a number of Protestant preachers; the treaties signed at Greenwich in July 1543 stipulated that Mary would be accompanied by an English nobleman/gentleman until she was ten years old and afterwards would reside in England until the time of her marriage. The union of the thrones of England and Scotland which the treaty envisaged was controversial from the start, its Anglo-centric policy was resisted by many who preferred to continue the Auld Alliance with France. Resistance to the treaty resulted in a surge in the popularity of the French faction and the release of Beaton from prison; the Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Scottish Parliament on 11 December 1543, leading to eight years of Anglo-Scottish conflict known as the Rough Wooing.
In 1543 Beaton regained power. Two English invasions followed - and for these many blamed Beaton. In December 1545 Beaton arranged for the arrest and execution of Protestant preacher George Wishart. On 28 March 1546 he was afterwards burned. Wishart had many sympathisers, this led to the assassination of the Cardinal soon afterwards. Plots against Cardinal Beaton had begun circulating as early as 1544; the conspirators were led by Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, William Kirkcaldy of Grange. The Leslies had suffered from the expansion of Beaton's interest in Fife. Kirkcaldy's uncle, James Kirkcaldy of Grange, held Protestant sympathies and had been removed in 1543 as treasurer of the realm, through Beaton's influence, they were joined by John Leslie of Parkhill, one of the Fife lairds angered at the murder of Wishart. Leslie and Kirkcaldy managed to obtain admission to St Andrews Castle at daybreak of 29 May 1546, killing the porter in the process, they executed the Cardinal, mutilating the corpse and hanging it from a castle window.
At the time it was believed that his
James V of Scotland
James V was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss. His only surviving legitimate child, Queen of Scots, succeeded him when she was just six days old. James was the son of King James IV of Scotland and his wife Margaret Tudor, a daughter of Henry VII of England and sister of Henry VIII, was the only legitimate child of James IV to survive infancy, he was born on 10 April 1512 at Linlithgow Palace and baptized the following day, receiving the titles Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He became king at just seventeen months old when his father was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field on 9 September 1513. James was crowned in the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle on 21 September 1513. During his childhood the country was ruled by regents, first by his mother, until she remarried the following year, by John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, next in line to the Crown after James and his younger brother, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross, who died in infancy.
Other regents included Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, a member of the Council of Regency, bestowed as Regent of Arran, the largest island in the Firth of Clyde. In February 1517 James came from Stirling to Holyroodhouse, but during an outbreak of plague in the city he was moved to the care of Antoine d'Arces at nearby rural Craigmillar Castle. At Stirling, the 10-year-old James had a guard of 20 footmen dressed in his colours and yellow; when he went to the park below the Castle, "by secret and in right fair and soft wedder," six horsemen would scour the countryside two miles roundabout for intruders. Poets advised him on royal behavior; as a youth, his education was in the care of University of St Andrews poets such as Sir David Lyndsay. William Stewart, in his poem Princelie Majestie, written in Middle Scots, counselled James against ice-skating: To princes als it is ane vyce,To ryd or run over rakleslie, Or aventure to go on yce, Accordis nocht to thy majestie. In the autumn of 1524 James was proclaimed an adult ruler by his mother.
Several new court servants were appointed including Henry Rudeman. Thomas Magnus, the English diplomat, gave an impression of the new Scottish court at Holyroodhouse on All Saints' Day 1524: "trumpets and shamulles did sounde and blewe up mooste pleasauntely." Magnus saw the young king singing, playing with a spear at Leith, with his horses, he was given the impression that the king preferred English manners over French fashions. In 1525 Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, the young king's stepfather, took custody of James and held him as a virtual prisoner for three years, exercising power on his behalf. There were several attempts made to free the young King – one by Walter Scott of Branxholme and Buccleuch, who ambushed the King's forces on 25 July 1526 at the battle of Melrose, was routed off the field. Another attempt that year, on 4 September at the battle of Linlithgow Bridge, failed again to relieve the King from the clutches of Angus; when James and his mother came to Edinburgh on 20 November 1526, she stayed in the chambers at Holyroodhouse, which Albany had used, James using the rooms above.
In February 1527 Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, gave James a huntsman. Magnus thought the Scottish servant sent to Sheriff Hutton Castle for the dogs was intended to note the form and fashion of the Duke's household, for emulation in Scotland. James escaped from Angus's care in 1528 and assumed the reins of government himself; the first action James took. The Douglas family – excluding James's sister, safely in England – were forced into exile and James besieged their castle at Tantallon, he subdued the Border rebels and the chiefs of the Western Isles. As well as taking advice from his nobility and using the services of the Duke of Albany in France and at Rome, James had a team of professional lawyers and diplomats, including Adam Otterburn and Thomas Erskine of Haltoun, his pursemaster and yeoman of the wardrobe, John Tennent of Listonschiels, was sent on an errand to England, though he got a frosty reception. James increased his income by tightening control over royal estates and from the profits of justice and feudal rights.
He gave his illegitimate sons lucrative benefices, diverting substantial church wealth into his coffers. James spent a large amount of his wealth on building work at Stirling Castle, Falkland Palace, Linlithgow Palace and Holyrood, he built up a collection of tapestries from those inherited from his father. James strengthened the royal fleet. In 1540 he sailed to Kirkwall in Orkney Lewis, in his ship the Salamander, first making a will in Leith, knowing this to be "uncertane aventuris." The purpose of this voyage was to show the royal presence and hold regional courts, called "justice ayres." Domestic and international policy was affected by the Reformation after Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church. James V did not tolerate heresy, during his reign a number of outspoken Protestants were persecuted; the most famous of these was Patrick Hamilton, burned at the stake as a heretic at St Andrews in 1528. In the reign, the English ambassador Ralph Sadler tried to encourage James to close the monasteries and take their revenue so that he would not have to keep sheep like a mean subject.
James replied that he had no sheep, he could depend on his god-father the King of France, it was against reason to close the abbeys that "stand these many years, God's service
Dunblane is a town in the council area of Stirling in central Scotland. It is a commuter town, with many residents making use of good transport links to much of the Central Belt, including Glasgow and Edinburgh. Dunblane is built on the banks of a tributary of the River Forth. Dunblane Cathedral is its most prominent landmark. Dunblane had a population of 8,114 at the 2001 census; the most popular theory for the derivation of the name "Dunblane" is that it means "fort of Blane", commemorating Saint Blane, an early Christian saint who lived in the late 6th century. His main seat was Kingarth on the Isle of Bute, he or his followers may have founded a church at Dunblane. The earliest spellings of the name Dunblane are of the form Dul Blaan, the first element being a Pictish word for'water meadow, haugh', borrowed into Scottish Gaelic. There are parallels to Dul Blaan in such Scottish place-names as Dalserf and Dalpatrick, all of which commemorate saints; the earliest evidence for Christianity on the site are two cross-slabs of the 10th to 11th centuries which are preserved in the cathedral.
Incorporated into the medieval building, but free-standing, is an 11th-century bell-tower, whose height was increased in the 15th century. The nave and aisleless choir are 13th century. Dunblane did not have a rich or extensive medieval diocese, the cathedral is modest in scale, but its refined architecture is much admired, as is its setting overlooking the valley of the Allan Water. After the Reformation, the nave of the cathedral was abandoned and soon became roofless and used for burials; the choir was retained as the parish church. The nave was re-roofed and the cathedral provided with new furnishings by Robert Rowand Anderson between 1889 and 1893. During the boom years of the Hydropathy movement in the 19th century, Dunblane was the location of a successful hydropathic establishment. Since the early 1970s the town has grown extensively and is now regarded as a sought-after commuter town due to its excellent road and rail links and good schools. Dunblane is close to the University of Stirling's campus at Bridge of Allan, is a popular location for academics.
Japanese Wagyu beef is now being raised in Dunblane. The town was a royal burgh and part of Perthshire until the 1975 abolition of Scottish counties, from which point it became part of Stirling District in Central Region. In 1994, the regions were themselves abolished and Dunblane's only local authority became Stirling Council. In addition, Dunblane has an active community council; until 1983, Dunblane was part of the Kinross and Western Perthshire constituency of the UK parliament, being represented by predominantly Unionist MPs. After 1983, it became part of the Stirling constituency, since has been represented by Conservative, Labour and SNP MPs. In the Scottish Parliament, Dunblane is part of the Clackmannanshire and Dunblane constituency and the Mid Scotland and Fife region, it shares a ward with Bridge of Allan in council elections. Dunblane is referred to as a city, due to the presence of Dunblane Cathedral. However, this status was never recognised. Dunblane has two supermarkets, a Tesco and a M&S Foodhall, as well as a local Co-op.
Among other shops, the High Street has two independent butchers and one remaining bank, the Bank of Scotland Over the course of 6 years, a small group of young local boys and their parents raised money to build a skatepark in the Laighills. The skatepark was completed on 23 February 2007 and has been visited by Death skateboard team and by the Vans UK Tour; the town is served by Dunblane railway station, which has regular services to Stirling, Perth and Edinburgh. It is a stop on the Caledonian Sleeper from Inverness, several other long distance trains to Aberdeen, Dundee and London. Dunblane station was the junction for services over the scenically attractive route to Doune and Crianlarich, where the line joined the still extant line from Glasgow to Oban; the route to Oban via the popular Callander line closed in 1965. Dunblane is the northernmost station of Network Rail's Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme, which includes electrification. Dunblane is the point at which the M9 motorway ends and joins the A9 dual carriageway north towards Perth.
The A9 went through the centre of Dunblane, but a bypass was completed in 1991 and the old road became the B8033. The rapid expansion of the town has led to a large increase in local car usage, resulting in considerable parking problems. Dunblane Cathedral - Church of Scotland St Blane's Church - Church of Scotland St Mary's Church - Scottish Episcopal Church Church of the Holy Family - Roman Catholic Church Free Church of Scotland Dunblane Christian Fellowship Community of St Nicholas - Eastern Orthodox ChurchDunblane Cathedral is remarkable in having retained more of its late-medieval choir stalls than any other Scottish church building, is noted for its organ. Further fragments of medieval woodwork from the cathedral are displayed in the town's museum the Cathedral Museum, situated nearby. Though still used as a parish church, the building is in the care of Historic Scotland. To the south of the cathedral are some stone vaults of medieval origin, which are the only remaining f
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Methven, Perth and Kinross
Methven is a large village in the Scottish region of Perth and Kinross, on the A85 road due west of the town of Perth. It is near the village of Almondbank; the village has its own primary school, bowling club, community halls, playing field with sports facilities and skate-park, a variety of businesses. There is a local primary school in the village, a large co-educational boarding and day independent school nearby, called Glenalmond College, described by The Good Schools Guide as providing an "outstanding" quality of education; the name'Methven' is thought to be derived from words equivalent to Welsh medd'mead', maen'stone'. To the south of the village, along Station Road, a small industrial estate occupies the former site of Methven Station. Closed since 27 September 1937, the station was the western terminus of the Perth, Almond Valley and Methven Railway. Work began on a new pedestrian crossing in the village in 2008, but was slow to progress, with it not completed until August 2009. Locals had campaigned for a crossing for years because of the busy main road that cuts through the village.
The work to install it caused some disruption. The Battle of Methven took place in 1306 between Scottish forces and English forces and resulted in a resounding win for the English; this was part of the Scottish Wars of Independence. Methven is inventor of the Stirling engine. There used to be a Royal Air Force station nearby called RAF Methven. Dr William Marshall born 26 Aug 1834 in Methven was appointed Queen Victoria's resident doctor at Balmoral in 1871, he was a royal physician until 1881. He died in Crieff on 22 Dec 1884. A note of his Royal service is made on his headstone erected by his father and in the Methven cemetery. Sir Thomas Graham, 1st Baron Lynedoch, a military hero, lived in the area and is buried in the large stone vault south of the main church. Methven Castle Methven Online
John Knox was a Scottish minister and writer, a leader of the country's Reformation. He was the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church, he was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549. While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England, he married his first wife, Margery Bowes; when Mary I ascended the throne of England and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country.
Knox moved to Geneva and to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity, he created a new order of service, adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, thus ending his association with the Church of England. On his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility; the movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, who governed the country in the name of her young daughter Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk, he continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the Queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices.
When she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband Lord Darnley and King James VI was enthroned in her stead, Knox called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days. John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian, his father, William Knox, was a merchant. All, known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child, their eldest son, carried on his father's business, which helped in Knox's international communications. Knox was educated at the grammar school in Haddington. In this time, the priesthood was the only path for those whose inclinations were academic rather than mercantile or agricultural, he proceeded to further studies at the University of St Andrews or at the University of Glasgow. He studied under one of the greatest scholars of the time. Knox was ordained a catholic priest in Edinburgh on Easter Eve of 1536 by William Chisholm, Bishop of Dunblane.
Knox first appears in public records as a priest and a notary in 1540. He was still serving in these capacities as late as 1543 when he described himself as a "minister of the sacred altar in the diocese of St. Andrews, notary by apostolic authority" in a notarial deed dated 27 March. Rather than taking up parochial duties in a parish, he became tutor to two sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry, he taught the son of John Cockburn of Ormiston. Both of these lairds had embraced the new religious ideas of the Reformation. Knox did not record when or how he was converted to the Protestant faith, but the key formative influences on Knox were Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart. Wishart was a reformer, he first moved to England. He was forced to make a public recantation and was burned in effigy at the Church of St Nicholas as a sign of his abjuration, he took refuge in Germany and Switzerland. While on the Continent, he translated the First Helvetic Confession into English, he returned to Scotland in 1544.
In December 1543, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, the appointed regent for the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, had decided with the Queen Mother, Mary of Guise, Cardinal David Beaton to persecute the Protestant sect that had taken root in Scotland. Wishart travelled throughout Scotland preaching in favour of the reformation and when he arrived in East Lothian, Knox became one of his closest associates. Knox acted as his bodyguard. In December 1545, Wishart was seized on Beaton's orders by the Earl of Bothwell and taken to the Castle of St Andrews. Knox was present on the night of Wishart's arrest and was prepared to follow him into captivity, but Wishart persuaded him against this course saying, "Nay, return to your bairns and God bless you. One is sufficient for a sacrifice." Wishart was subsequently prosecuted by Beaton's Public Accuser of Archdeacon John Lauder. On 1 March 1546, he was burnt at the stake in the presence of Beaton. Knox had avoided being arrested by Lord Bothwell through Wishart's advice to return to tutoring.
He took shelter with Douglas in Longniddry. Several months he was still in charge of the pupils, the sons of Douglas and Cockburn, who wearied of moving from place to place while being pursued, he toyed with the idea of taking his pupils with him. While Knox remained a fugitive, Beaton was murdered on 29 May 1546, within his residence, the Castle of St Andrews