Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene
The Pamlico River is a tidal river that flows into Pamlico Sound, in North Carolina in the United States. It is formed by the confluence of the Tar Tranters Creek; the historic Tuscarora tribe, an Iroquoian-language group from western New York, had been well established in North Carolina, including along the Pamlico River, before European contact. The encroachment of settlers and their selling Tuscarora into slavery increased tensions between the groups; these led to the Tuscarora War, in which the Tuscarora led by Chief Hancock were defeated. Most Tuscarora migrated to New York, where they were sponsored by the Oneida and by 1722 were admitted to the Iroquois Confederacy as the Sixth Nation. Most of the survivors in North Carolina were removed to a reservation in Bertie County, North Carolina in 1718. Since European contact, they had lost much population due to lack of immunity to new infectious diseases, followed by the casualties of war. English and Scottish settlers moved to the region from Virginia for larger tracts of cheaper land.
A cluster of German and Swiss settlers moved to the region from the southeastern settlement of New Bern, North Carolina. They established such towns as Bath; the latter was home and operating base for the pirate Blackbeard, pardoned by Governor Charles Eden. Most settlers engaged in tobacco farming in the Pamlico/Tar River basin, importing numerous enslaved Africans to work on the labor-intensive crop. For years the river corridor remained somewhat of a lawless backwater; the Pamlico River was a key strategic position during the American Civil War. The river is the site of USS Picket; the U. S. Route 17 Bridge, which connects Washington, North Carolina with nearby Chocowinity, splits the name of the river; that portion heading westward upstream is called the Tar River. Though the river no longer has any steamers and cargo ships floating down it, it still carries hundreds of boats per year, it is a popular fishing spot. Tobacco farming continues on agricultural land. While fishkills were a bigger problem around the year 2000, state authorities still warn against eating the river's shellfish.
Though the river still faces some environmental problems, it is a beautiful tidal river that supports a variety of aquatic species. It is linked to the history of thousands of years of human settlement, from the earliest indigenous peoples, through the Tuscarora and European and American settlers. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Pamlico River, North Carolina Boating
Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg
Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg known as Christoph de Graffenried, was a British peer from Switzerland who founded New Bern, Carolina, in 1710. Today, he is best known for his memoir, Relation of My American Project, which recounts his life as the Baron of Bernburg and Landgrave of Carolina. Von Graffenried was born on 15 November 1661 to Anton von Graffenried, Lord of Worb, his first wife, Catherine, at Worb Castle in Bern, Switzerland. Von Graffenried met Luis Michel, who claimed to know the location of silver ore in Virginia and owned land in the New World, he told von Graffenried what glorious places Carolina and Virginia were, he advised him to move to Carolina. With the idea of paying off his debts and making money on the cheap land of Carolina, he left his debts to his father and secretly departed for London to make arrangements to move to the New World; when in London, he met with explorer John Lawson, publishing a book entitled A Voyage to Carolina. Lawson was the Surveyor General of Carolina.
Lawson promised to show his settlers a perfect place to establish a community. In 1709, von Graffenried next met with the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, who granted to him ten thousand acres on the Neuse and Cape Fear Rivers, they gave him the title Baron of Bernberg, after the colony he was supposed to found. Von Graffenried recruited a group of German refugees from the Palatine region, ravaged by French warfare and an harsh winter, Bernese immigrants. After severe hardships in their own countries, they were willing to try starting over in Carolina, he sailed with the colonists to Carolina in 1710. On the sea, the settlers were attacked by French privateers who stripped them of everything they brought. Once in the New World, the settlers sold everything that remained, except the clothes on their backs. John Lawson took them to a site at the junction of the Trent and Neuse Rivers, which they named New Bern; the first season, the settler's crops did not do well. Von Graffenried returned to Europe to get additional settlers.
He returned to the colony unscathed. In addition to a lack of food and supplies, there was great tension between the settlers and the Tuscarora Indians of the Neuse River region, they were separated by language and culture related to their differing concepts of land and property rights. The Tuscarora were an Iroquoian-speaking people, distantly related to the Five Tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy based in central and western New York; the settlers had unwittingly planned their new settlement on the site of an old Tuscarora village. In 1711, von Graffenried and the settlers evicted a group of Tuscarora from nearby lands without payment, von Graffenried assumed the title "Landgrave of Carolina." Retaliatory raids by the Tuscarora, under a leader named Hancock, led to deaths and damage to the settlement. During the summer of 1711, von Graffenried, along with John Lawson, took a trip up the Neuse River. Von Graffenried wanted to start a vineyard; the Tuscarora took captive von Graffenried, John Lawson, an enslaved African whom they had entrusted with their baggage.
While in captivity, John Lawson and von Graffenried were given three separate trials, each in a different Tuscaroran village. One found the men not guilty; the Tuscarora decided to kill them but, after extended discussion over several weeks, the elders decided von Graffenried would be released. He wore such fine clothes, they thought if they let the "governor" go, the colony would let the incident pass. They informed him; the next day, the natives killed. Von Graffenried was released on condition that no new European settlements should be made without the sanction of the native chiefs; when he reached New Bern, he found it abandoned and in flames. In 1712 von Graffenried contracted French-Canadian guide and surveyor Martin Chartier to take him to Sugarloaf Mountain and to the Shenandoah Valley, where they visited Massanutten Mountain, the supposed site of silver ore which the baron hoped to mine, however they found no evidence of any ore. Having lost his fortune, von Graffenried returned penniless in 1714 to Switzerland.
He sold his part in Carolina to Thomas Pollock for 800 pounds. Von Graffenried soon wrote a book entitled Relation of My American Project. In it, he included several documents, among them a letter written to the governor of Carolina and a layout of the settlement of New Bern. In 1731, after the death of a brother, the Oberherr von Worb, Anton secured and sold to Christoph the management of the estate which went with the office, reserving for himself the revenues of the office; the management of the estate was not lucrative, but the father thought he had made a rather generous expiation for his previous treatment. Next, when Anton became Mayor of Murton he wanted a representative in Iverton. In 1730 at Anton's death the estate of Worb came to Christoph without encumbrance, he held it till 1740, when he retired in favor of his sons. Three years he died and was buried in the choir of the Church at Worb, ending a life the last
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
The Neuse River is a river rising in the Piedmont of North Carolina and emptying into Pamlico Sound below New Bern. Its total length is 275 miles, making it the longest river contained in North Carolina; the Trent River joins the Neuse at New Bern. Its drainage basin, measuring 5,630 square miles in area lies inside North Carolina, it is formed by the confluence of the Flat and Eno rivers prior to entering the manmade, artificial Falls Lake reservoir in northern Wake County. Its fall line shoals, known as the Falls of the Neuse, lie submerged under the waters of Falls Lake; the Neuse begins at the confluence of the Flat and Eno rivers near North Carolina. The river enters Pamlico Sound just east of Maw Point Shoal near Hobucken, North Carolina while en route to the Atlantic Ocean. Typical of rivers in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the Neuse enters a basin of chocolate intermittent bottomland swamp on its journey towards its outlet. One interesting exception is the "Cliffs of the Neuse" area near Goldsboro, where the river cuts a narrow 30 m gorge through limestone and sandstone bluffs.
The Neuse is prone to extremes in its flow carriage escaping its banks during wet periods reducing to a trickle that can be forded on foot during prolonged drought conditions. The Neuse flows through parts of seven counties. Major cities and towns in proximity to the Neuse are Durham. For thousands of years before the Europeans arrived, different civilizations of indigenous peoples lived along the river. Many artifacts found along its banks have been traced to ancient prehistoric Native American settlements. Archaeological studies have shown waves of habitation; the river has one of the three oldest surviving English-applied placenames in the U. S. Colonists named the Neuse River after its name by the American Indian tribe known as Neusiok, with whom the early Raleigh expeditions made contact, they identified the region as the "Neusick". Two English captains, Arthur Barlowe and Phillip Armadas, were commissioned by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584 to explore the New World, they landed on North Carolina's coast July 1584 to begin their research.
In their 1585 report to Raleigh, they wrote favorably of the Indian population in "…the country Neusiok, situated upon a goodly river called Neuse…", as it was called by the local population. In 1865 during the American Civil War, the Confederates burned one of the last ironclad warships which they had built, the Ram Neuse, to prevent its capture by Union troops; the level of the river had fallen. Nearly a century during another period of low water, the remains of the ship were discovered, it was raised in 1963. The ship was installed beside the river at the Governor Caswell Memorial in Kinston; the low-head Quaker Neck Dam was built in 1952 at Neuse River kilometer 225 to impound cooling water for a steam electric plant. A fish ladder was included; the dam was removed in May 1998, opening up access for anadromous fish to 127 kilometres of the mainstem Neuse River. The Neuse has been plagued in recent years with environmental and public health problems related to municipal and agricultural waste water discharge, storm runoff, other sources of pollution.
Pollution was bad in the aftermath of hurricanes Fran and Floyd in the late 1990s. The dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida is present in the river, has a bloom in growth when nutrient levels are increased due to too much runoff; this organism may be connected to fish kills as well as adverse health effects in grapes. Eno River Flat River Little River Stoney Creek Crabtree Creek West Bear Creek Bear Creek Contentnea Creek Lefferts' Creek Trent River South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Neuse Riverkeeper Foundation NCDENR: Neuse River Basin NCSU: Neuse River Basin USGS: Neuse River Current Conditions Upper Neuse River Basin Association Neuse River Compliance Association and Lower Neuse Basin Association The Neuse, River of Peace Events and Happening Along the Neuse River
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate