John Henry Le Keux
John Henry Le Keux was an English architectural engraver and draughtsman. The son of John Le Keux, he was born in Argyll Street, Euston Road, London, on 23 March 1812, studied under James Basire III, he worked for a time as assistant to his father. Between 1853 and 1865 Le Keux exhibited architectural drawings at the Royal Academy. About 1864 he moved to Durham, acted as manager to Messrs. Andrews, a firm of publishers with which his wife was connected, he died at Durham on 4 February 1896, was buried in St Nicholas' Church. Le Keux engraved plates for architectural works, including: John Ruskin, Modern Painters and The Stones of Venice; the Norwegian government employed him to execute 31 plates of Trondheim cathedral. He contributed papers on mediæval arms and armor to the Journal of the Archæological Institute and other publications, his last work was the Oxford Almanack for 1870. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Le Keux, John Henry".
Dictionary of National Biography. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Thomas Wright (antiquarian)
Thomas Wright was an English antiquarian and writer. Wright was born near Ludlow, descended from a Quaker family living at Bradford, he was educated at Ludlow Grammar School and at Trinity College, whence he graduated in 1834. While at Cambridge he contributed to the Gentleman's Magazine and other periodicals, in 1835 he came to London to devote himself to a literary career, his first separate work was Early English Poetry in Black Letter, with Prefaces and Notes, followed during the next forty years by an extensive series of publications, many of lasting value. He helped to found the British Archaeological Association and the Percy and Shakespeare Societies. In 1842 he was elected corresponding member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres of Paris, was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries as well as member of many other learned British and foreign bodies. In 1859 he superintended the excavations of the Roman town of Viroconium Cornoviorum, near Shrewsbury, issued a report. A portrait of him is in the Drawing Room Portrait Gallery for 1 October 1859.
He was a great scholar, but will be chiefly remembered as an industrious antiquary and the editor of many relics of the Middle Ages. English priest and historical writer, Thomas Edward Bridgett observed, "It is only when he has to speak of the Catholic church that he is bitter and unfair."He died in his 67th year at Chelsea and was buried in Brompton Cemetery. Queen Elizabeth and her Times, a Series of Original Letters Reliquiae antiquae, edited with Mr JO Halliwell-Phillipps W. Mapes's Latin Poems Political Ballads and Carols, published by the Percy Society Popular Treatises on Science History of Ludlow Collection of Latin Stories The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman Biographia literaria, vol. i. Anglo-Saxon Period, vol. ii. Anglo-Norman Period The Chester Plays St Patrick's Purgatory Anecdota literaria Archaeological Album Essays connected with England in the Middle Ages Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, a new text with notes, reprinted in 1 vol. Early Travels in Palestine England under the House of Hanover Mapes, De nugis curialium Geoffrey Gaimar's Metrical Chronicle Narratives of Sorcery and Magic The Celt, the Roman and the Saxon Wanderings of an Antiquary.
Scanned facsimile available on Internet Archive Womankind in Western Europe Anglo-Latin Satirical Poets of 12th Century. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Wright, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Lee, Sidney. "Wright, Thomas". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 63. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Thompson, Michael Welman. "Wright, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30063. Works written by or about Thomas Wright at WikisourceWorks by Thomas Wright at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Wright at Internet Archive
Thomas Dunham Whitaker
Thomas Dunham Whitaker was an English clergyman and topographer. Born at Raynham, Norfolk, on 8 June 1759, he was the son of William Whitaker, curate of Raynham and his wife Lucy, daughter of Robert Dunham, widow of Ambrose Allen. In 1760 his father moved to his ancestral house at Holme, in the township of Cliviger and the boy was in November 1766 placed under the care of the Rev. John Shaw of Rochdale. In November 1774, after spending a short time with the Rev. William Sheepshanks of Grassington in Craven, he was admitted to St John's College and went into residence in October 1775, he took the degree of LL. B. in November 1781. His intention to enter the legal profession changed on the death of his father in the following year, when he settled at Holme, he was ordained in 1785, but remained without pastoral charge until 1797, when he was licensed to the perpetual curacy of Holme, where he had rebuilt the chapel at his own cost in 1788. He completed his degree of LL. D. in 1801. In 1809 he became vicar of the extensive parish of Lancashire.
The rectory of Heysham, near Lancaster, was presented to him in January 1813. He resigned it in 1819. On 7 November 1818 he became vicar of Blackburn, a benefice he retained, together with Whalley, until his death; when settled at Holme he instituted a local literary club. He had influence with the people of his parishes, on several occasions exerted it to quell disturbances at Blackburn in 1817. For his'patriotic services' he was presented with a public testimonial in April 1821, he was very interested in topography and forestry, writing books on the subjects. In 1818 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as "a Gentleman well versed in various Branches of Natural Knowledge being desirous of becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society" He died at Blackburn vicarage on 18 December 1821, was interred at Holme, he married, 13 January 1783, daughter of Thomas Thoresby of Leeds, left several children, of whom one, Robert Nowell Whitaker became vicar of Whalley. A monument raised by public subscription was placed in Whalley church in 1842.
His library was sold at Sotheby's in 1823, his coins and antiquities, with the exception of his Roman altars and inscriptions, which he bequeathed to St John's College, were dispersed in 1824. His published works were: History of the Original Parish of Whalley and Honour of Clitheroe, in the Counties of Lancaster and York, 1801. History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven, 1805, 2nd edition 1812. De Motu per Britanniam Civico annis 1745 et 1746, 1809, an account in Latin based on John Home's'History of the Rebellion of 1745.' Life and Original Correspondence of Sir George Radcliffe, Knt. LL. D. the Friend of the Earl of Strafford, 1810. Concerns George Radcliffe; the Sermons of Dr. Edwin Sandys Archbishop of York, with a Life of the Author, 1812. Visio Will'i de Petro Plouhman... or the Vision of William concerning Piers Plouhman, 1813. Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, edited from the edition of 1553, 1814. Loidis and Elmete, or an Attempt to illustrate... the Lower Portions of Airedale and Wharfdale, 1816.
An appendix was published in 1821. The History of Richmondshire, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 1823, in 2 volumes, it has thirty-two plates, after J. M. W. Turner. Whitaker re-edited Ralph Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis, he planned, but did not finish, several other works. He published ten occasional sermons and a political speech, wrote dozens of articles for the Quarterly Review between 1809 and 1818. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Whitaker, Thomas Dunham". Dictionary of National Biography. 61. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Turner and Dr. Whitaker Towneley Hall Art Gallery & Museums, Burnley, 1982. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Whitaker, Thomas Dunham". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy. It is traditionally composed of 85–99% tin, mixed with copper, antimony and sometimes silver or lead, although the use of lead is less common today. Copper and antimony act as hardeners while lead is more common in the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. Pewter has a low melting point, around 170–230 °C, depending on the exact mixture of metals; the word pewter is a variation of the word spelter, a term for zinc alloys. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East; the earliest piece of pewter found is from an Egyptian tomb from 1450 BC. The constituents of pewter were first controlled in the 12th century by town guilds in France. By the 15th century, the Worshipful Company of Pewterers controlled pewter constituents in England; this company had two grades of pewter, but in the 16th century a third grade was added. The first type, known as "fine metal", was used for tableware, it consisted of tin with as much copper as it could absorb, about 1%.
The second type, known as "trifling metal" or "trifle", was used for holloware and is made up of fine metal with 4% lead. The last type of pewter, known as "lay" or "ley" metal, was used for items that were not in contact with food or drink, it consisted of tin with 15% lead. These three alloys were used with little variation until the 20th century. Older pewters with higher lead content are heavier, tarnish faster, oxidation gives them a darker silver-gray color. Pewters containing lead are no longer used in items that will come in contact with the human body due to health concerns stemming from the lead content. Modern pewters are available that are free of lead, although many pewters containing lead are still being produced for other purposes. A typical European casting alloy contains 94% tin, 1% copper, 5% antimony. A European pewter sheet would contain 92% tin, 2% copper, 6% antimony. Asian pewter, produced in Malaysia and Thailand, contains a higher percentage of tin 97.5% tin, 1% copper, 1.5% antimony.
This makes the alloy softer. So-called "Mexican pewter" is an alloy of aluminum and silica. Pewter was used for decorative metal items and tableware in the Ancient World by the Egyptians and the Romans, came into extensive use in Europe from the Middle Ages until the various developments in pottery and glass-making during the 18th and 19th centuries. Pewter was the chief material for producing plates and bowls until the making of porcelain. Mass production of pottery and glass products has seen pewter universally replaced in daily life. Pewter artifacts continue to be produced as decorative or specialty items. Pewter was used around East Asia. Although some items still exist, Ancient Roman pewter is rare."Unlidded" mugs and lidded tankards may be the most familiar pewter artifacts from the late 17th and 18th centuries, although the metal was used for many other items including porringers, dishes, spoons, flagons, communion cups, sugar bowls, beer steins, cream jugs. In the early 19th century, changes in fashion caused a decline in the use of pewter flatware.
At the same time, production increased of both cast and spun pewter tea sets, whale-oil lamps, so on. In the century, pewter alloys were used as a base metal for silver-plated objects. In the late 19th century, pewter came back into fashion with the revival of medieval objects for decoration. New replicas of medieval pewter objects were created, collected for decoration. Today, pewter is used in decorative objects collectible statuettes and figurines, game figures and other models, pendants, plated jewellery and so on. Certain athletic contests, such as the United States Figure Skating Championships, award pewter medals to fourth-place finishers. Britannia metal English pewter Royal Selangor Spin casting PewterBank "Pewter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
J. M. W. Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner, known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter and watercolourist, he is known for his expressive colourisations, imaginative landscapes and turbulent violent marine paintings. Turner was born in Covent Garden, London, to a modest lower middle-class family, he lived in London all his life, retaining his Cockney accent and assiduously avoiding the trappings of success and fame. A child prodigy, Turner studied at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1789, enrolling when he was 14, exhibited his first work there at 15. During this period, he served as an architectural draftsman, he earned a steady income from commissions and sales, which due to his troubled, contrary nature, were begrudgingly accepted. He opened his own gallery in 1804 and became professor of perspective at the academy in 1807, where he lectured until 1828, although he was viewed as profoundly inarticulate, he traveled to Europe from 1802 returning with voluminous sketchbooks.
Intensely private and reclusive, Turner was a controversial figure throughout his career. He did not marry, but fathered two daughters and Georgiana, by his housekeeper Sarah Danby, he became more pessimistic and morose as he got older after the death of his father, after which his outlook deteriorated, his gallery fell into disrepair and neglect, his art intensified. He lived in squalor and poor health from 1845, died in London in 1851 aged 76. Turner is buried in London, he left behind more than 550 oil paintings, 2,000 watercolours, 30,000 works on paper. He had been championed by the leading English art critic John Ruskin from 1840, is today regarded as having elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Joseph Mallord William Turner was baptised on 14 May, he was born in Covent Garden, in London, England. His father, William Turner, was a wig maker, his mother, Mary Marshall, came from a family of butchers. A younger sister, Mary Ann, was born in September 1778 but died in August 1783.
Turner's mother showed signs of mental disturbance from 1785 and was admitted to St Luke's Hospital for Lunatics in Old Street in 1799 and was moved in 1800 to Bethlem Hospital where she died in 1804. Turner was sent to his maternal uncle, Joseph Mallord William Marshall, in Brentford a small town on the banks of the River Thames west of London; the earliest known artistic exercise by Turner is from this period—a series of simple colourings of engraved plates from Henry Boswell's Picturesque View of the Antiquities of England and Wales. Around 1786, Turner was sent to Margate on the north-east Kent coast. There he produced a series of drawings of the town and surrounding area that foreshadowed his work. By this time, Turner's drawings were being exhibited in his father's shop window and sold for a few shillings, his father boasted to the artist Thomas Stothard that: "My son, sir, is going to be a painter". In 1789, Turner again stayed with his uncle. A whole sketchbook of work from this time in Berkshire survives as well as a watercolour of Oxford.
The use of pencil sketches on location, as the foundation for finished paintings, formed the basis of Turner's essential working style for his whole career. Many early sketches by Turner were architectural studies or exercises in perspective, it is known that, as a young man, he worked for several architects including Thomas Hardwick, James Wyatt and Joseph Bonomi the Elder. By the end of 1789, he had begun to study under the topographical draughtsman Thomas Malton, specialised in London views. Turner learned from him the basic tricks of the trade and colouring outline prints of British castles and abbeys, he would call Malton "My real master". Topography was a thriving industry. Turner entered the Royal Academy of Art in 1789, aged 14, was accepted into the academy a year by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Turner showed an early interest in architecture, but was advised by Thomas Hardwick to focus on painting, his first watercolour, A View of the Archbishop's Palace, Lambeth was accepted for the Royal Academy summer exhibition of 1790 when Turner was 15.
As an academy probationer, Turner was taught drawing from plaster casts of antique sculptures. From July 1790 to October 1793, his name appears in the registry of the academy over a hundred times. In June 1792, he was admitted to the life class to learn to draw the human body from nude models. Turner exhibited watercolours each year at the academy while painting in the winter and travelling in the summer throughout Britain to Wales, where he produced a wide range of sketches for working up into studies and watercolours; these focused on architectural work, which used his skills as a draughtsman. In 1793, he showed the watercolour titled The Rising Squall – Hot Wells from St Vincent's Rock Bristol, which foreshadowed his climatic effects. Cunningham in his obituary of Turner wrote that it was: "recognised by the wiser few as a noble attempt at lifting landscape art out of the tame insipidities... evinced for the first time that mastery of effect for which he is now justly celebrated". In 1796, Turner exhibited Fishermen at Sea, his first oil painting for the academy, of a nocturnal moonlit scene of the Needles off the Isle of Wight, an image of boats in peril.
Wilton said that the image: "Is a summary of all, said about the sea by the artists of the 18th century." And shows strong influence