Linnean Society of London
The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, the dissemination of information concerning, natural history and taxonomy. It possesses several important biological specimen and literature collections and publishes academic journals and books on plant and animal biology; the society awards a number of prestigious medals and prizes for achievement. A product of the 18th-century enlightenment, the society is important as the venue for the first public presentation of the Theory of Evolution; the patron of the society is Queen Elizabeth II. Honorary members include the present monarchs of Japan, Emperor Akihito, Sweden, King Carl XVI Gustaf, both of whom have active interests in natural history, the eminent broadcaster, Sir David Attenborough; the Linnean Society was founded in 1788 by botanist Sir James Edward Smith. The society derives its name from the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus, the'father of taxonomy', who systematised biological classification through his binomial nomenclature.
He was known as Carl von Linné after his ennoblement, hence the spelling'Linnean', rather than'Linnaean'. The society had a number of minor name variations before it gained its Royal Charter on 26 March 1802, when the name became fixed as "The Linnean Society of London". In 1802, as a newly incorporated society, it comprised 228 fellows, it is the oldest extant natural history society in the world. Throughout its history the society has been a non-political and non-sectarian institution, existing for the furtherance of natural history; the inception of the society was the direct result of the purchase by Sir James Smith of the specimen and correspondence collections of Linnaeus. When the collection was offered for sale by the heirs of Linnaeus, Smith was urged to acquire it by Sir Joseph Banks, the eminent botanist and president of the Royal Society. Five years after this purchase Banks gave Smith his full support in founding the Linnean Society, he became one of the first Honorary Members of the new society.
The society has numbered many prominent scientists amongst its fellows. One such was the botanist Robert Brown, president. In 1854 Charles Darwin was elected a fellow. Another famous fellow was biologist Thomas Huxley, who gained the nickname "Darwin's bulldog" for his outspoken defence of evolution. Men notable in other walks of life have been fellows of the society, including the physician Edward Jenner, pioneer of vaccination, the Arctic explorers Sir John Franklin and Sir James Clark Ross, colonial administrator and founder of Singapore, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and Prime Minister of Britain, Lord Aberdeen. Since 1857 the Society has been based at Burlington House, London; the first public exposition of the'Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection', arguably the greatest single leap of progress made in biology, was presented to a meeting of the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. At this meeting a joint presentation of papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace was made, sponsored by Joseph Hooker and Charles Lyell as neither author could be present.
In 1904 the society experienced the novelty of electing women fellows. Whilst the society's council was reluctant to admit women, the fellows were much less so, with only 17% voting against the proposal. Among the first to benefit from this were: ornithologist and photographer Emma Louisa Turner, Lilian J. Veley, a microbiologist and Annie Lorrain Smith, a lichenologist and mycologist, all formally admitted on 19 January 1905. Amongst the first women to be elected in 1904 was the paleobotanist, pioneer of family planning, Marie Stopes; the society's connection with evolution remained strong into the 20th century. Sir Edward Poulton, president 1912-1916, was a great defender of natural selection and was the first biologist to recognise the importance of frequency-dependent selection; the first female president of the society was Irene Manton, who pioneered the biological use of electron microscopy. Her work revealed the structure of the flagellum and cilia, which are central to many systems of cellular motility.
Recent years have seen an increased interest within the society in issues of biodiversity conservation. This was highlighted by the inception in 2015 of an annual award, the John Spedan Lewis Medal honouring persons making significant and innovative contributions to conservation. Fellowship requires nomination by at least one fellow, election by a minimum of two thirds of those electors voting. Fellows may employ the post-nominal letters'FLS'. Fellowship is open to both professional scientists and to amateur naturalists who have shown active interest in natural history and allied disciplines. Having authored relevant publications is an advantage, but not a necessity, for election. Following election, new fellows must be formally admitted, in person at a meeting of the society, before they are able to vote in society elections. Admission takes the form of signing the membership book, thereby agreeing to an obligation to abide by the statutes of the society. Following this the new fellow is taken by the hand by the president, who recites a formula of admission to the fellowship.
Other forms of membership exist:'Associate', for supporters of the society who do not wish to submit to the formal election process for
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, was an English naturalist and patron of the natural sciences. Banks made his name on the 1766 natural history expedition to Labrador, he took part in Captain James Cook's first great voyage, visiting Brazil, and, after 6 months in New Zealand, returning to immediate fame. He held the position of President of the Royal Society for over 41 years, he advised King George III on the Royal Botanic Gardens, by sending botanists around the world to collect plants, he made Kew the world's leading botanical gardens. He is credited for bringing 30,000 plant specimens home with him. Banks advocated British settlement in New South Wales and colonisation of Australia, as well as the establishment of Botany Bay as a place for the reception of convicts, advised the British government on all Australian matters, he is credited with introducing the eucalyptus and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. 80 species of plants bear his name. He was the leading founder of the African Association and a member of the Society of Dilettanti which helped to establish the Royal Academy.
Banks was born on Argyle Street in London to William Banks, a wealthy Lincolnshire country squire and member of the House of Commons, his wife Sarah, daughter of William Bate. He had a younger sister, Sarah Sophia Banks, born in 1744. Banks was educated at Harrow School from the age of 9 and at Eton College from 1756; as a boy, Banks enjoyed exploring the Lincolnshire countryside and developed a keen interest in nature and botany. When he was 17, he was inoculated with smallpox. In late 1760, he was enrolled as a gentleman-commoner at the University of Oxford. At Oxford, he matriculated at Christ Church, where his studies were focused on natural history rather than the classical curriculum. Determined to receive botanical instruction, he paid the Cambridge botanist Israel Lyons to deliver a series of lectures at Oxford in 1764. Banks left Oxford for Chelsea in December 1763, he left that year without taking a degree. His father had died in 1761, so when he turned 21 he inherited the impressive estate of Revesby Abbey, in Lincolnshire, becoming the local squire and magistrate, sharing his time between Lincolnshire and London.
From his mother's home in Chelsea he kept up his interest in science by attending the Chelsea Physic Garden of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries and the British Museum, where he met Daniel Solander. He began to make friends among the scientific men of his day and to correspond with Carl Linnaeus, whom he came to know through Solander; as Banks's influence increased, he became an adviser to King George III and urged the monarch to support voyages of discovery to new lands, hoping to indulge his own interest in botany. He became a Freemason sometime before 1769. In 1766 Banks was elected to the Royal Society, in the same year, at 23, he went with Phipps aboard the frigate HMS Niger to Newfoundland and Labrador with a view to studying their natural history, he made his name by publishing the first Linnean descriptions of the plants and animals of Newfoundland and Labrador. Banks documented 34 species of birds, including the great auk, which became extinct in 1844. On 7 May, he noted a large number of "penguins" swimming around the ship on the Grand Banks, a specimen he collected in Chateau Bay, was identified as the great auk.
Banks was appointed to a joint Royal Navy/Royal Society scientific expedition to the south Pacific Ocean on HMS Endeavour, 1768–1771. This was the first of James Cook's voyages of discovery in that region. Banks funded seven others to join him: the Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, the Finnish naturalist Herman Spöring, two artists, a scientific secretary, two black servants from his estate. In 1772 he was docked in Simon's Town in what is now South Africa. There he met a friendship started, he was the godfather of Brand's grandson Christoffel Brand. The voyage went to Brazil, where Banks made the first scientific description of a now common garden plant, to other parts of South America; the voyage progressed to Tahiti, to New Zealand. From there it proceeded to the east coast of Australia, where Cook mapped the coastline and made landfall at Botany Bay at Round Hill, now known as Seventeen Seventy and at Endeavour River in Queensland, where they spent seven weeks ashore while the ship was repaired after becoming holed on the Great Barrier Reef.
While they were in Australia, Daniel Solander and the Finnish botanist Dr. Herman Spöring Jr. made the first major collection of Australian flora, describing many species new to science. 800 specimens were illustrated by the artist Sydney Parkinson and appear in Banks' Florilegium published in 35 volumes between 1980 and 1990. Notable was that during the period when the Endeavour was being repaired, Banks observed a kangaroo, first recorded as "kanguru" on 12 July 1770 in an entry in his diary. Banks arrived back in England on 12 July 1771 and became famous, he intended to go with Cook on his second voyage, which began on 13 May 1772, but difficulties arose about Banks' scientific requirements on board Cook's new ship, Resolution. The Admiralty regarded Banks' demands as unaccep
Percival Serle was an Australian biographer and bibliographer. Serle was born to English parents in Elsternwick and for many years worked in a life assurance office before in November 1910 becoming chief clerk and accountant at the University of Melbourne, he married artist Dora Beatrice Hake on 29 March 1910. They were to have three children. One son, Alan Geoffrey Serle, was selected as 1947 Victorian Rhodes scholar. Serle ran a second-hand bookshop during the depression, he was president of the Australian Literature Society. Serle's publications included an edition, with notes, of A Song to David and Other Poems by the 18th-century English poet, Christopher Smart; the Dictionary took more than twenty years to complete and contains more than one thousand biographies of prominent Australians or persons connected with Australia. Serle comments in the Preface, it would have been better could I have spent another five years on it, but at seventy-five years of age one realizes there is a time to make an end."
He was awarded the Australian Literature Society Gold Medal for 1949 for this work. Serle died in Hawthorn, aged 80 on 16 December 1951; the Oxford Companion to Australian Literature. Geoffrey Serle,'Serle, Percival', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 567–569. Dictionary of Australian Biography courtesy of Project Gutenberg Australia
Trove is an Australian online library database aggregator. It is one of the most well-respected and accessed GLAM services in Australia, with over 70,000 daily users. Trove's origins can be seen in the development of earlier services such as the Australian Bibliographic Network, it was known as the Single Business Discovery Service, a project, launched in August 2008. The intention was to create a single point of entry for the public to the various online discovery services developed by the library between 1997 and 2008-2009 including Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Picture Australia, Libraries Australia, Music Australia, Australia Dancing, PANDORA search service, ARROW Discovery Service and the Australian Newspapers Beta service; the key features of the service were designed to create a faceted search system for Australian content. Tight integration with the provider databases has allowed "Find and Get" functions. Important extra features include the provision of a "check copyright" tool and persistent identifiers.
The scope of the project is to help "you find and use resources relating to Australia" and therefore the content is Australian-focused. Much of the material may be difficult to retrieve with other search tools as it is part of the deep web, including records held in collection databases, or in projects such as Picture Australia, Music Australia, the Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Australia Dancing, Australian Research Online and the PANDORA web archive. Trove includes content from many libraries, museums and other organisations; the site's content is split into "zones" designating different forms of content which can be searched all together, or separately. Books: allows searching of the collective catalogues of institutions findable in Libraries Australia using the Australian National Bibliographic Database. Diaries People: allows searching of biographical information and other resources about associated people and organisations, from resources including the Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Journals: searching of academic periodicals. Maps Music and videos: allows searching of digitised historic sheet music and audio recordings. Replacing the previous "Music Australia" website. Includes searchable transcripts from many Radio National programs. Newspapers: allows text-searching of digitised historic newspapers. Replacing the previous "Australian Newspapers" website. Pictures: Including digitised photographs, posters, postcards etc. Considerable numbers of images on Flickr with the appropriate licensing are donated as well. Replacing the previous "Pictures Australia" website. Websites: the primary search portal of the PANDORA web-archiving service, which itself includes the "Australian Government Web Archive". Government Gazettes: allows searching of official publications written for the purpose of notifying the public of government business. A final "zone" called Lists allows logged-in users of Trove to make their own public compilations of items found in Trove searches. There is a facility to join the Trove community and make contributions to the resources such as tags and corrections.
The book zone provides access to books, audio books, conference proceedings and pamphlets listed in Australia's National Bibliographic Database, a union catalogue of items held in Australian libraries and a national bibliographic database of resources including Australian online publications. Bibliographic records from the ANBD are uploaded into the WorldCat global union catalogue; the results can be filtered by format if searching for braille, audio books, theses or conference proceedings and by decade and language of publication. A filter for Australian content is provided. Trove provides text-searchable access to over 700 historic Australian newspapers from each State and Territory. By 2014, over 13.5 million digitised newspaper pages had been made available through Trove as part of the Australian Newspaper Plan, a "collaborative program to collect and preserve every newspaper published in Australia, guaranteeing public access" to these important historical records. The extent of digitised newspaper archives is wide reaching and includes now defunct publications, such as the Australian Home Companion and Band of Hope Journal and The Barrier Miner in New South Wales and The Argus in Victoria.
It includes the earliest published Australian newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, some community language newspapers. Included is The Australian Women's Weekly; the Canberra Times is the only major newspaper available beyond 1957. It allowed publication of its in-copyright archive up to 1995 as part of the "centenary of Canberra" in 2013, the digitisation costs were raised with a crowdfunding campaign. Crowdfunded, the Australian feminist magazine The Dawn was included on International Women's Day 2012. On 25 July 2008 the "Australian Newspapers Beta" service was released to the public as a standalone website and a year became a integrated part of the newly launched Trove; the service contains millions of articles from 1803 onwards, with more content being added regularly. The website was the public face of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Project, a coordination of major libraries in Australia to convert historic newspapers to text-searchable digital files; the Australian Newspapers website allowed users to search the database of digitised newspapers from 1803 to 1954 which are now in the public domain.
The newspapers (frequent
Australian art is any art made in or about Australia, or by Australians overseas, from prehistoric times to the present. This includes Aboriginal, Landscape, early-twentieth-century painters, print makers and sculptors influenced by European modernism, Contemporary art; the visual arts have a long history in Australia, with evidence of Aboriginal art dating back at least 30,000 years. Australia has produced many notable artists of both Western and Indigenous Australian schools, including the late-19th-century Heidelberg School plein air painters, the Antipodeans, the Central Australian Hermannsburg School watercolourists, the Western Desert Art Movement and coeval examples of well-known High modernism and Postmodern art; the first ancestors of Aboriginal Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia as early as 60,000 years ago, evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back at least 30,000 years. Examples of ancient Aboriginal rock artworks can be found throughout the continent.
Notable examples can be found in national parks, such as those of the UNESCO listed sites at Uluru and Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, the Bradshaw rock paintings in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Rock art can be found within protected parks in urban areas such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Sydney; the Sydney rock engravings are 5000 to 200 years old. Murujuga in Western Australia has the Friends of Australian Rock Art advocating its preservation, the numerous engravings there were heritage listed in 2007. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux and Altamira in Europe, Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world. There are three major regional styles: the geometric style found in Central Australia, the Kimberley and Victoria known for its concentric circles and dots; these designs carry significance linked to the spirituality of the Dreamtime. William Barak was one of the last traditionally educated of the Wurundjeri-willam, people who come from the district now incorporating the city of Melbourne.
He remains notable for his artworks which recorded traditional Aboriginal ways for the education of Westerners. Margaret Preston was among the early non-indigenous painters to incorporate Aboriginal influences in her works. Albert Namatjira is an Arrernte man, his landscapes inspired the Hermannsburg School of art. The works of Elizabeth Durack are notable for their fusion of indigenous influences. Since the 1970s, indigenous artists have employed the use of acrylic paints - with styles such as the Western Desert Art Movement becoming globally renowned 20th-century art movements; the National Gallery of Australia exhibits a great many indigenous art works, including those of the Torres Strait Islands who are known for their traditional sculpture and headgear. The Art Gallery of New South Wales has an extensive collection of indigenous Australian art. In May 2011, the Director of the Place and Rock Art Heritage Unit at Griffith University, Paul Taçon, called for the creation of a national database for rock art.
Paul Taçon launched the "Protect Australia’s Spirit" campaign in May 2011 with the regarded Australian actor Jack Thompson. This campaign aims to create the first resourced national archive to bring together information about rock art sites, as well as planning for future rock art management and conservation; the National Rock Art Institute would bring together existing rock art expertise from Griffith University, Australian National University, the University of Western Australia if they were funded by philanthropists, big business and government. Rock Art Research is published twice a year and covers international scholarship of rock art. Early Western art in Australia, from 1788 onwards, is narrated as the gradual shift from a European sense of light to an Australian one; the lighting in Australia is notably different from that of Europe, early attempts at landscapes attempted to reflect this. It has been one of transformation, where artistic ideas originating from beyond gained new meaning and purpose when transplanted into the new continent and the emerging society.
The first artistic representations of the Australia scene by European artists were natural history illustrations, depicting the distinctive flora and fauna of the land for scientific purposes, the topography of the coast. Sydney Parkinson, the Botanical illustrator on James Cook's 1770 voyage that first charted the eastern coastline of Australia, made a large number of such drawings under the direction of naturalist Joseph Banks. Many of these drawings were met with skepticism when taken back to Europe, for example claims that the platypus was a hoax. In the form of copies and reproductions, George Stubbs' 1772 paintings Portrait of a Large Dog and The Kongouro from New Holland—depicting a dingo and kangaroo respectively—were the first images of Australian fauna to be disseminated in Britain. Despite Banks' suggestions, no professional natural-history artist sailed on the First Fleet in 1788; until the turn of the century all drawings made in the colony were crafted by soldiers, including British naval officers George Raper and John Hunter, convict artists, including Thomas Watling.
However, many of these drawings are by unknown artists, most notably the Port Jackson P
William Lewin was an English naturalist and illustrator. Lewin grew up in the son of a rate mariner. In 1776 he was earning a living as a pattern drawer, by 1783 was describing himself as a painter, he specialised in natural history subjects. In 1789 he began to issue his The Birds of Great Britain, with Their Eggs, Accurately Figured, which he had been working on for the previous twenty years, it included 323 watercolour sketches of each of the 271 of birds and 52 plates of eggs, all which he hand-painted himself for the 60 copy first edition, a total of 19,380 individual paintings. Assisted by his three sons, he began work on a second edition, issued in parts from 1793 to 1801; the Second Edition, of 150 copies, was produced using copper plates onto which Lewin directly scribed the images which were not copies of the First Edition work, but new and much more detailed. Lewin died in 1795 having completed only the first 103 copper-plates himself, his sons completed the remaining plates after Lewin's death.
In 1791 his friend John Latham sponsored Lewin's membership of the Linnean Society. Lewin was buried at Edmonton on 10 December 1795; the First Edition of Birds of Great Britain and their Eggs immediately suffered from being broken-up for the individual watercolors, most of which have, as a consequence, been lost or destroyed. The Second Edition has suffered in this way and complete copies are now extremely rare with less than 30 known complete examples remaining. John Lewin Christine E. Jackson - Bird Etchings; the Illustrators and their Books 1655-1855 ISBN 0-8014-9684-5