Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
2000 AD (comics)
2000 AD is a weekly British science fiction-oriented comic magazine. As a comics anthology it serialises stories in each issue and was first published by IPC Magazines in 1977, the first issue dated 26 February. IPC shifted the title to its Fleetway comics subsidiary, sold to Robert Maxwell in 1987 and to Egmont UK in 1991. Fleetway continued to produce the title until 2000. 2000 AD is most noted for its Judge Dredd stories, has been contributed to by a number of artists and writers who became renowned in the field internationally, such as Alan Moore, Dave Gibbons, Grant Morrison, Brian Bolland and Mike McMahon. Other characters in 2000 AD include Strontium Dog and the ABC Warriors. 2000 AD has been a successful launchpad for getting British talent into the larger American comics market. In December 1975, Kelvin Gosnell, a sub-editor at IPC Magazines, read an article in the London Evening Standard about a wave of forthcoming science fiction films, suggested that the company might get on the bandwagon by launching a science fiction comic.
IPC asked Pat Mills, a freelance writer and editor who had created Battle Picture Weekly and Action, to develop it. Mills brought fellow freelancer John Wagner on board as script adviser and the pair began to develop characters; the then-futuristic name 2000 AD was chosen by the publisher, John Sanders, as no-one involved expected the comic to last that long. The original logo and overall look of the comic were designed by art assistant Doug Church. Mills' experiences with Battle and Action in particular had taught him that readers responded to his anti-authoritarian attitudes. Wagner, who had written a Dirty Harry-inspired tough cop called One-Eyed Jack for Valiant, saw that readers responded to authority figures, developed a character that took the concept to its logical extreme, imagining an ultra-violent lawman patrolling a future New York with the power to arrest, if required execute criminals on the spot. Meanwhile, Mills had developed a horror strip, inspired by the novels of Dennis Wheatley, about a hanging judge, called Judge Dread.
The idea was abandoned as unsuitable for the new comic, but the name, with a little modification, was adopted by Wagner for his ultimate lawman. The task of visualising the newly named Judge Dredd was given to Carlos Ezquerra, a Spanish artist who had worked with Mills on Battle, on a strip called Major Eazy. Wagner gave Ezquerra an advertisement for the film Death Race 2000, showing the character Frankenstein clad in black leather, as a suggestion for what the character should look like. Ezquerra elaborated on this adding body-armour and chains, which Wagner thought over the top. Wagner's initial script was rewritten by Mills and drawn up by Ezquerra, but when the art came back a rethink was necessary; the hardware and cityscapes Ezquerra had drawn were far more futuristic than the near-future setting intended, Mills decided to run with it and set the strip further into the future. By this stage, however and Ezquerra had both quit. IPC owned the rights to Dan Dare, Mills decided to revive the character to add immediate public recognition for the title.
Paul DeSavery, who owned Dare's film rights, offered to buy the new comic and give Mills and Wagner more creative control and a greater financial stake. The deal fell through, however. Mills was reluctant to lose Judge Dredd and farmed the strip out to a variety of freelance writers, hoping to develop it further, their scripts were given to a variety of artists as Mills tried to find a strip which would make a good introduction to the character, all of which meant that Dredd would not be ready for the first issue. The story chosen was one written by freelancer Peter Harris, extensively rewritten by Mills and including an idea suggested by Kelvin Gosnell, drawn by newcomer Mike McMahon; the strip debuted in prog 2. Mills had created Harlem Heroes, about the future sport of aeroball, a futuristic, violent version of basketball with jet-packs. Similar future sport series had been a fixture of Action, the similarly-themed film Rollerball had been released the previous year. Wanting to give the new comic a distinctive look, Mills wanted to use European artists, but the work turned in on Harlem Heroes by Trigo was disappointing.
Veteran British artists Ron Turner and Barrie Mitchell were tried out, but the newcomer Dave Gibbons won the editor over with his dynamic, American-influenced drawings and got the job. Mills wrote the first five episodes before handing the strip to Roy of the Rovers writer Tom Tully. Dan Dare was extensively revamped to make it more futuristic. In the new stories he had been put into suspended animation and revived several centuries in the future. Several artists were tried out before Mills settled on Italian artist Massimo Belardinelli, whose imaginative, hallucinatory work was fantastic at visualising aliens, although less satisfying on the hero himself; the scripts were endlessly rewritten in an attempt to make the series work, but few Dan Dare fans remember this version of the character fondly. Belardinelli and Gibbons switched strips, with Gibbons drawing Dare and Belardinelli drawing the Harlem Heroes sequel Inferno; when Gibbons took over Dare in Prog 28 the strip was refashioned as a'Star Trek' style space opera.
The other opening strips were M. A. C. H. 1, a super-powered secret agent inspired by The Six Million Dollar Man.
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Superman: The Man of Steel
Superman: The Man of Steel is a monthly American comic book series that ran for 136 issues from 1991 to 2003, featuring Superman and published by DC Comics. As a result of introducing this series alongside its existing titles, DC Comics was able to publish a new Superman comic each week. Included in these 136 issues were two special issues: #0 and #1,000,000, which were tie-ins to Zero Hour: Crisis in Time and DC One Million, respectively; the first issue was written by Louise Simonson and featured pencils by Jon Bogdanove, Tom Grummett, Bob McLeod, Dan Jurgens. Inks were by Dennis Janke, Jerry Ordway, Brett Breeding. Simonson wrote issues #1–56, 59–83, 86, #0 and Annuals #2, 4, 6 from 1991 to 1999. Bogdanove pencilled issues #1–68, 75–82, 85, #0 during the same period and returned for the final issue, #134, in 2003. Issues #9 and 10 were part of the "Panic in the Sky" storyline in 1992. Issues #22 through 26 were a part of "The Reign of the Supermen" storyline which received the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for "Favorite Comic-Book Story" for 1993.
After his introduction in The Adventures of Superman #500, Steel became the starring character of the Superman: The Man of Steel series. Issue #30 had a variant edition packaged in a polybag; the logo and all cover copy were printed on the bag and vinyl clings were included for a do-it-yourself front and back cover. Writer Mark Schultz and artist Doug Mahnke became the new creative team on the title with issue #87. Schultz and Mahnke introduced a new version of Superman's Fortress of Solitude in issue #100. From 1992 to 1997, DC published six issues of Superman: The Man of Steel Annual; the stories tied into themes that were featured in DC's annuals that year. These were: Annual #1 – Eclipso: The Darkness Within Annual #2 – Bloodlines Annual #3 – Elseworlds Annual #4 – Year One Annual #5 – Legends of the Dead Earth Annual #6 – Pulp Heroes In December 1995, a special Superman: The Man of Steel Gallery #1 was published, it features 22 pin-ups drawn by several artists. Superman: Panic in the Sky includes Superman: The Man of Steel #9–10, 188 pages, March 1993, ISBN 1-56389-094-1 The Death of Superman includes Superman: The Man of Steel #17–19, 172 pages, January 1993, ISBN 1-56389-097-6 World Without a Superman includes Superman: The Man of Steel #20–21, 240 pages, April 1993, ISBN 1-56389-118-2 The Return of Superman includes Superman: The Man of Steel #22–26, 480 pages, September 1993, ISBN 1-56389-149-2 The Death and Return of Superman Omnibus includes Superman: The Man of Steel #17–26, 784 pages, September 2007, ISBN 1-4012-1550-5 Superman: The Death of Clark Kent includes Superman: The Man of Steel #44–46, 320 pages, May 1997, ISBN 1-56389-323-1 Superman: The Trial of Superman includes Superman: The Man of Steel #50–52, 272 pages, November 1997, ISBN 1-56389-331-2 Superman: The Wedding and Beyond includes Superman: The Man of Steel #63, 192 pages, January 1998, ISBN 1-56389-392-4 Superman: Transformed!
Includes Superman: The Man of Steel #64 and 67, 197 pages, April 1998, ISBN 1-56389-406-8 Superman vs. the Revenge Squad includes Superman: The Man of Steel #61 and 65, 144 pages, February 1999, ISBN 1-56389-487-4 Superman: No Limits! Includes Superman: The Man of Steel #95–97, 212 pages, November 2000, ISBN 1-56389-699-0 Superman: Endgame includes Superman: The Man of Steel #98, 180 pages, January 2001, ISBN 1-56389-701-6 Superman:'Til Death Do Us Part includes Superman: The Man of Steel #99–100, 228 pages, December 2001, ISBN 1-56389-862-4 Superman: Critical Condition includes Superman: The Man of Steel #101–102, 196 pages, February 2003, ISBN 1-56389-949-3 Superman: Emperor Joker includes Superman: The Man of Steel #104–105, 256 pages, January 2007, ISBN 1-4012-1193-3 Superman: President Lex includes Superman: The Man of Steel #108–110, 244 pages, June 2003, ISBN 1-56389-974-4 Superman: Our Worlds at War, Vol. 1 includes Superman: The Man of Steel #115–116, 264 pages, September 2002, ISBN 1-56389-915-9 Superman: Our Worlds at War, Vol. 2 includes Superman: The Man of Steel #117, 264 pages, September 2002, ISBN 1-56389-916-7 Superman: Our Worlds at War Complete Edition includes Superman: The Man of Steel #115–117, 512 pages, June 2006, ISBN 1-4012-1129-1 Superman: Return to Krypton includes Superman: The Man of Steel #111 and 128, 212 pages, February 2004, ISBN 1-4012-0194-6 Superman: Ending Battle includes Superman: The Man of Steel #130–131, 192 pages, May 2009, ISBN 1-4012-0194-6 The title, Superman: The Man of Steel, would be used again for a series of trade paperbacks collecting the early adventures of the post-Crisis Superman.
The first volume retitles The Man of Steel limited series. Superman: The Man of Steel at the Comic Book DB Superman:The Man of Steel at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
DC Vertigo is an imprint of the American comic book publisher DC Comics. It was created in 1993 to publish stories with more graphic or adult content that could not fit within the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, thus allowing more creative freedom than DC's main imprint; these comics were free to contain explicit violence and drug abuse, nudity and other controversial subjects, similar to the content of R-rated films. Although its initial publications were in the horror and fantasy genres, it has published works dealing with crime, social commentary, speculative fiction and other genres. Publishing a mix of company- and creator-owned work, its current focus is on the latter, it pioneered in North America an common publishing model, in which monthly series are periodically comprised into collected editions which are kept in print for bookstore sale. Vertigo series have won the comics industry's Eisner Award, including the "best continuing series" of various years. Several of its publications have been adapted to film and episodic television.
Vertigo originated in 1993 under the stewardship of Karen Berger, a former literature and art-history student, who had joined DC Comics in 1979 as an assistant editor. In the mid-1980s, Berger was editor of such DC titles as Wonder Woman and Amethyst, Princess of Gemworld, began recruiting writers from the UK, including Neil Gaiman, Jamie Delano, Peter Milligan and Grant Morrison, she "found their sensibility and point of view to be refreshingly different and smarter" than those of most American comics writers, worked with them and others on superhero/science fiction series Animal Man, Doom Patrol vol. 2, Shade, the Changing Man vol. 2. 2, horror titles Hellblazer and The Saga of the Swamp Thing. These six ongoing titles, all of which carried a "Suggested for Mature Readers" label on their covers, shared a sophistication-driven sensibility the fan press dubbed "the Bergerverse". In a 1992 editorial meeting, Levitz, DC publisher Jenette Kahn, managing editor Dick Giordano, Berger was given the mandate to place these titles under an imprint that, as Berger described, would "do something different in comics and help the medium'grow up'".
Several DC titles bearing the age advisory, such as Green Arrow and The Question, did not make the transition to the new imprint. Several new Vertigo mini-series were developed for Disney Comics' aborted Touchmark Comics imprint – analogous to their mature-audiences Touchstone Pictures studio – announced before the so-called "Disney Implosion" of 1991, subsequently abandoned. Touchmark Comics was to be run by former DC editor Art Young, but when it was canceled, both Young and the works were brought into the Vertigo fold, allowing Berger to expand the imprint's publishing plans; these titles included Enigma, Sebastian O, Shadows Fall. Vertigo was launched in January 1993 with a mixture of existing ongoing series continued under the new imprint, new ongoing series, new mini-series, single-volume collections or graphic novels, their publishing plan for the first year involved two new titles – whether ongoing/limited series or one-shots – each month. The existing series were Shade the Changing Man, The Sandman, Animal Man, Swamp Thing, Doom Patrol.
The first comic book published under the "Vertigo" imprint was the first issue of Death: The High Cost of Living, a 3-issue series by Neil Gaiman and Chris Bachalo. The second new title was Enigma, an 8-issue limited series planned to launch Touchmark, written by Peter Milligan and drawn by Duncan Fegredo, the artist from Grant Morrison's earlier Kid Eternity miniseries; the following month saw the debut of Sandman: Mystery Theatre by Matt Wagner and Steven T. Seagle, illustrated by Guy Davis, described as "playing the'30s with a'90s feel... haunting, film noir-ish..." and starring original Sandman Wesley Dodds in a title whose "sensibilities echo crime genre fiction." Joining it was J. M. DeMatteis and Paul Johnson's 64-page one-shot Mercy. New series that began in the months that followed include Kid Eternity by Ann Nocenti and Sean Phillips, Grant Morrison and Steve Yeowell's 3-issue steampunk miniseries Sebastian O, Skin Graft by Jerry Prosser and Warren Pleece, The Last One by DeMatteis and Dan Sweetman, Jonah Hex: Two-Gun Mojo by Tim Truman and Sam Glanzman, Black Orchid by Dick Foreman and Jill Thompson, The Extremist by Peter Milligan and Ted McKeever, Scarab by John Smith with Scot Eaton and Mike Barreiro, The Children's Crusade, a crossover involving several of the imprint's ongoing series.
Gaiman's The Books of Magic limited-series was relaunched as an ongoing series written by John Ney Rieber, illustrated by Peter Gross, Gary Amaro, Peter Snejbjerg. Although the books did not have a consistent "house style" of art, the cover designs of early Vertigo series featured a uniform trade dress with a vertical bar along the left side, which included the imprint logo, date
Starman (Jack Knight)
Starman is fictional character, a comic book superhero in the DC Comics Universe, a member of the Justice Society of America. He is the son of Ted Knight. Created by James Robinson and Tony Harris, he first appeared in Zero Hour #1. Starman is the name of the popular and critically acclaimed comic book series chronicling Jack Knight's adventures, which ran from October 1994 to August 2001, totalling 81 issues as well as some annuals and special issues. Jack is the son of Ted Knight. Although as a child Jack is fascinated by his father's heroic life, he becomes more and more rebellious as he grows older. By the time he reaches adulthood, Jack is disdainful of his father's past. Jack's older brother David takes over his father's mantle, while Jack regards the superhero role with open disdain. Although Jack is shown as both schooled and talented in fine art, his true passion is collectibles, he becomes the owner and operator of an antique and collectibles store. Jack's role in the family changes after David is murdered by the son of the Mist, one of his father's old arch-foes.
The Mist attempts to murder Jack as well, who narrowly escapes by using one of his father's old gravity rods. Jack resolves to track down the Mist out of a desire to protect his father, he kills the Mist's son in battle and captures both the Mist and his daughter Nash, who vows revenge. The Mist succumbs to dementia after the death of his son. Jack reluctantly makes a deal to become Starman if his father agrees to devote his vast scientific knowledge to the betterment of mankind. Jack eschews a "uniform", instead opting to wear his street clothes. Nash attempts to become Jack's nemesis, she rapes Jack, with the intent of becoming pregnant. She gives birth to Jack's son, Kyle Theo Knight. Mist intends to raise him to hate Jack and all he stands for. Although Jack discovers many latent heroic qualities within himself, he only embraces them when Nash theorizes that she and Jack are two sides of the same coin. Jack vows to prove her wrong. To do so, he travels to Hell to rescue two men he hardly knows, tries valiantly to save a friendly incarnation of Solomon Grundy, helps prove Bulletman's innocence when he is accused of having been a Nazi agent during World War II.
Jack joins the Justice Society of America, following in his father's footsteps. Working alongside his father's contemporaries, Jack fights the wizard Mordru, the terrorist organization Kobra, the time-traveler Extant. Jack has to split his time between Opal City and the JSA's hometown of New York, making him a part-time member, he resigns from the team following the end of his superhero career. Jack operates out of Opal City and has a number of allies. First are the O'Dares, a family of Opal City police officers. In addition, Jack receives advice from a fortune teller named Charity, who has a shop in the alleys of the Opal. Jack rescues Mikaal Tomas, an alien who operated in New York under the name Starman during the 1970s. Jack's most intriguing ally is the Shade, an immortal Golden Age supervillain who aids Jack because he considers Opal City his home and wants it to remain quiet. Over time, Jack comes to question. Jack finds common ground with Jake "Bobo" Benetti, a retired super-strong bank robber from his father's days.
During his heroic career, Jack falls in love with a woman named Sadie. When she reveals that she is the sister of Will Payton, yet another hero to bear the name of Starman, he vows to set off into space to find her missing brother. Jack first seeks help in the Justice League of America. Equipped with his father's consciousness duplicated in a Mother Box, joined by Mikaal Tomas, Jack sets off on an intergalactic journey. However, a chance encounter diverts Jack from his intended route, he is lost in both time and space, he meets the Legion of Super-Heroes, counsels Jor-El, helps Adam Strange fight an invading empire. As a prisoner of the empire, Jack foments revolt to escape, working with members of the Green Lantern Corps, the Omega Men and the New Gods. Jack meets Will Payton, whose body has been merged with the mind of yet another Starman, Prince Gavyn. Together, the many Starmen work together to save Gavyn's empire. Jack leaves Gavyn/Payton to run the empire, returns to Earth to tell Sadie her brother's fate.
Upon his return, Jack faces all of his foes in a massive battle that nearly destroys Opal City. During the battle, Jack's father sacrifices himself to save the city. Following his father's death, Jack undertakes one final adventure, to resolve the mystery of the last recorded Starman, the Starman of 1951. Having the answer to that final riddle, Jack retires and takes his son to live with him and Sadie in San Francisco. Jack has passed his cosmic rod onto Courtney Whitmore, who calls herself "Stargirl" and operates with the JSA. Jack had an appearance in Identity Crisis #1, a non-speaking cameo, sitting next to Stargirl at Sue Dibny's funeral. James Robinson curre
Jack "King" Kirby was an American comic book artist and editor regarded as one of the medium's major innovators and one of its most prolific and influential creators. He grew up in New York City, learned to draw cartoon figures by tracing characters from comic strips and editorial cartoons, he entered the nascent comics industry in the 1930s, drawing various comics features under different pen names, including Jack Curtiss, before settling on Jack Kirby. In 1940, he and writer-editor Joe Simon created the successful superhero character Captain America for Timely Comics, predecessor of Marvel Comics. During the 1940s Kirby teamed with Simon, creating numerous characters for that company and for National Comics Publications to become DC Comics. After serving in the European Theater in World War II, Kirby produced work for DC Comics, Harvey Comics, Hillman Periodicals, other publishers. At Crestwood Publications, he and Simon created the genre of romance comics and founded their own short-lived comic company, Mainline Publications.
Kirby was involved in Timely's 1950s iteration, Atlas Comics, which in the next decade became Marvel. There, in the 1960s, under writer-editor Stan Lee, created many of the company's major characters, including the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, the Hulk; the Lee–Kirby titles garnered high sales and critical acclaim, but in 1970, feeling he had been treated unfairly in the realm of authorship credit and creators' rights, Kirby left the company for rival DC. At DC, Kirby created his Fourth World saga. While these series proved commercially unsuccessful and were canceled, the Fourth World's New Gods have continued as a significant part of the DC Universe. Kirby returned to Marvel in the mid-to-late 1970s ventured into television animation and independent comics. In his years, called "the William Blake of comics", began receiving great recognition in the mainstream press for his career accomplishments, in 1987 he was one of the three inaugural inductees of the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame. In 2017, Kirby was posthumously named a Disney Legend with Lee for their co-creations not only in the field of publishing, but because those creations formed the basis for The Walt Disney Company's financially and critically successful media franchise, the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
Kirby was married to Rosalind Goldstein in 1942. They had four children, remained married until his death from heart failure in 1994, at the age of 76; the Jack Kirby Awards and Jack Kirby Hall of Fame were named in his honor, he is known as "The King" among comics fans for his many influential contributions to the medium. Jack Kirby was born Jacob Kurtzberg on August 28, 1917, at 147 Essex Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City, where he was raised, his parents and Benjamin Kurtzberg, were Austrian Jewish immigrants, his father earned a living as a garment factory worker. In his youth, Kirby desired to escape his neighborhood, he liked to draw, sought out places he could learn more about art. Self-taught, Kirby cited among his influences the comic strip artists Milton Caniff, Hal Foster, Alex Raymond, as well as such editorial cartoonists as C. H. Sykes, "Ding" Darling, Rollin Kirby, he was rejected by the Educational Alliance because he drew "too fast with charcoal", according to Kirby.
He found an outlet for his skills by drawing cartoons for the newspaper of the Boys Brotherhood Republic, a "miniature city" on East 3rd Street where street kids ran their own government. At age 14, Kirby enrolled at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn. "I wasn't the kind of student. They wanted people. I didn't want to work on any project forever. I intended to get things done". Kirby joined the Lincoln Newspaper Syndicate in 1936, working there on newspaper comic strips and on single-panel advice cartoons such as Your Health Comes First!!!. He remained until late 1939, when he began working for the movie animation company Fleischer Studios as an inbetweener on Popeye cartoons. "I went from Lincoln to Fleischer," he recalled. "From Fleischer I had to get out in a hurry because I couldn't take that kind of thing," describing it as "a factory in a sense, like my father's factory. They were manufacturing pictures."Around that time, the American comic book industry was booming. Kirby began writing and drawing for the comic-book packager Eisner & Iger, one of a handful of firms creating comics on demand for publishers.
Through that company, Kirby did what he remembers as his first comic book work, for Wild Boy Magazine. This included such strips as the science fiction adventure "The Diary of Dr. Hayward", the Western crimefighter feature "Wilton of the West", the swashbuckler adventure "The Count of Monte Cristo", the humor features "Abdul Jones" and "Socko the Seadog", all variously for Jumbo Comics and other Eisner-Iger clients, he first used the surname Kirby as the pseudonymous Lance Kirby in two "Lone Rider" Western stories in Eastern Color Printing's Famous Funnies #63–64. He settled on the pen name Jack Kirby because it reminded him of actor James Cagney. However, he took offense to those who suggested he changed his name in order to hide his Jewish heritage. Kirby moved on to comic-book publisher and newspaper syndicator Fox Feature Syndicate, earning a then-reasonable $15-a-week salary, he began to