Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Margaret C. Hassan is an American politician, the junior United States Senator from New Hampshire. A Democrat, Hassan was elected to the Senate in the 2016 election, she was the 81st Governor of New Hampshire, from 2013 to 2017. Born in Boston, Hassan is a graduate of Brown University and earned a J. D. from the Northeastern University School of Law. After graduating from law school in 1985, Hassan was a healthcare executive in Boston. Hassan first ran for the New Hampshire Senate in 2002, she lost to incumbent Senator Russell Prescott, but won. Hassan was elected to a total of three two-year terms, representing New Hampshire's 23rd district, from January 2005 to December 2010. Hassan became the Majority Leader in the State Senate in 2008 before losing re-election in 2010. Hassan declared her candidacy for governor in October 2011. Hassan defeated former State Senator Jacalyn Cilley in the Democratic primary, faced attorney and Republican nominee Ovide M. Lamontagne in the general election. Hassan won with 55 % of the vote.
Hassan won re-election in 2014. Since becoming Governor of New Hampshire, Hassan was elected Vice Chair of the Democratic Governors Association and served as a superdelegate at the Democratic National Convention. In 2016, she ran for the U. S. Senate and narrowly defeated Kelly Ayotte, the Republican incumbent, by a thousand votes, she is serving with another former governor. Hassan was born Margaret Wood in Boston, the daughter of Margaret and Robert Coldwell Wood, a political scientist who served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Lyndon Johnson administration, she has two siblings, including Tony award-winning actor Frank Wood. Wood grew up in Massachusetts; as a child she sang at church. Her parents were politically active, young Maggie collated mailers for the League of Women Voters. Wood attended Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School, Sudbury and graduated with the Class of 1976. Wood earned her B. A. degree from Brown University in 1980. While at Brown, Wood met her future husband, Thomas Hassan, a student at the university.
She received a J. D. degree from the Northeastern University School of Law in 1985. From 1985 to 1999, Hassan worked as an attorney. From 1985 to 1992, Hassan worked at the Boston law firm and Dodge. From 1993 to 1996, Hassan was Associate General Counsel for Brigham and Women's Hospital/Partners Healthcare of Boston. In 1996, Hassan began working as an attorney for Sullivan, Weinstein and McQuay, a Boston corporate defense and business law firm. In 1999, Hassan was appointed by then-Governor Jeanne Shaheen as a citizen advisor to the Advisory Committee to the Adequacy in Education and Finance Commission. Hassan first ran for the New Hampshire Senate in 2002 after Democratic Party leaders suggested she run, she lost to incumbent Senator Russell Prescott 54% to 46%. In 2004, she ran against Prescott again and won 52% to 48%. In 2006, she won re-election against Natalie Healy 60% to 40%. In 2008, she defeated Lee Quandt 57% to 43%, she served as the assistant Democratic whip, president pro tempore, majority leader of the State Senate during her six years in office.
She represented New Hampshire's 23rd district, which includes the towns of East Kingston, Kensington, Newfields, Newton, South Hampton and Stratham. In November 2010, Hassan was defeated by Prescott in a second rematch, 53% to 47%, as Republicans regained control of both the state House and state Senate. Hassan served on the Budget Conference Committee. Hassan helped pass the FY2008-FY2009 budget. In 2008, Senate President Sylvia Larsen chose Hassan to serve as Senate Majority Leader, the number two position in the New Hampshire Senate. Larsen chose Hassan for the position because she wanted someone who would fight to get the democratic caucus to support the same agenda, at times creating friction between Hassan and her Republican colleagues. During her tenure as majority leader, Hassan had a major role in legalizing same-sex marriage in New Hampshire. Hassan presented three versions of a same-sex marriage bill, one of which narrowly gained enough support to pass both chambers. Hassan helped pass the FY2010-FY2011 budget.
This budget increased spending by over a billion dollars and contained thirty-three tax and fee increases, including taxing campsites like hotel rooms, a so-called "income tax" on New Hampshire business, raising vehicle registration fees. Capital Budget Committee Commerce and Consumer Protection Finance Public and Municipal Affairs Energy and Economic Development Internal Affairs Committee Executive Department and Administration Committee In October 2011, Hassan announced her candidacy for governor of New Hampshire, she won the Democratic primary with 53%, defeating former state senator Jacalyn Cilley, who received 39%. Hassan was endorsed by former U. S. President Bill Clinton Campaign themes included implementing the Affordable Care Act. In the general election, Hassan defeated Republican nominee Ovide M. Lamontagne by 55% to 43%, carrying every county in the state, her campaign was managed by Matt Burgess and senior consultants included media consultant Joe Slade White. Independent expenditure groups spent more than $11 million on Hassan's behalf.
Major financial support for Hassan's election came from the Washington, D. C.-based Democratic Governor's Ass
New Hampshire Attorney General
The New Hampshire Attorney General is a constitutional officer of the U. S. state of New Hampshire who serves as head of the New Hampshire Department of Justice. The current state Attorney General is Gordon MacDonald. Under Part II, Article 46 of the New Hampshire Constitution, the Attorney General is appointed by the Governor with approval of the Council; the Attorney General serves a term of 4 years, as required by RSA 21-M:3, two years longer than the term of the Governor. The Attorney General and their Deputy must be "admitted to the practice of law in New Hampshire" and "be qualified by reason of education and experience." New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated Section 7:6 lists the Attorney General's "Powers and Duties as State's Attorney": Shall act as attorney for the state in all criminal and civil cases in the supreme court in which the state is interested, in the prosecution of persons accused of crimes punishable with death or imprisonment for life. Shall have and exercise general supervision of the criminal cases pending before the state supreme and superior courts, With the aid of the county attorneys, the Attorney General shall enforce the criminal laws of the state Shall have the power to collect uncollected debts owed to the state as set forth in RSA 7:15-a.
The Attorney General can choose when to relieve any officer or person of any duty prescribed by law relative to the enforcement of any criminal law. Part II, Article 71, of the state constitution, provides for County Attorneys to be elected by the inhabitants of the respective counties according to the state Election laws; however RSA 7:34 states, "the county attorney of each county shall be under the direction of the Attorney General, and, in the absence of the latter, he or she shall perform all the duties of the Attorney General's office for the county." In Wyman v. Danais, 101 N. H. 487, the New Hampshire Supreme Court held: Construed together demonstrate a legislative purpose to place ultimate responsibility for criminal law enforcement in the Attorney General, to give him the power to control and supervise criminal law enforcement by the county attorneys in cases where he deems it in the public interest. The Attorney General is required by statute to nominate a Director of Administration.
They may nominate Assistant and Senior Assistant Attorneys General, as well as Criminal Justice and Consumer Protection Investigators. Additionally, in the interest of the public welfare, the Attorney General is permitted to delegate the authority of the office to the Deputy and Assistant Attorneys General as they see fit; the Attorney General is required to nominate a Deputy Attorney General for appointment by the governor, with the consent of the council. The Deputy acts as Attorney General whenever the latter is absent or unable to act from any cause, or whenever there is a vacancy in the office, provided an Acting Attorney General has not been appointed; the Governor and Council are required by RSA 7:15 to appoint an Acting Attorney General if the Attorney General becomes incapacitated to perform his or her duties. The Acting Attorney General serves only during such incapacity and is paid a "reasonable compensation for his services and expenses." The Deputy Attorney General serves as the Acting Attorney General until the Governor and Council appoint someone to be the Acting Attorney General.
The Attorney General is permitted to appoint Assistant Attorneys General subject to the approval of the governor and council, as provided for in the budget. Assistant Attorneys General each serve a term of 5 years and should a position be vacant prior to the expiration of the term, such a vacancy can be filled for the remainder of the term. An Assistant Attorney General may be removed only as provided by RSA 4:1; the Attorney General can designate Senior Assistant Attorneys General, who serve at the pleasure of the Attorney General. Senior assistant attorneys general may serve as bureau chiefs, or in any other position as the Attorney General sees fit; the Attorney General is required to nominate, subject to confirmation by the governor and council, an unclassified Director of Administration for the Office of Attorney General, within the limits of the appropriation made for the appointment, who shall serve for a 5-year term. The director of administration may be removed only as provided by RSA 4:1.
The Attorney General may nominate Criminal Justice Investigators and Consumer Protection Investigators, subject to confirmation by the Governor and Council. Criminal Justice Investigators and Consumer Protection Investigators serve a term of five years; the investigators are given statewide law enforcement authority, are considered a "peace officer" as defined in RSA 594:1, III, which authorizes them to make arrests in a criminal case. Investigators are required to meet the certification requirements for a police officer pursuant to RSA 188-F:26. Unless investigators fails to achieve certification or are decertified by the New Hampshire Police Standards and Training Council, investigators are only subject to removal as provided by RSA 4:1. New Hampshire Attorney General official website New Hampshire Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal New Hampshire Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw New Hampshire Revised Statutes at Law. Justia.com U.
S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of New Hampshire" at FindLaw New Hampshire Bar Association New Hampshire Attorney General Joseph Foster profile at National Association of Attorneys General Press releases at New Hampshire Attorney General
Libertarian Party (United States)
The Libertarian Party is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism and shrinking the size and scope of government. The party was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was formed on December 11, 1971 in Colorado Springs, Colorado; the founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War and the end of the gold standard. The party promotes a classical liberal platform, in contrast to the Democratic Party's modern liberalism and progressivism and the Republican Party's conservatism. Gary Johnson, the party's presidential nominee in 2012 and 2016, states that the Libertarian Party is more culturally liberal than Democrats, more fiscally conservative than Republicans. Current fiscal policy positions include lowering taxes, abolishing the Internal Revenue Service, decreasing the national debt, allowing people to opt out of Social Security and eliminating the welfare state, in part by utilizing private charities.
Current cultural policy positions include ending the prohibition of illegal drugs, advocating criminal justice reform, supporting same-sex marriage, ending capital punishment and supporting gun ownership rights. Many Libertarians believe in lowering the drinking age. While it is the third largest political party in the United States by voter registration, it has no members in Congress, state legislatures, or governorships. There are 511,277 voters registered as Libertarian in the 31 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D. C; the Libertarian Party was the party under which the first electoral vote was cast for a woman for Vice President in the 1972 United States presidential election due to a faithless elector. The first Libertarian National Convention was held in June 1972. In 1978, Dick Randolph of Alaska became the first elected Libertarian state legislator. Following the 1980 federal elections, the Libertarian Party assumed the title of being the third-largest party for the first time after the American Independent Party and the Conservative Party of New York continued to decline.
In 1994, over 40 Libertarians were elected or appointed, a record for the party at that time. 1995 saw a soaring voter registration for the party. In 1996, the Libertarian Party became the first third party to earn ballot status in all 50 states two presidential elections in a row. By the end of 2009, 146 Libertarians were holding elected offices. Tonie Nathan, running as the Libertarian Party's vice presidential candidate in the 1972 presidential election with John Hospers as the presidential candidate, was the first female candidate in the United States to receive an electoral vote; the 2012 election Libertarian Party presidential candidate, former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, received the highest number of votes—more than 1.2 million—of any Libertarian presidential candidate at the time. He was renominated for president in 2016, this time choosing former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate. Johnson/Weld shattered the Libertarian record for a presidential ticket, earning over 4.4 million votes.
Both Johnson and Green Party candidate Jill Stein received more news coverage in 2016 than third-party candidates get, with polls showing both candidates increasing their support over the last election among younger voters. Though the party has never won a seat in the United States Congress, it has seen electoral success in the context of state legislatures and other local offices. Three Libertarians were elected to the Alaska House of Representatives between 1978 and 1984 and another four to the New Hampshire General Court in 1992. Neil Randall, a Libertarian, won the election to the Vermont House of Representatives in 1998 and was re-elected until 2002, which marked the last time to date a Libertarian was elected to a state legislature. Rhode Island State Representative Daniel P. Gordon was expelled from the Republicans and joined the Libertarian Party in 2011. In July 2016 and June 2017, the Libertarians tied their 1992 peak of four legislators when four state legislators from four different states left the Republican Party to join the Libertarian Party: Nevada Assemblyman John Moore in January, Nebraska Senator Laura Ebke and New Hampshire Representative Max Abramson in May and Utah Senator Mark B.
Madsen in July. In the 2016 election cycle and Abramson did not run for re-election to their respective offices while Moore lost his race after the Libertarian Party censured him over his support of taxpayer stadium funding. Ebke was not up for re-election in 2016. New Hampshire Representative Caleb Q. Dyer changed party affiliation to the Libertarian Party from the Republican Party in February 2017. New Hampshire Representative Joseph Stallcop changed party affiliation to the Libertarian Party from the Democratic Party in May 2017. New Hampshire State Legislator Brandon Phinney joined with the Libertarian Party from the Republican Party in June 2017, the third to do so in 2017 and matching their 1992 and 2016 peaks of sitting Libertarian state legislators. In January 2018, sitting New Mexico Commissioner of Public Lands Aubrey Dunn Jr. changed party affiliation from Republican to the Libertarian Party, becoming the first Libertarian statewide officeholder in history. In 1972, "Libertarian Party" was chosen as the party's name, selected over "New Liberty Party".
The first official slogan of the Libertarian Party was "There ain't no such thing as a free lunch" (abbreviated "TANSTAAFL
Flag and seal of New Hampshire
The state of New Hampshire has held two seals since it declared its independence from Great Britain on January 5, 1776. While both seals have been retained, most people are only familiar with the Great Seal due to its corporate use. New Hampshire's state seal depicts the frigate USS Raleigh and is surrounded by a laurel wreath with nine stars; the Raleigh is one of the first 13 warships sponsored by the Continental Congress for a new American navy, built in 1776, at Portsmouth. The seal is surrounded by a laurel wreath; the wreath is an ancient symbol of fame and victory. The nine stars within the wreath show; the water stands for the harbor of Portsmouth, in the yellow-colored spit of land is granite, a strong igneous rock, representing both New Hampshire's rugged landscape and the sturdy character of her people. In 1784, when the present state constitution became effective, the legislature revised the seal to depict a ship on stocks, with a rising sun in the background, to reflect Portsmouth having become a major shipbuilding center during the war years.
Over the years, various items for shipment were shown on the frontal dock in the seal. In 1919, New Hampshire Historical Society Director Otis G. Hammond, on the order of the Governor and Executive Council of New Hampshire, wrote a history of the state seal and flag. Hammond described how because the law governing the design of the seal was not specific, when the dies wore down and had to be redesigned, the artists and sketchers had injected surprising details into the seal, such as rum barrels on the dock, sometimes including people standing beside them. In 1931, after Governor John G. Winant began his second term, he named a committee to produce a seal devoid of controversy; the General Court approved the committee's recommendations enacting a law codifying the official design of the state seal. The 1931 State Seal law placed the frigate Raleigh as the centerpiece of the new seal; the Raleigh was built in Portsmouth in 1776, as one of the first 13 warships sponsored by the Continental Congress for a new American navy.
The law declared the seal to be 2 inches in diameter bearing the new inscription, SEAL • OF • THE • STATE • OF • NEW HAMPSHIRE, replacing the Latin phrase Sigillum Reipublicae Neo Hantoniensis. The law declared that only a granite boulder could be shown in the foreground; the flag of the state of New Hampshire consists of the state seal centered on a blue background. The New Hampshire state flag's design was ranked 63rd out of 72 flags of U. S. states and U. S. territories), provinces and territories of Canada in a 2001 internet poll run by the North American Vexillological Association. At least one elected official has suggested replacing the state seal in the center of the flag with the Old Man of the Mountain, to memorialize its collapse in 2003, but no official action has been taken on the proposal. On July 1, 1774, the First Provincial Congress met for the first time in Exeter, subsequently they discarded every "Royal," including the previous "George the III" seal. In preparation of the 1776 state constitution, the First Provincial Congress designed a seal measuring 1½ inches in diameter and depicting an upright fish and pine tree on either side of a bundle of five arrows.
The fish and pine represented the main trade of the colony and the five arrows represented each of the five counties. The seal bore the inscription: COLONY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE * VIS UNITA FORTIOR; the Latin motto vis unita fortior means "A united force stronger." The motto was meant to unify the counties and was never proclaimed, but was used during the American Revolution until 1784. While no official document prescribing the seal has been located, the first record of the seal is found on commissions issued to military officers by the Provincial Congress dated September 1, 1775; the last known use of the seal was on an act of the General Assembly on July 5, 1776. This seal continues to be published by the New Hampshire General Court on along with the modern seal, on the cover of copies of the State Constitution, it is believed that the die used to affix the seal was designed during the summer of 1776. The first state seal was prescribed in an act passed September 12, 1776, two days after the resolution of statehood.
The seal is still used by some members of the General Court, though there is no current statute governing its design or use. In recent years, those freedom and liberty minded Representatives and Senators have promoted the original seal as a reminder, a symbol, of when the people valued their freedom and liberty over government control; the size of the seal was increased to 1¾ inches, comprised a pine tree and an upright fish, on each side of a bundle of five arrows. The design reflected the state's two major economic resources, the arrows symbolized the strength of unity among the five counties; the seal bears the inscription: SIGILL: REI - PUB: NEOHANTONI: * VIS UNITA FORTIOR*. State of New Hampshire Category:Symbols of New Hampshire New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated 3:9 State Seal New Hampshire Almanac - State Seal Anderson, Leon. History. Manual for the General Court 1981. NH RSA 3:2 State Flag New Hampshire Almanac - State Flag New Hampshire State Flag NH updated 1931 Hammond A. M, Otis Grant.
History of the Seal And Flag of the State of New Hampshire. By order of the Governor and Council of the State of New Hampshire. NH State Archives
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website