St Mary's, Harrow on the Hill
St Mary's, Harrow on the Hill, is the Borough and Parish Church at Harrow on the Hill in northwest London, England. It is a Grade I listed building. Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, began the construction of a church on this site in 1087, he died in 1089. His successor was St Anselm, who at the age of 60 was enthroned – after considerable delay – as archbishop in September 1093; the new church building, now completed and dedicated in the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary, was consecrated by St Anselm on 4 January 1094. Little of this original building remains apart from the lower section of the tower; the Chancel, with its fine arch and lancet windows, had been constructed by the end of the 12th century and this was followed by the rebuilding of the nave and the addition of the two transepts. The Rector of Harrow at this time was one Elias of Dereham and it was he who appointed the first vicar, John de Holtune, about the year 1236. In 1324, two chantries were founded. One was the Chantry of St Michael in the free chapel of Tokyngton, situated about one and a half miles away in Wembley.
The second was founded by the rector, William de Bosco, ‘‘to the honour of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary’’, was in the present building. It had been assumed that this chantry was somewhere in the south transept, but recent investigations have convincingly suggested that it was over the south porch; the small room, still there at the top of the staircase, contains evidence of Norman work, traces of colour decoration on the roof beams and a carved niche. John Byrkhede, himself a master builder, was appointed Rector of St Mary's in 1437, died at Harrow in 1468. By 1450, the present clerestory windows, the nave and transept roofs, in the chancel and the upper stages of the tower with its famous spire, had been constructed; the roofs of the nave and transepts are reckoned to be the finest in Middlesex with 377 carvings, while the spire is covered with 12 tons of lead. 400 years extensive restoration and renovation took place under George Gilbert Scott between 1846 and 1849. A parapet was added to the nave and aisle roofs, the north wall of the chancel was pulled down to enlarge the building, the east walls were rebuilt, the church building faced with flint and a vestry added to the north side.
This vestry was further enlarged about the turn of the 20th century. A proposal in 1893 to build an organ at the south side of the chancel was abandoned when three Norman windows were uncovered, still showing decoration on the splays; the T. C. Lewis Company was commissioned to build a three manual organ, completed in 1900. In 1932, Henry Willis & Co added new stops on the Swell division. In 1970, Rushworth & Dreaper rebuilt the organ. B. C. Shepard of London electrified the stop action and Great/Swell organ division in 1991 and 1994; the Lewis console was modernised by David Wells of Liverpool in 1998. The chancel roof, renewed in the 18th century, was decorated in 1972 by Campbell Smith & Co. There are thirteen ancient brasses in the church badly mutilated; the cope, to be seen in the North transept, was made for the 900th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone, the embroidered designs on this were copied from the mutilated brass of John Byrkhede in the chancel. The brass to John Lyon, founder of Harrow School, his wife, Joan, is on the wall of the nave, near his grave by the lectern.
It has an interesting inscription in English. The gravestone on the floor, with a Latin inscription, was laid in 1875. Lord Byron was a frequent visitor as a schoolboy from Harrow school, from 1801 to 1805, he sat dreaming by "his favourite tombstone", as recorded in "Lines Written beneath an Elm in the Churchyard of Harrow", reproduced on a memorial in front of the Peachey Tomb, erected by the son of one of Byron's school friends in 1905; the Elm burnt down sometime prior to 1935. Byron's daughter Allegra Byron is buried in an unmarked grave outside near to the south porch; the old door into the north porch used to be on the south side and was moved to its present position by Gilbert Scott for better protection. The font, of Purbeck marble, the chest in the north transept, like this door have been in use since 1200 – or earlier; the pulpit is a good example of late 17th century woodcarving. There are ten bells in the tower, the two smallest commemorating the present Queen Elizabeth's Silver jubilee.
The church is at the top of Harrow Hill and views towards Central London and most other directions can be seen from the churchyard. It is the highest building in Middlesex. Notable buildings that can be seen are the buildings of Canary Wharf, the BT Tower in Warren Street, some fourteen and nine miles away from Harrow, Wembley Stadium; the church is the icon of Harrow and can be seen from miles. In more recent years, it has been used as a navigational reference for aircraft approaching RAF Northolt. Memorials to: George Butler, Head Master, 1805–1829 John William Cunningham, vicar Byron Drury, Admiral Joseph Drury, Head Master, 1785–1805 James Edwards, bookseller William Gerard, politician John Lyon, founder of Harrow School, benefactor of The John Lyon School and the John Lyon's Charity Geoffrey Harold Woolley VC, vicarIn the North aisle: John Henry North, politician William Osgoode, first Chief Justice of Ontario, Canada The Parish and Boro
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format, used in non-religious or secular contexts as well; the term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those, baptized, would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith and General Intercessions. Catecheticals are characteristic of Western Christianity but are present in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 1973, The Common Catechism, the first joint catechism of Catholics and Protestants, was published by theologians of the major Western Christian traditions, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue. Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis took the form of instruction in and memorization of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, basic knowledge of the sacraments.
The word "catechism" for a manual for this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages. The use of a question and answer format was popularized by Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism, he wanted the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed were broken up into small sections, with the question "What does this mean" following each portion. The format calls upon a master and a student, or a parent and a child; the Westminster Shorter Catechism is an example: Q. What is the chief end of man? A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever! Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him? A; the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. The catechism's question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine.
These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom's view of the family as a "little church", placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord's table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Luther's Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Intended as instruction to teachers to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism, it is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, is meant to be memorized and repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface: Therefore it is the duty of every father of a family to question and examine his children and servants at least once a week and to ascertain what they know of it, or are learning and, if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at it.
The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist of instruction in the rule of conduct, which always accuses us because we fail to keep it, the rule of faith, the rule of prayer, the sacraments. Luther adds: However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the words only, but the young people should be made to attend the preaching during the time, devoted to the catechism, that they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be able to recite it as they have heard it, when asked, may give a correct answer, so that the preaching may not be without profit and fruit. Luther's Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to accommodate the understanding of a child or an uneducated person, it begins: The First CommandmentYou shall have no other gods. Q. What does this mean? A. We should fear and trust in God above all things. Calvin's 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement would produce their own form of instruction in each place.
While Calvin argues that no effort should be expended on preventing this, he adds: We are all directed to one Christ, in whose truth being united together, we may grow up into one body and one spirit, with the same mouth proclaim whatever belongs to the sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end, besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowing the materials of dissension in religion introduce an impious profanation of baptism. For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation — that we all agree in one faith? Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms ought to be the more on their guard, by producing anything rashly, they may not for the present only, but in regard to posterity do grievous harm to piety, inflict a deadly wound on the Church; the scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces diverse baptisms and diverse communions, diverse faith. However, forms may v
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558 upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel, she depended on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England, it was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir. She was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, she had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Queen of Scots. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo". In religion, she was tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of Spain, she only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands and Ireland.
By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history; as she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era; the period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard, she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England, her older half-sister, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. She was baptised on 10 September 1533. A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was deprived of her place in the royal succession. Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as I knew any in my life". Catherine Champernowne, better known by her married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was believed to speak Welsh, Cornish and Irish in addition to the languages men
Harrow on the Hill
Harrow on the Hill is an area of north west London and part of the London Borough of Harrow. The name refers to 408 feet; the district includes Harrow School. Etymology before 1398 derives from Harrow, & The Saxon Chronicles/The Peterborough Chronicle, which first recorded Harrow Hill in 767 as Gumeninga Hergae. A suggested meaning is heathen temple of a tribe called the Gumeningas', sons of Gumen. One of the earliest recorded uses of the name is found in 1398 as Harrowe atte Hille; the hill has been used as a place of pagan worship. It is alternatively explained to mean the church upon the hill. Harrow on the Hill formed an ancient parish and civil parish in the Gore hundred of Middlesex. In 1831 it occupied an area of 9,870 acres. There were significant boundary changes in 1894, when the bulk of the parish was removed to create the parishes of Harrow Weald and Wembley. By 1931 it occupied a reduced area of 2,129 acres and had a population of 26,380, it formed the Harrow on the Hill Urban District of Middlesex from 1894 and was abolished by a County Review Order in 1934, with the bulk of the area forming part of a new civil parish and urban district of Harrow.
In 1954 the urban district was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Harrow and in 1965 it was transferred to Greater London to form the London Borough of Harrow. On the 27 April 1646, King Charles I, when fleeing Oxford on his way to Southwell, where he was due to surrender to the Scottish Army, stopped at Harrow on the Hill near St Mary's Church, so that he could take a final glimpse at London and to water his horses. A plaque on Grove Hill near Harrow School marks the spot, says that the spring below has since been called King Charles' Well; the Hills & Saunders photography company had a studio on Harrow on the Hill from the 1860s photographing the schools and local area. The archive of c. 80,000 glass plates still exists and much of it can be seen today online at the Harrow Photos website. The population of the Harrow on the Hill ward of the London Borough of Harrow was 9,578 in 1991 and 10,632 in 2001, it occupies an area of 357 hectares though the hill itself occupies 100 hectares and in 2001 had a population density of 29.74 persons per hectare.
There were 4,539 households in the district in 2001. The ward's boundaries encompass the majority of the hill and Roxeth, Sudbury Hill and parts of West Harrow; the 2011 census showed that White British was the largest ethnic group, 34% of the population, followed by 19% Indian, 12% Other Asian and 10% Other White. Harrow on the Hill is an ecclesiastical parish with St. Mary's, Harrow on the Hill at the apex, it was consecrated by St Anselm in 1094. There is a Roman Catholic parish church at the foot of the hill, Our Lady and St Thomas of Canterbury, dedicated to Our Lady and St Thomas of Canterbury. Churchfields, Harrow on the Hill, centre of the Harrow Pentagram: Hergae Mound Oak trees leading from the Yew tree grove in Churchfields to the Yew tree grove in St Mary's Church. Hergae Mound is a direct flight line for pipistrelle bats and barn owls - active at dusk; the Harrow Pentagram: Centre is St. Mary's at Harrow-on-the-hill; the five points around it are: Belmont Hill Stanmore, Horsenden Hill Greenford, Barn Hill Wembley, Dabbs Hill, St. John's Pinner.
First, Harrow on the Hill's original name ‘Gumeninga hergae’ suggests that the pagan practises may have still been taking place on the hill – despite increasing conversion to Christianity at the time. At the same time, more Harrow on the Hill and St. Mary's that now stands on it serves as an example of something that may have been widespread at the time of its construction – namely the replacement of a pagan temple by a Christian church; this practice, in rhetoric at least, is not unheard of. In the sixth and seventh centuries, Pope Gregory the Great called in his pursuit of pagan conversion churches to be built on pagan sites. However, St. Mary's could well be an artefact of this practice – one of the few that explicitly link back to this conversion period and Christianity's approach to pagan cultures. Harrow's famous hill has significance well beyond the borders of the borough, indeed, well beyond the borders of London; the hill, its church, are access points – potential access points albeit – to the ancient people that are the roots and origin of the nation today, to a time when this people underwent a considerable transformation, one that's impact continues to be seen in the present.
It's something to think about, at least – not only that our old hill may have national importance, but that, when we walk its steep pastures, we tread on the site of a by-gone, medieval culture, on raw history buried in the soil. The area has three Church of England schools. Harrow-on-the-Hill station, although named after the settlement, is located some distance to the north of the hill; the London Underground service at Harrow-on-the-Hill is provided by the Metropolitan line, the station is served by the Chiltern Railways London to Aylesbury Line. These services run in to central London, out west/north west to the outer reaches of London and beyond. About equidistant to Harrow-on-the-Hill station from the top of the hill, is South Harrow on the Piccadilly line; the 258 and H17 London bus routes run over Harrow on the Hill itself. A roadside plaque unveiled on 25 February 1969 states that the first recorded motor accident in Great Britain to have involved the death of the car driver took place at Harrow on the Hill on a road called Grove Hill seventy years earlier, on 25 February 1899.
The plaque makes no ment