Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi under one government. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian Islands became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom of Hawai‘i voluntarily and without bloodshed or war. Two major dynastic families ruled the House of Kalākaua; the Kingdom won recognition from major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner; the U. S. watched over the Kingdom. Hawaii was forced to adopt a new constitution in 1887 when King Kalākaua was threatened with violence by the Honolulu Rifles, a white, anti-monarchist militia, to sign it. Queen Liliʻuokalani, who succeeded Kalākaua in 1891, tried to abrogate the 1887 constitution and promulgate a new constitution, but was overthrown in 1893 at the hands of the Committee of Safety, a group of residents consisting of Hawaiian subjects and foreign nationals of American and German descent. Hawaii became a republic until the United States annexed it using The Newlands Resolution, a joint resolution passed on July 4, 1898, by the United States Congress creating the Territory of Hawaii.
In ancient Hawaii, society was divided into multiple classes. At the top of the class system was the aliʻi class with each islands ruled by a separate aliʻi nui. All of these rulers were believed to come from a hereditary line descended from the first Polynesian, who would become the earth mother goddess of the Hawaiian religion. Captain James Cook was the first European to encounter the Hawaiian Islands, on his fourth voyage, he was killed in a dispute over the taking of a longboat. Three years the Island of Hawaii was passed to Kalaniʻōpuʻu's son, Kīwalaʻō, while religious authority was passed to the ruler's nephew, Kamehameha. A series of battles, lasting 15 years, was led by the warrior chief; the Kingdom of Hawaii was established with the help of western weapons and advisors, such as John Young and Isaac Davis. Although successful in attacking both Oʻahu and Maui, he failed to secure a victory in Kauaʻi, his effort hampered by a storm and a plague that decimated his army. Kauaʻi's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha.
The unification ended the ancient Hawaiian society, transforming it into an independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the traditions and manner of European monarchs. From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi was ruled by two major dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government styled as Kamehameha. Lunalilo was a member of the House of Kamehameha through his mother. Liholiho and Kauikeaouli were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. During Liholiho's and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Kaʻahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister. Economic and demographic factors in the 19th century reshaped the islands, their consolidation into one unified political entity led to international trade. Under Kamehameha, sandalwood was exported to China; that led to the introduction of trade throughout the islands. Following Kamehameha's death the succession was overseen by his principal wife, Ka'ahumanu, designated as regent over the new king, a minor.
Queen Ka'ahumanu eliminated various prohibitions governing women's behavior. They included women eating bananas, she overturned the old religion as the Christian missionaries arrived in the islands. The main contribution of the missionaries was to develop a written Hawaiian language; that led to high levels of literacy in Hawaii, above 90 percent in the latter half of the 19th century. The development of writing aided in the consolidation of government. Written constitutions enumerating the power and duties of the King were developed. In 1848, the Great Māhele was promulgated by the king, it instituted formal property rights to the land. It followed the customary control of the land prior to this declaration. Ninety-eight percent of the land was assigned to chiefs or nobles. Two percent went to the commoners. No land could be only transferred to lineal descendant land manager. For the natives, contact with the outer world represented demographic disaster, as a series of unfamiliar diseases such as smallpox decimated the natives.
The Hawaiian population of natives fell from 128,000 in 1778 to 71,000 in 1853 and kept declining to 24,000 in 1920. Most lived in remote villages. American missionaries converted most of the natives to Christianity; the missionaries and their children became a powerful elite into the mid-19th century. They provided the chief advisors and cabinet members of the kings and dominated the professional and merchant class in the cities; the elites promoted the sugar industry. American capital set up a series of plantations after 1850. Few natives were willing to work on the sugar plantations and so recruiters fanned out across Asia and Europe; as a result, between 1850 and 1900 some 200,000 contract laborers from China, the Philippines and elsewhere came to Hawaii under fixed term contracts. Most returned home on schedule. By 1908 about 180,000 Japanese workers had arrived. No more were allowed in; the Hawaiian army and navy developed from the warriors of Kona under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810.
The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms including helmets made of natural materials and loincl
Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii
The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii began on January 17, 1893, with a coup d'état against Queen Liliʻuokalani on the island of Oahu by subjects of the Kingdom of Hawaii, United States citizens, foreign residents residing in Honolulu. A majority of the insurgents were foreigners, they prevailed upon American minister John L. Stevens to call in the U. S. Marines to protect United States interests, an action that buttressed the rebellion; the revolutionaries established the Republic of Hawaii, but their ultimate goal was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which occurred in 1898. The Kamehameha Dynasty was the reigning monarchy of the Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795, until the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. On July 6, 1846, U. S. Secretary of State John C. Calhoun, on behalf of President Tyler, afforded formal recognition of Hawaiian independence under the reign of Kamehameha III; as a result of the recognition of Hawaiian independence, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities.
The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalākaua. Sugar had been a major export from Hawaii since Captain James Cook's arrival in 1778; the first permanent plantation in the islands was on Kauai in 1835. William Hooper began growing sugar cane. Within thirty years there would be plantations on four of the main islands. Sugar had altered Hawaii's economy. United States influence in Hawaiian government began with American-born plantation owners demanding a say in Kingdom politics; this was driven by the economics of the sugar industry. Pressure from these foreign born politicians was being felt by the King and chiefs with demands of land tenure. After a five month occupation by the British in 1843, Kamehameha III relented to the foreign advisors to private land demands with the Great Māhele, distributing the lands as pushed on by the missionaries, including Gerrit P. Judd. During the 1850s, the U. S. import tariff on sugar from Hawaii was much higher than the import tariffs Hawaiians were charging the U.
S. and Kamehameha III sought reciprocity. The monarch wished to lower the tariffs being paid out to the U. S. while still maintaining the Kingdom's sovereignty and making Hawaiian sugar competitive with other foreign markets. In 1854 Kamehameha III proposed a policy of reciprocity between the countries but the proposal died in the U. S. Senate; as early as 1873, a United States military commission recommended attempting to obtain Ford Island in exchange for the tax-free importation of sugar to the U. S. Major General John Schofield, U. S. commander of the military division of the Pacific, Brevet Brigadier General Burton S. Alexander arrived in Hawaii to ascertain its defensive capabilities. United States control of Hawaii was considered vital for the defense of the west coast of the United States, they were interested in Pu'uloa, Pearl Harbor; the sale of one of Hawaii's harbors was proposed by Charles Reed Bishop, a foreigner who had married into the Kamehameha family, had risen in the government to be Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs, owned a country home near Pu'uloa.
He showed the two U. S. officers around the lochs, although his wife, Bernice Pauahi Bishop disapproved of selling Hawaiian lands. As monarch, William Charles Lunalilo, was content to let Bishop run all business affairs but the ceding of lands would become unpopular with the native Hawaiians. Many islanders thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost and opposed any cession of land. By November 1873, Lunalilo canceled negotiations and returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice. Lunalilo left no heirs; the legislature was empowered by the constitution to elect the monarch in these instances and chose David Kalākaua as the next monarch. The new ruler was pressured by the U. S. government to surrender Pearl Harbor to the Navy. Kalākaua was concerned that this would lead to annexation by the U. S. and to the contravention of the traditions of the Hawaiian people, who believed that the land was fertile and not for sale to anyone. In 1874 through 1875, Kalākaua traveled to the United States for a state visit to Washington DC to help gain support for a new treaty.
Congress agreed to the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 for seven years in exchange for Ford Island. After the treaty, sugar production expanded from 12,000 acres of farm land to 125,000 acres in 1891. At the end of the seven-year reciprocity agreement, the United States showed little interest in renewal. On January 20, 1887, the United States began leasing Pearl Harbor. Shortly afterwards, a group of non-Hawaiians calling themselves the Hawaiian Patriotic League began the Rebellion of 1887, they drafted their own constitution on July 6, 1887. The new constitution was written by Lorrin Thurston, the Hawaiian Minister of the Interior who used the Hawaiian militia as threat against Kalākaua. Kalākaua was forced under threat of assassination to dismiss his cabinet ministers and sign a new constitution which lessened his power, it would become known as the "Bayonet Constitution" due to the threat of force used. The Bayonet Constitution allowed the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but had stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.
Eligibility to vote for the House of Nobles was altered, stipulating that both candidates and voters were now required to own property valuing at least three thousand dollars, o
Ke Aliʻi Kilinahe was a kaukau aliʻi noble who served under the ruling ali'i nui of the islands of Hawaii and Oahu, during the Kingdom of Hawaii. He is of a collateral family of the House of Kamehameha, he performed his hana lawelawe or "service task" under Ka'ahumanu and Kamehameha III, starting as a kāhili bearer and royal attendant. He was brought into the Royal Court by Charles Kanaina to assume all of his duties and responsibilities, he managed the chief's goods. Kilinahe, in the Hawaiian language, means "light rain". Kilinahe was of a great grandson of Moana Wahine of the princely House of Moana, a collateral family of the House of Kamehameha. Kilinahe's natural father was Paihewa and his natural mother was called Maunakapu, his maternal grandmother, Kaleimanokahoʻowaha was a daughter of Moana Wahine and Palila Nohomualani, making him first cousin to Charles Kanaina, second cousin of Lunalilo and the grand nephew of Kanaina I. He was born in Maui Hawaii. Kilinahe stated, he was the hanai adopted son of Kahuakao and his mother Kalamaie, both of whom held Royal patents in Kilinahe's name.
Charles Kanaina brought in Kilinahe as one of his closest relatives, to assume all of his service duties in the Royal Court of Kamehameha III. As an aliʻi who served the ruling Ali'i nui, Kilinahe performed his hana lawelawe under Ka'ahumanu while she served as Kuhina Nui alongside Kamehameha III, her co-ruler, he starting as a kāhili royal attendant. When Kanaina was elevated in the House of Kamehameha through his marriage to Miriam Auhea Kekāuluohi, Kilinahe would take over all of his official responsibilities. Kilinahe would manage the chief's goods; the Royal Circuit was a famous tour of the king made to locations around the island to visit citizens and encourage them to read and write, instruct the land agents and encourage the teachers and make sure they were well cared for. Kaʻahumanu died June 5, 1832. In November 1833, Kilinahe was one of two armed royal attendants that accompanied Kanaina, Kekūanāoʻa, Kīnaʻu, Hoapili to the Kings home at Hale-uluhe on the Beretania grounds in order to convince him to name Kina'u Premier of the Kingdom instead of Liliha, Boki's wife.
The act of entering the Kings place was considered to be a death sentence but they were convinced by Hoapili that the guards would not fire upon them. The group entered; when Kamehameha III saw them he fell into tears at seeing his foster mother's for the first time in many years. Hoapili begged the king that if he should proclaim Liliha premier that he should first kill him so that he should not be blamed for Liliha's accent, he presented Kina'u as the daughter of the house of Kamehameha and asked that she serve the King, who agreed but stated that Liliha should be informed. When called upon, Liliha was found drunk. A few days it was made official. Kilinahe was named an ali'i chief of land by Kamehameha The Great in 1808. Kahuakao and his mother Kalamaie both held royal patents in Kilinahe's name. After being brought into the Royal Court by his cousin, Kilinahe would sometimes stay with at Kanaina's Pohukaina estate. After the royal court, Kilinahe would work as a konohiki on Oahu until being discharged.
In R. Keelikolani vs D. Manaku, the court wrote that by being discharged from his management of the Moanalua lands by the owner, Kamehameha V, said nothing about losing life tenure of the lands as Konohiki. However, after being discharged he moved back to Lahaina, living there for 15 years until Kanaina would again bring him back to the Capitol just before both their deaths in 1877 and 78. During the period of the late Hawaiian Kingdom, Lunalilo was known to be the largest land owner in Hawaii from inheritance passed to him from his mother, Kekāuluohi and from Kīnaʻu. All of the main family had died, leaving Kanaina to become the holder of the largest collection of lands in Hawaii by the time of his death. Kilinahe was brought back to Oahu to testify to the Supreme court on Kanaina's behalf over a lost will of Kekāuluohi and stayed until his death during the probate hearings of the Kanaina estate. Kekāuluohi died June 7, 1845. In March 1876, Kanaina requested probate of a lost will by parole proof of its contents.
It was stated. The witnesses included Auwai and Samuel Kamakau. Kilinahe would be brought back to Honolulu to testify for the proof of the last will and testament of Kekāuluohi, Kanaina's wife and the mother of Lunalilo, he remained in Honolulu until his death December 11, 1878. Charles Kanaina died intestate on March 13, 1877. Though he had prepared a will, it left everything to his son, William Lunalilo, who himself had died several years before. Litigation through the Hawaiian Supreme Court over the span of several years took place in order to adjudicate heirs to the largest collection of private lands in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Kanaina's land was sold at auction and funds used to disperse his estate to eight heirs. Petitioners to the court included King David Kalākaua for his two sisters and Likelike, Keʻelikōlani, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Kilinahe as well as several other distant relatives with their representatives. Kilinahe was married several times. With his first wife, Wahineole, he had a son, Puahi who married Helelani and had three children, Mary Kapola, Kilinahe Puahi II and Kalikamaka.
His second wife was a granddaughter of Keaweheulu and great granddaughter of Heulu. Kilinahe's third and final wife was Lama Puahi, they were married in 1853 by Father Medisti. They had se
The Kuamoʻo Burials is an historic Hawaiian burial site for warriors killed during a major battle in 1819. The site is located at Kuamoʻo Bay in the North Kona District, on the island of Hawaiʻi, United States. Despite some contact with Europeans, Kamehameha I, after creating a united Kingdom of Hawaii, followed the ancient Hawaiian Religion called the Kapu system; when he died in May 1819, power passed to his wife Queen Kaʻahumanu and Kamehameha I's son Liholiho who abolished the kapu system, leaving Hawaii religionless. However, Kamehameha I's nephew Kekuaokalani wanted to keep the kapu system. Kekuaokalani led an armed rebellion to protect the traditions still honored by many of the common people; the traditionalists marched from Kaʻawaloa at Kealakekua Bay and met the royal army headed by Kalanimoku in an area known as Lekeleke in December 1819. Both sides in the battle at this site had rifles, but Kalanimoku had a small cannon mounted on a double canoe, so over 300 warriors were killed, including Kekuaokalani and his wife Manono, who were buried under the lava rocks.
The rest of the followers of the old religion dispersed, were pardoned. Within a year, American Christian Protestant missionaries such as Asa Thurston and Hiram Bingham arrived, the culture was forever changed. There has not been a battle of that size on the island since; the battlefield is listed on the Hawaii register of historic places as site 10-37-1745, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 as site 74000714. The name comes from the Ahupuaʻa, bay called Kuamoʻo just to the South where the battle took place, it means "backbone" in the Hawaiian Language. The burial ground was called Lekeleke, on the border between the Ahupuaʻa of Honalo. Just to the North of this site is historic Keauhou Bay. King David Kalakaua in his book entitled "Hawaiian Legends: Introduction," in 1888 eulogizes the leader Kaiwi-kuamo'o-kekuaokalani as follows: "In the twilight of that misty period looms up a grand defender of the faith of Keawe and Umi and the altars of the Hawaiian gods; the champion was Kekuaokalani, a nephew a half-brother of Liholiho.
In his veins coursed the royal blood of Hawaii, his bearing was that of a king. He was above six and one-half feet in height, with limbs well-proportioned and features strikingly handsome and commanding, he was of the priesthood, through the bestowal of some tabu or prerogative, claimed to be the second in authority to Hewahewa, who traced his lineage back to Pa'ao, the Tahitian High Priest of Pili. His wife, was scarcely less distinguished for her courage and chiefly status." King David Kalakaua. Hawaiian Legends: Introduction. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Queen Lydia Liliuokalani. Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen. Mutual Publishing Honolulu. Charles Ahlo. Kamehameha's Children Today. Bishop Museum Honolulu. Emmett Cahill; the Life and Time of John Young, Confidant& Advisor to Kamehameha the Great. Island Heritage Publishing Aiea Honolulu. David Kaonohiokala Bray & Douglas Low; the Kahuna Religion of Hawai'i. Borderland Sciences & Research Foundation, Inc. Garberville, CA. Mary Pukui & Samuel A. Elbert.
Hawaiian Dictionary. University of Hawaii Press Honolulu Hawaii
Robert William Wilcox
Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox, nicknamed the Iron Duke of Hawaiʻi, was a Native Hawaiian revolutionary soldier and politician. He led uprisings against both the government of the Hawaiian Kingdom under King Kalākaua and the Republic of Hawaii under Sanford Dole, what are now known as the Wilcox rebellions, he was elected the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaii. Wilcox was born February 1855, on the island of Maui, his father, Captain William Slocum Wilcox was a native of Rhode Island. His mother was a native of Maui, named Kalua, she was the daughter of Haupa. Makole was the great grandson of Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku. Wilcox's grandmother, Haupa was descended from Umi-a-Liloa of Lonomakaihonua, he attended Haleakala Boarding School in the town of Makawao. Upon completion of his studies, Wilcox became a teacher at a Maui country school. In 1880, Wilcox was elected to the royal legislature in Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, he represented the citizens of its neighboring Maui towns.
In 1881, King David Kalākaua selected Wilcox and two other part-Hawaiian young men to study at the Royal Military Academy at Turin in the Kingdom of Italy as a part of the Education of Hawaiian Youths Abroad program. By the time he completed his training in 1885, he achieved the rank of sublieutenant of artillery. Impressed with his military skills, Italian officials sent Wilcox to the Royal Application School for Engineer and Artillery Officers. In 1888, the Reform Party took power in the Hawaiian Kingdom. Through what was called the Bayonet Constitution, they removed most political authority from the monarch, placed income and property requirements on voters limiting the electorate to only wealthy native Hawaiians and Europeans; the Reform Party ended costly programs such as Wilcox's training in Italy. On August 29, 1887, Wilcox received his orders to return home. Returning to Hawaiʻi in October with his wife Gina Sobrero, a baroness related to Italy's Colonna family, he began a short-lived career as a surveyor.
He had now lost confidence that Kalākaua was strong enough to protect the interests of the Hawaiian people. Wilcox along with Charles Wilson and Sam Nowlein, planned a coup d'état to replace Kalākaua with his sister Liliʻuokalani, but the plot was never executed. On February 11, 1888, Wilcox left Hawaiʻi intending to return to Italy with his wife. Instead of returning to Italy, Wilcox took up residence in San Francisco and worked as a surveyor while his wife Gina earned extra money teaching French and Italian; when he decided to return to Hawaiʻi in the spring of 1889, Gina refused to go with him, took their daughter back to Italy. Wilcox planned and this time executed another attempt to force King Kalākaua to sign a new constitution to replace the 1887 Document on July 30, 1889. Kalākaua aware of the plot, avoided the palace, afraid that the rebellion would replace him with his sister Liliʻuokalani, thus stymied, Wilcox was confronted by the Honolulu Rifles militia unit. After a pitched battle, Wilcox surrendered.
In October 1889, he was tried for treason before judge Albert Francis Judd but acquitted by the jury. Being one of the few leaders to stand up to the conservative royalist Reform Party earned him respect among the people; the American minister John L. Stevens, who called Wilcox a "half breed", wrote: "The trial is tending plainly to show that the Hawaiians are numerously in sympathy with Wilcox." He helped form a new political party called the "National Reform Party" which advocated restoring power to the monarch. Wilcox was again elected to the royal legislature where he served from 1890 to 1893 representing the island of Oahu. However, the conservatives in the original Reform Party, backed by the economic resources of the "Big Five" industrial corporations remained in power. In 1891, King Kalākaua died and his sister Liliʻuokalani became ruling monarch, swearing to uphold the 1887 Constitution. Wilcox was angered that Queen Liliʻuokalani did not choose him to be in her government, he formed his own National Liberal Party in November 1891.
Although he did not explicitly advocate ending the Monarchy, the party advocated restoring power to the people if it meant a republican form of government. After the elections of February 1892, when only 14,000 people were allowed to vote and petitions demanded reforms to the Constitution of the Kingdom. On May 20, 1892, Wilcox and associates were arrested and charged with conspiring to set up a republic. A month the charges were dropped and he was released. Back in the Legislature, he backed a measure that would strip power from the cabinet, by August 1892, the ministers had resigned. Wilcox founded a newspaper called "The Liberal" from September 1892 to April 1893, he edited the section in the Hawaiian language while an English language section had several other editors. The paper attacked the extravagant lifestyle enjoyed by the Royal Family while the common people were suffering the effects of an economic slowdown. On November 1, 1892, Queen Liliʻuokalani appointed a new cabinet, two hours the Legislature voted to remove them from office.
On November 8, 1892, a new government acceptable to the Legislature was formed. Wilcox no longer directly attacked the Queen, but advocated modernization, was quoted in the "San Francisco Examiner" that "...we should take some steps to secure commercial and political protection from some foreign country." By the end of 1892, "The Liberal" expressed support for the Queen. On January 12 another vote of no confidence allowed the Queen to appoint another cabi
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred