John Malalas

John Malalas, was a Greek chronicler from Antioch. The name Malalas derived from the Aramaic word for "rhetor", "orator"; the alternative form Malelas is first appearing in Constantine VII. Malalas was educated in Antioch, was a jurist there, but moved to Constantinople at some point in Justinian I's reign, he wrote a Chronographia in the beginning and the end of which are lost. In its present state it begins with the mythical history of Egypt and ends with the expedition to Roman Africa under the tribune Marcianus, Justinian's nephew, in 563. Except for the history of Justinian and his immediate predecessors, it possesses little historical value; the eighteenth book, dealing with Justinian's reign, is well acquainted with, colored by, official propaganda. The writer is an upholder of monarchical principles, he used several sources. The work is important as the first surviving example of a chronicle written not for the learned but for the instruction of the monks and the common people, its language shows a compromise with the spoken language of the day, although "it is still much a written style.

In particular, he employs technical terminology and bureaucratic clichés incessantly, and, in a period of transition from Latin to Greek governmental terminology, still uses the Latin loanwords alongside their Greek replacements.... The overall impression created by Malálas' style is one of simplicity, reflecting a desire for the straightforward communication of information in the written language of everyday business as it had evolved under the influence of spoken Greek."It obtained great popularity, was used by various writers until the ninth century. It is preserved in an abridged form in a single manuscript now at Oxford, as well as in various fragments. Medieval translation in Georgian exists. Philokalia Hesychasm This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Malalas, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 461. TextJohannes Thurn 2000, Ioannis Malalae Chronographia, Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae 35 ISBN 3-11-008800-2TranslationElizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott et al.

1986, The Chronicle of John Malalas: A Translation, Byzantina Australiensia 4 ISBN 0-9593626-2-2 E. Jeffreys, B. Croke, R. Scott, Studies in John Malalas, pp. 1–25. David Woods, "Malalas, a Church-inscription from Antioch," Vigiliae Christianae, 59,1, pp. 54–62. J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, "Malalas on Antioch," in Idem and Change in Late Antiquity: Religion and their Historiography. Translation of the 8th book of Malalas' Chronographia Greek Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca with analytical indexes Catholic Encyclopedia, John Malalas"

Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei II

Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei II is a role-playing video game developed by Atlus and published by Namco for the Famicom. An enhanced Super Famicom port was developed by Opera House and released by Atlus in 1995; the second entry in the Megami Tensei series, the gameplay features the unnamed protagonist exploring a post-apocalyptic wasteland and recruiting demons as they are pushed into taking part in a conflict between the demonic forces of Lucifer and the army of the One True God. Development began in 1987 following the release of Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei. While the first game was an adaptation of a novel trilogy, Megami Tensei II has an original story that examines preconceptions surrounding the portrayal of order and chaos. Kouji Okada and Tsukasa Masuko returned as director and composer, while artwork was designed by Kazuma Kaneko; the game received critical acclaim upon release, was remade in the 1992 Super Famicom title Shin Megami Tensei, is regarded as an influential entry in the series.

Digital Devil Story: Megami Tensei II is a role-playing video game in which players take the role of an unnamed man who explores the post-apocalyptic remains of Tokyo. Like its predecessor Megami Tensei II has players navigate dungeon environments in first-person, but between dungeons they navigate an overworld from an overhead perspective. During their journey, the protagonist's party can visit shops and towns to gain additional story information and to purchase items using in-game currency; as they progress through the story, the protagonist is presented with morality-based dialogue options which influence how people respond to him and determine which ending is received. The turn-based battles are triggered through random encounters; the player has several options, including fleeing from battle. The number of enemies are indicated by small sprites on the bottom of the battle screen. During their turn in combat, the protagonist and current companion can perform an action such as attacking using melee or ranged attacks such as magic, or use an item which can weaken the enemy or strengthen the player party.

Upon completing a battle, the party is rewarded with experience points, skill points and money. Skill points are assigned to the protagonist's attributes such as speed or magic, modifying future performance in battle. In addition to fighting, the party can talk with demons they encounter, through a negotiation process persuade them to join their party. Using a special location in the game world, players can fuse two different demons into a new demon, with the new demon inheriting skills from both its parents; the choices made by the protagonist during the story impact. The attitude of demons towards the player is governed by the moon phase, which cycles through eight phases from new to full; the story is set in "20XX", 35 years after a nuclear apocalypse which devastates the world and permanently opens a portal to the demon world of Atziluth. Humanity is forced to survive in underground bunkers. Two such survivors, the protagonist and his friend, release. Pazuzu tells, he grants the Hero the ability to summon and talk to demons, his friend the gift of magic.

Pazuzu gives them the mission of destroying the demon lords that have taken control of Tokyo, starting with Bael, the demon that sealed him inside Devil Busters. The heroes venture outside the shelter, they are recognized as messiahs by the Church of Messiah. Upon reaching Tokyo Tower, the heroes find a witch, named a messiah by Pazuzu, but claims he has been manipulating them for his own gain; the friend refuses to believe. In order to progress in the story, the player has to side with the witch, causing the friend to leave and become his enemy; the Messiah and the witch travel around Tokyo and defeat the warring demon lords that attempt to take control of the city, disbanding the Cult of Deva in the process, kill Pazuzu himself. Meanwhile, the hero's friend frees Lucifer from the seal placed upon him in the previous game; the heroes reach Bael, who kills the hero's friend as he attempts to fulfill Pazuzu's will. The hero avenges his friend, when he defeats Bael the demon turns into a tiny frog: the player can choose to kill the frog or take it with them.

The Messians instruct the hero to use the Seven Pillars of Solomon, collected during his travels, at ground zero of the missile attacks in order to open a gateway to the demon world of Atziluth and defeat the demons once and for all. Once in the demon world, the heroes travel through several areas and defeat the ruling demon overlords. If the heroes are carrying Bael with them, they can choose to restore him into his true form, the god Baal; the god Izanagi asks the heroes to rescue the goddess Izanami, killed by the demons. After defeating all the overlords and managing to revive Izanami, the gods help the heroes travel to Lucifer's castle. If Bael has been restored into Baal, Lucifer explains that the demons are ancient gods cast into hell by the One True God, using the party to defeat his enemies, destroy both worlds and create a paradise where mankind will be under his rule forever. Lucifer offers to help the player prevent God's plans, claims that Satan, responsible for the nuclear war, must be dealt with.

The heroes travel back to the human world to confront Satan. If they did not accept Lucifer's help and killed him instead, they defeat Satan and are transported before God, who turns them into new deities and creates the Millennial Kingdom. If Lucifer is in their party, they have the chance to do battle with God. After defea


CccDNA is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there. It is a double-stranded DNA that originates in a linear form, ligated by means of DNA ligase to a covalently closed ring. In most cases, transcription of viral DNA can occur from the circular form only; the cccDNA of viruses is known as episomal DNA or as a minichromosome. The existence of a cccDNA during the propagation does not differentiate taxonomic group of "real" retroviruses from the pararetrovirus. CccDNA was first described in bacteriophages, but it was found in some cell cultures where an infection of DNA viruses was detected. CccDNA is typical of Hepadnaviridae, including the hepatitis B virus. CccDNA in HBV is formed by conversion of capsid-associated relaxed circular DNA. Following hepatitis B infections, cccDNA can remain following clinical treatment in liver cells and can reactivate; the relative quantity of cccDNA present is an indicator for HBV treatment