John Manners-Sutton, 3rd Viscount Canterbury
John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton, 3rd Viscount Canterbury styled The Honourable John Manners-Sutton between 1814 and 1866 and Sir John Manners-Sutton between 1866 and 1869, was a British Tory politician and colonial administrator. A member of the Manners family headed by the Duke of Rutland, Manners-Sutton was born at Downing Street, the second and youngest son of Charles Manners-Sutton, 1st Viscount Canterbury, Speaker of the House of Commons, by his first wife Lucy, daughter of John Denison, his mother died. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, graduating with an MA in 1835. In his youth he played first-class cricket for Cambridge University Cricket Club and Marylebone Cricket Club. Manners-Sutton was returned to Parliament for Cambridge in September 1839. However, in April 1840 his election was declared void, he was returned for the same constituency in 1841 and held it until 1847. He served as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department from 1841 to 1846 in Sir Robert Peel's second administration.
In 1854 Manners-Sutton was appointed Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, a post he held until 1861. He served as Governor of Trinidad from 1864 to 1866 and as Governor of Victoria from 1866 to 1873, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1866 and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1873. In 1869 he succeeded in the viscountcy of Canterbury on the death of his unmarried elder brother, he married, on 5 July 1838, youngest daughter of Charles Tompson of Witchingham Hall, Norfolk, by whom he had five sons, two daughters: Henry Charles, who succeeded him as Viscount Canterbury. M. G. of Toorak, Australia. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr John Manners-Sutton
The Coldstream Guards is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. It is the oldest regiment in the Regular Army in continuous active service, originating in Coldstream, Scotland, in 1650 when General George Monck founded the regiment, it is one of two regiments of the Household Division that can trace its lineage to the New Model Army, the other being the Blues and Royals. The origin of The Coldstream Guards lies in the English Civil War when Oliver Cromwell gave Colonel George Monck permission to form his own regiment as part of the New Model Army. Monck took men from the regiments of George Fenwick and Sir Arthur Haselrig, five companies each, on 13 August 1650 formed Monck's Regiment of Foot. Less than two weeks this force took part in the Battle of Dunbar, at which the Roundheads defeated the forces of Charles Stuart. After Richard Cromwell's abdication, Monck gave his support to the Stuarts, on 1 January 1660 he crossed the River Tweed into England at the village of Coldstream, from where he made a five-week march to London.
He helped in the Restoration of the monarchy. For his help, Monck was given the Order of the Garter and his regiment was assigned to keep order in London. However, the new parliament soon ordered his regiment to be disbanded with the other regiments of the New Model Army. Before that could happen, Parliament was forced to rely on the help of the regiment against the rebellion by the Fifth Monarchists led by Thomas Venner on 6 January 1661; the regiment defeated the rebels and on 14 February the men of the regiment symbolically laid down their arms as part of the New Model Army and were ordered to take them up again as a royal regiment of The Lord General's Regiment of Foot Guards, a part of the Household Troops. The regiment was placed as the second senior regiment of Household Troops, as it entered the service of the Crown after the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, but it answered to that by adopting the motto Nulli Secundus, due to the fact that the regiment is older than the senior regiment.
The regiment always stands on the left of the line when on parade with the rest of the Foot Guards, so standing "second to none". When Monck died in 1670, the Earl of Craven took command of the regiment and it adopted a new name, the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards; the regiment saw active service in Flanders and in the Monmouth Rebellion, including the decisive Battle of Sedgemoor in 1685. It fought in the Battle of the Battle of Landen and the Siege of Namur. In 1760, the 2nd Battalion was sent to Germany to campaign under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick and fought in the Battle of Wilhelmstal and at the Castle of Amöneburg. Three Guards companies of 307 men under Coldstream commander Colonel Edward Mathew fought in the American Revolutionary War; the Coldstream Regiment saw extensive service in the wars against the French Revolution and in the Napoleonic Wars. Under the command of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, it defeated French troops in Egypt. In 1807, it took part in the investment of Copenhagen.
In January 1809, it sailed to Portugal to join the forces under Sir Arthur Wellesley. In 1814, it took part in France, where a cemetery keeps their memory; the 2nd Battalion joined the Walcheren Expedition. It served as part of the 2nd Guards Brigade in the chateau of Hougoumont on the outskirts of the Battle of Waterloo; this defence is considered one of the greatest achievements of the regiment, an annual ceremony of "Hanging the Brick" is performed each year in the Sergeants' Mess to commemorate the efforts of Cpl James Graham and Lt-Col James Macdonnell, who shut the North Gate after a French attack. The Duke of Wellington himself declared after the battle that "the success of the battle turned upon closing the gates at Hougoumont"; the regiment was part of the British occupation forces of Paris until 1816. During the Crimean War, the Coldstream Regiment fought in the battles of Alma and Sevastopol. On its return, four men of the regiment were awarded the newly instituted Victoria Cross; the regiment received its current name, The Coldstream Guards, in 1855.
In 1882, it was sent in 1885 in the Suakin Campaign. In 1897, the Coldstreamers were reinforced with the addition of a 3rd battalion; the 1st and 2nd battalions were dispatched to South Africa at the outbreak of the Second Boer War. At the outbreak of the First World War, the Coldstreamers was among the first British regiments to arrive in France after Britain declared war on Germany. In the following battles, it suffered heavy losses, in two cases losing all of its officers. At the first Battle of Ypres, the 1st battalion was annihilated – by 1 November down to 150 men and the Lt Quartermaster; the regiment fought at Mons, the Somme, Ginchy and in the 3rd Battle of Ypres. The regiment formed the 4th Battalion, disbanded after the war, in 1919; the 5th Reserve battalion never left Britain. When the Second World War began, the 1st and 2nd battalions of The Coldstream Guards were part of the British Expeditionary Force in France. Additional 4th and 5th battalions were formed for the duration of the war.
They fought extensively, as part of the Guards Armoured Division, in North Africa and Europe as dismounted infantry. The 4th battalion first became a motorized battalion in 1940 and an armoured battalion in 1943. Coldstreamers gave up their tanks at the end of the war, the new battalions were disbanded, the troops distributed to the 1st and 2nd Guard Training Battalions. After the war, the 1st and 3rd ba
John Manners, Marquess of Granby
Lieutenant-General John Manners, Marquess of Granby was a British soldier and the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. As he did not outlive his father and inherit the dukedom, he was known by his father's subsidiary title, Marquess of Granby. Manners served in the Seven Years' War as overall commander of the British troops on the battlefield and was subsequently rewarded with the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, he was popular with his troops and many public houses are still named after him today. Born the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland and Bridget Manners, John Manners was educated at Eton, leaving in 1732 and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1738. In 1740 he went to Italy on the Grand Tour travelling eastwards to Turkey, returning in 1742, he was returned as Member of Parliament for the family borough of Grantham in 1741, a market town, however its electorate was small and the affairs of its council were in the 18th century sponsored alternately by the titled Manners, Cust and Heathcote families who had nearby family estates.
In 1745 he assisted his father set up a volunteer regiment in Rutland to assist in quelling the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. Although the regiment was limited to garrison duty at Newcastle, it was the only one of its type that raised its full quota of 780 recruits. Manners received a commission as colonel of the regiment. Though the regiment never got beyond Newcastle, the young Marquess of Granby went to the front as a volunteer on the Duke of Cumberland's staff and saw active service in the last stages of the insurrection, being present at the Battle of Culloden. In Newcastle the regiment mutinied because they had not been paid but Granby paid the money owed out of his own pocket before they were due to be disbanded. Thereafter he left England for Flanders as Intelligence Officer to Cumberland. In 1752, the Government suggested to George II that Granby be appointed colonel of the prestigious Royal Horse Guards, in order to secure the parliamentary support of his family; the king refused to make the appointment.
In the meantime, Granby advanced his parliamentary career, was returned for Cambridgeshire in 1754. Though he despised faction in government, he allied himself with Viscount Royston, the other knight of the shire, a government whig; the king came to view him more favourably as he defended the Newcastle ministry in the House of Commons. He was promoted major-general on 18 March 1755, was at last made Colonel of the Blues on 27 May 1758. On 21 August, Granby arrived at Munster as second in command to Lord George Sackville, as the aged Duke of Marlborough had died; the British cavalry were divided into Heavy and Light cavalry and drilled under the strong influence of George Elliot and Granby himself. Accredited as the greatest colonel since the Earl of Oxford, Granby was both courageous and competent as a soldier, he was appointed overall commander of the expedition, replacing Sackville on 21 August 1759. He became Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance on 15 September 1759, he was one of the first who understood the importance of morale for the troops.
The character of British soldiering improved, properly led the army was unbeatable in war. Nearly all the portraits show him helping the wounded. On 7 June 1760 he wrote to Viscount Barrington, Secretary at War, receiving a reply ten days making enquiries as to the Hospital Board accommodation for his wounded men. Granby was sent to Paderborn in command of a cavalry brigade. While leading a charge at the Battle of Warburg, he is said to "have lost his hat and wig, forcing him to salute his commander without them"; this incident is commemorated by the British Army tradition that non-commissioned officers and troopers of the Blues and Royals are the only soldiers of the British Army who may salute without wearing headdress. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1759 and that year fought at the Battle of Minden as commander of the second line of cavalry under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Granby's success in commanding the allied cavalry required courage and communication, as well as skill in bringing the horse artillery to bear.
The victory at the Battle of Warburg in July 1760 over an army three times the size distinguished his generalship, marked him as a genuine British military hero. His opponent, the duc de Broglie, was so impressed that he commissioned a portrait of Granby by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Further successes came at the Battle of Emsdorf in July 1760, the Battle of Villinghausen in July 1761 and at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal in June 1762. Granby returned to England as a hero: a painting by Edward Penny, The Marquess of Granby Relieving a Sick Soldier, showed him acting as a man of charity rather than as a soldier and this assured his appeal to the people, he supported the Treaty of Paris. He trusted George Grenville who promptly appointed him Master-General of the Ordnance under his ministry on 14 May 1763. Granby was made Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire on 21 February 1764. Granby supported the government's issue of general warrants and prosecution of Wilkes, but in 1765 spoke against the dismissal of army officers for voting against the government in Parliament.
In May 1765, Lord Halifax attempted to persuade George III to appoint Granby Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, in the hopes that his popularity would help quell the riot of the London silk weavers. The king refused, having promised the reversion of the post to the Duke of Cumberland, but obtained Granby's retention as Master-General of the Ordnance in the new Rockingham ministry, although Granby did not co-operate with the ministry and voted against
Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795. He is best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of his cousin Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he died before assuming the post. Henry Clinton was born on April 16 in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date propagated in modern biographic summaries. Willcox notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. Historian John Fredriksen claims. Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain.
They were well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. In 1739 his father stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York, he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle. He did not go to New York until 1743, he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. Henry's career would benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. Records of the family's life in New York are sparse, he is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745; the next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, he was assigned to garrison duty at the captured Fortress Louisbourg. In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career.
It was two years. His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, renamed the Grenadier Guards, was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London; the 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760. Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761 under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld.
His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs. In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position, it was after this engagement that the unit lost its commanding officer, General Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a colonel, was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton wounded forcing him to quit the field; this and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship.
During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling", he formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, William Phillips. He made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died; as the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere, his mother, who had a history of mental instability and
John Lumley-Savile, 7th Earl of Scarbrough
John Lumley-Savile, 7th Earl of Scarbrough was a British peer, styled Hon. John Lumley until 1807, Lumley-Savile from 1807 until 1832. A younger son of Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 4th Earl of Scarbrough, he was educated at Eton and King's College, receiving an MA in 1782. In November 1785, he married Anna Maria Herring, he was made a prebendary of York in 1782, became Rector of Thornhill in 1793. Rector of Wintringham, he adopted the additional surname of Savile in 1807, pursuant to the will of his uncle Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet, when his elder brother Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 6th Earl of Scarbrough inherited the earldom and the Savile estates passed to John, he inherited the earldom from his brother in 1832. He was succeeded by his son John Lumley-Savile, 8th Earl of Scarbrough
1784 British general election
The 1784 British general election resulted in William Pitt the Younger securing an overall majority of about 120 in the House of Commons of Great Britain, having had to survive in a House, dominated by his opponents. In December 1783, George III engineered the dismissal of the Fox–North coalition, which he hated, appointed William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister. Pitt had little personal support in the House of Commons and the supporters of Charles James Fox and Lord North felt that the constitution of the country had been violated; the doctrine that the government must always have a majority in the House of Commons was not yet established and Fox knew he had to be careful. On 2 February 1784 Fox carried a motion of no confidence which declared "That it is the Opinion of this House, That the Continuance of the present Ministers in their Offices is an Obstacle to the Formation of such an Administration as may enjoy the Confidence of this House, tend to put an End to the unfortunate Divisions and Distractions of the Country" by 223 to 204.
Pitt remained in office, government supporters ensured petitions and resolutions of borough corporations were presented to Parliament to encourage members to back Pitt, Members changed sides. By 1 March, Fox's motion which concluded by "beseech His Majesty, that He would be graciously pleased to lay the Foundation of a strong and stable Government, by the previous Removal of His present Ministers" was carried but only by 201 to 189. A week a more worded motion threatening the withholding of supply was passed—but only by 191 to 190. Fox thereafter declined to push motions. Pitt meanwhile decided to go to the country and on 24 March, Parliament was prorogued and on the following day the Parliament first elected in 1780 was dissolved; the election was fought much as a national campaign around the questions of the fall of the Fox–North government and whether or not Pitt should continue in office, rather than a series of local campaigns, more common for 18th century British elections. Thanks to a combination of patronage and bribes paid by the HM Treasury, many small pocket boroughs returned Pitt-supporting MPs as expected.
Additionally, in the constituencies decided by large electorates there was massive support for candidates who backed Pitt. Many of Fox's supporters were forced either to withdraw or to make deals with their opponents to avoid electoral defeat. In the county constituencies only one Fox supporter was elected in a contest, although others returned due to local electoral pacts; those Members who had remained in opposition, refusing to go over to support Pitt, who failed to return to the House of Commons as a consequence, became known as "Fox's Martyrs" in reference to John Foxe's Book of Martyrs. The first day's polling, 30 March, saw four opponents returned. By the conclusion of the fifth day, there were more than 150 government Members and a lead of fifty over the supporters of the coalition; the government achieved an overall majority on 15 April and the election ended on 10 May. The contests involving both Pitt and Fox attracted particular attention. Pitt had long wished to be a Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge and had failed to be elected when he stood for the seat in the 1780 general election.
Now he would hold the seat for the rest of his life. Fox was one of the two sitting members for the constituency of Westminster, which had the largest electorate of any in the country and a great deal of prestige, his position there was central to his claim to be representing the people. He stood against two Pitt supporters for the constituency's two seats. George, Prince of Wales, campaigned for Fox. At the conclusion of polling on 17 May, Fox had narrowly succeeded, with 6,233 votes to Sir Cecil Wray's 5,998. However, Pitt's supporters demanded a scrutiny of the votes and the Returning Officer therefore did not make the return. A scrutiny in a constituency as large as Westminster was an enormously time-consuming process; the process did not show unexpectedly large numbers of unqualified voters and as the months went by it looked more and more like a political delaying tactic. A London constable, Nicholas Casson, was killed during the election. List of Parliaments of Great Britain MPs elected in the British general election, 1784
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate