National Symphony Orchestra
The National Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1931, is an American symphony orchestra based in Washington, D. C.. Its principal performing venue is the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. For the first period of its history, the NSO performed in Constitution Hall. During the tenure of the first music director, Hans Kindler, the musicians received a salary of $40.00 per week, for three rehearsals and one concert, for five months of the year. The first female member of the NSO was a harpist, Sylvia Meyer, who joined in 1933. Kindler and the NSO made several 78-rpm recordings for RCA Victor, including the two Roumanian Rhapsodies by George Enescu. One of the more unusual RCA recordings with the orchestra was of the complete ballet music from the opera King Henry VIII by Camille Saint-Saëns, one of the few recordings conducted by Walter Damrosch. Years Howard Mitchell made a series of stereophonic recordings with the orchestra for RCA. Antal Doráti recorded with the orchestra for Decca Records.
Mstislav Rostropovich made recordings for Teldec, Sony Records, Erato. The orchestra returned to RCA Victor under Leonard Slatkin, until RCA abandoned new classical recordings. In 1986, the NSO became the artistic affiliate of the Kennedy Center, where it has presented a concert season annually since the Center opened in 1971; the NSO participates in events of national and international importance, including performances for ceremonial state affairs, presidential inaugurations and official holiday celebrations, including the annual National Memorial Day Concert in May and A Capitol Fourth concerts on 4 July. The NSO itself numbers 100 musicians, presenting a 52-week season of 175 concerts each year; these include classical subscription series, pops concerts, educational programs. In addition to these activities, small groups of NSO members develop education programs designed at age levels from pre-kindergarten through high school. Collectively, these ensembles present as many as 100 additional performances a year during the American Residencies and at the Kennedy Center.
Through the John and June Hechinger Commissioning Fund for New Orchestral Works, the NSO has commissioned more than 50 works, including cycles of fanfares and encores. During his tenure, Slatkin founded the National Conducting Institute in 2000. Of note is the National Symphony Orchestra Summer Music Institute. For more than a decade, scholarships provided by the National Trustees of the National Symphony Orchestra have enabled top-level students from across the country and from many nations to come to the nation’s capital for several weeks of study with NSO musicians; these participants, selected from a competitive pool of applicants, come from a variety of backgrounds, some enrolled in music conservatories such as Juilliard and others still completing high school. Another important project is the National Symphony Orchestra American Residencies for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; this venture encompasses sharing all elements of classical symphonic music with a specific region of the United States, exploring the diversity of musical influences, giving the region a musical voice in the nation’s center for the performing arts through exchanges, training programs, commissions.
Established in 1992, the project has taken the NSO to fifteen states. In November 2004, the orchestra announced the conclusion of Slatkin's NSO directorship in 2008. One report spoke of tensions between the conductor and the orchestra, mentioned criticisms of Slatkin's programming and rehearsal styles. With the 2006–2007 season, Iván Fischer became the principal guest conductor of the orchestra. On 13 April 2007, the orchestra announced the appointment of Fischer as the orchestra's principal conductor as of the 2008–2009 season, for two seasons. On September 25, 2008, the orchestra announced the appointment of Christoph Eschenbach as the orchestra's sixth music director, effective with the 2010–2011 season, for an initial contract of four years. In September 2011, the orchestra extended Eschenbach's contract through the 2014–2015 season, in March 2014, his contract was extended through the 2016–2017 season. In February 2015, the NSO announced the scheduled conclusion of Eschenbach's tenure as NSO music director at the end of the 2016-2017 season, at which time he is scheduled to become the NSO's conductor laureate.
In 2011, Gianandrea Noseda first guest-conducted the NSO, returned in November 2015 for an additional guest engagement. In January 2016, the NSO announced the appointment Noseda as its next music director, effective with the 2017–2018 season, he is to serve as music director-designate in the 2016-2017 season, his initial contract as music director is for 4 seasons. In September 2018, the NSO announced the extension of Noseda's contract through the 2024-2025 season. Hans Kindler Howard Mitchell Antal Doráti Mstislav Rostropovich Leonard Slatkin Iván Fischer Christoph Eschenbach Gianandrea Noseda National Symphony Orchestra Official site National Symphony Orchestra History National Symphony Orchestra Profile at the Washington Post
Interlochen Center for the Arts
Interlochen Center for the Arts is a tax exempt, 501 non-profit corporation, operating an arts education institution in northwest Michigan. The center is situated on a 1,200-acre campus in Interlochen, Michigan 15 miles southwest of Traverse City. Interlochen draws young people from around the world to study music, dance, visual arts, creative writing, motion picture arts, comparative arts. Interlochen Center for the Arts is the umbrella organization for Interlochen Arts Camp, Interlochen Arts Academy boarding high school, Interlochen Public Radio, the "Interlochen Presents" performing arts series; the Interlochen College of Creative Arts is an separate non-profit corporation. Interlochen Center for the Arts comprises five major divisions. An annual summer camp attended by young artists from around the world. Programs are offered to students in grades three through twelve, providing an opportunity to learn and perform alongside leading artists and instructors. A fine arts boarding high school offering arts training combined with comprehensive, college-preparatory academics.
An adult artist learning program offering programs in a variety of arts disciplines. Two listener-supported stations that broadcast to northwest Michigan: Classical Music 88.7, 88.5, 94.7 and 100.9 FM. Broadcasts include arts and culture from around the world, as well as local and regional news and artists. IPR was a charter member of National Public Radio. An ongoing series of performances by students and dozens of world-renowned guest artists; the series presents more than 600 events each year, making Interlochen one of the nation's largest arts presenters. The Interlochen Arts Academy, the highest profile pre-professional arts boarding high school worldwide, was founded in 1928 by Joseph E. Maddy; as of 2016, it had 350 faculty and staff, 500 students, from Freshman to Postgraduates. Admission is by audition only. While more than half the students major in Music Performance, IAA offers majors in Comparative Arts, Creative Writing, Theatre, Motion Picture Arts, Visual Arts. Newer majors include Motion Picture Arts beginning in 2005, Comparative Arts in 2011.
The vast majority of students at Interlochen Arts Academy are boarding students, including many international students. Upon graduation, most IAA graduates continue to universities or conservatories for further study in the arts or academics. Conservatories that admit Interlochen students include Juilliard, Cleveland Institute of Music, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, New England Conservatory, Oberlin Conservatory, Manhattan School of Music, Boston Conservatory, Peabody Institute, CalArts. Interlochen Arts Academy graduates matriculate at colleges and universities that do not have a primary focus on the arts. Due to its reputation and secluded location, Interlochen Arts Academy has attracted many celebrity offspring, including children of Robin Williams, Hugh Hefner, Bruce Willis, Demi Moore, Alan Menken. From the State of Michigan historical marker on Interlochen's Osterlin Mall: Ottawa Indians once lived in the pine forest between lakes Wahbekaness and Wahbekanetta. In the late 1800s white men cut the pines, leaving only a small forest between the lakes.
This virgin pine became part of one of the first state parks. When the lumber era ended, the Wylie Cooperage mill occupied the Indian village site, making barrels until the hardwood ran out. Willis Pennington's summer hotel, opened in 1909, was popular with fishermen until automobiles and better roads drew them elsewhere. In 1918, Camp Interlochen, one of Michigan's first girls' recreation camps, was opened, followed in 1922 by Camp Penn Loch for boys. In 1928, by arrangement with Willis Pennington, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings established the National High School Orchestra Camp, it grew in scope and reputation, becoming the National Music Camp in 1931, affiliating with the University of Michigan in 1942. Interlochen Arts Academy was chartered in 1960 to provide year-round training in the creative arts. From the book Interlochen, The First 25 Years: In 1926, Joe Maddy was asked to organize and conduct the First National High School Orchestra for the Music Supervisors' National Conference in Detroit.
Its resounding success led to an invitation to duplicate the experience at the Dallas, Texas convention of the National Education Association's Department of Superintendence in 1927. The exuberant young musicians pled for the chance to work and play together longer than the few days the convention appearance afforded. Joe Maddy promised them a music camp! In June, 1928, at Interlochen, Michigan, in the midst of a magnificent stand of virgin pine trees between two lovely lakes, The National High School Orchestra Camp opened its doors. On leased land, with the old Hotel Pennington, several cottages, 29 new camper cabins, a hospital and sewer system, the new Interlochen Bowl, $40,000 debt, this brave experiment was launched. Interlochen was the inspiration for the 1941 Paramount motion picture. Interlochen provided inspiration, along with Blue Lake Fine Arts Camp, for Alyson Hannigan's character in American Pie. In 2006, Katalyst Media filmed a reality TV pilot for MTV at Interlochen Arts Academy.
Afraid that an MTV show would ruin Interlochen's distinguished reputation, a large group of students resorted to pr
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As on all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet; the word "trombone" derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the cornet, the euphonium, the French horn; the most encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the pedal B♭ tuba; the once common E♭ alto trombone became less used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now enjoying a resurgence due to its lighter sonority, appreciated in many classical and early romantic works.
Trombone music is written in concert pitch in either bass or tenor clef, although exceptions do occur, notably in British brass-band music where the tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument, written in treble clef. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombone player; the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. Rather than being cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a complex series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver and the largest just before the bell flare; the design of these tapers affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument; the detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and related to that of the trumpet. It has the venturi: a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance affecting the tone of the instrument and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section.
The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer slide tubes, the bracing, or "stays". Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with unsoldered stays. The'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves were developed during the Renaissance, these "stocking" were soldered onto the ends of the inner slide tubes. Nowadays, the stockings are incorporated into the manufacturing process of the inner slide tubes and represent a fractional widening of the tube to accommodate the necessary method of alleviating friction; this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently. Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, bell or back bow; the joint connecting the slide and bell sections is furnished with a ferrule to secure the connection of the two parts of the instrument, though older models from the early 20th century and before were equipped with friction joints and no ancillary mechanism to tighten the joint.
The adjustment of intonation is most accomplished with a tuning slide, a short slide between the neckpipe and the bell incorporating the bell bow. However, unlike other instrumentalists, are not subject to the intonation issues resulting from valved or keyed instruments, since they can adjust intonation "on the fly" by subtly altering slide positions when necessary. For example, second position "A" is not in the same place on the slide as second position "E". Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing; this allows the instrument to reach notes that are otherwise not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of unchanging diameter. Tenor trombones have a bore of 0.450 inches to 0.547 inches after the leadpipe and through the slide.
The bore expands through the gooseneck to the bell, between 7 and 8 1⁄2 inches. A number of common variations on trombone construction are noted below. "Trombone" comes from the Italian word tromba plus the suffix -one, meaning "big trumpet". During the Renaissance, the equivalent English term was "sackbut"; the word first appears in court records in 1495 as "shakbusshe" at about the time King Henry VII married a Portuguese princess who brought musicians with her. "Shakbusshe" is similar to "sacabuche", attested in Spain as early as 1478. The French equivalent "saqueboute" appears in 1466; the German "Posaune" long predates the invention of the slide and could refer to a natural trumpet as late as the early fifteenth century. Both towns and courts sponsored bands of shaw
New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc. globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five"; the Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras, its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004. The New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace; the orchestra was called the Philharmonic Society of New York. It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, had as its intended purpose, "the advancement of instrumental music." The first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7, 1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600.
The concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, led by Hill himself. Two other conductors, German-born Henry Christian Timm and French-born Denis Etienne, led parts of the eclectic, three-hour program, which included chamber music and several operatic selections with a leading singer of the day, as was the custom; the musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct. At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves. After only a dozen public performances and four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall; the centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, conducted by George Loder; the chorals were translated into. However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the hoped-for audience was kept away and the new hall would have to wait.
Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, the Ninth soon became the work performed most when a grand gesture was required. During the Philharmonic's first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and Alfred Boucher; this changed in 1849. Eisfeld along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865; that year, Eisfeld conducted the Orchestra's memorial concert for the assassinated Abraham Lincoln, but in a peculiar turn of events which were criticized in the New York press, the Philharmonic omitted the last movement, "Ode to Joy", as being inappropriate for the occasion. That year Eisfeld returned to Europe, Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszt's former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season, but failing to win support from the Philharmonic's public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878.
Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over and continued the competition with the old Philharmonic. It was Walter who would convince Andrew Carnegie that New York needed a first-class concert hall and on May 5, 1891, both Walter and Russian composer Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted at the inaugural concert of the city's new Music Hall, which in a few years would be renamed for its primary benefactor, Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestra's home until 1962; the Philharmonic in 1877 was in desperate financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. Representatives of the Philharmonic wished to attract the German-born, American-trained conductor Theodore Thomas, whose own Theodore Thomas Orchestra had competed directly with the Philharmonic for over a decade and which had brought him fame and great success. At first the Philharmonic's suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra.
Because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877. With the exception of the 1878/79 season – when he was in Cincinnati and Adolph Neuendorff led the group – Thomas conducted every season for fourteen years, vastly improving the orchestra's financial health while creating a polished and virtuosic ensemble, he left in 1891 to found taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him. Another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898. Seidl, who had served as Wagner's assistant, was a renowned conductor of the composer's works. During his tenure, the Philharmonic enjoyed a period of unprecedented success and prosperity and performed its first world premiere written by a world-renowned composer in the United States – Antonín Dvořák's Ninth Symphony "From the New World". Seidl's sudden death in 1898 from food poisoning at the age of 47 was mourned.
Twelve thousand people applied for tickets to his funeral at the Metropolitan Opera House at 39th Street and Broadway and the streets were jammed for blocks with a "surging mass" of his admirers. According to Joseph Horowitz, Sei
The American University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, its main campus spans 90 acres near Ward Circle, a residential area in the northwest of the District. AU was chartered by the U. S. Congress in 1893 at the urging of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who sought to create an institution that would promote public service and pragmatic idealism. AU broke ground in 1902, opened in 1914, admitted its first undergraduates in 1925. Although affiliated with the United Methodist Church, religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission. American University has eight schools and colleges: the School of International Service, College of Arts and Sciences, School of Business, School of Communication, School of Professional and Extended Studies, School of Public Affairs, School of Education, the Washington College of Law, it has over 160 programs, including 71 bachelor's degrees, 87 master's degrees, 10 doctoral degrees, plus J. D. LL. M. and S. J. D programs. AU's student body numbers over 13,000 and represents all 50 U.
S. states and 141 countries. The university is recognized as a second tier research institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education and is ranked 69th nationally by U. S. News & World Report. According to Foreign Policy, the School of International Service is globally ranked eighth for graduate programs and ninth for undergraduate programs, the School of Public Affairs is ranked 19th in the nation according to USNWR; the Washington College of Law placed 80th overall in USNWR rankings, 13th in its LL. M. program, 47th in the 2012 "Top 70 Law Faculties in Scholarly Impact" index, fourth in public interest. AU is a top producer of Fulbright Scholars, was one of only seven institutions in 2017 with more than one Truman Scholar, with two recipients; as of 2017, AU ranked first in Boren Scholars and Fellows, second in Udall Scholars, fourth in Presidential Management Fellows. Reflecting the school's founding emphasis on public and international service, 95 percent undergraduates participate in at least one internship, while 71 percent of students participate in study abroad, the ninth highest rate in the nation.
Among medium-sized schools, AU ranks second in the number of students serving in the Peace Corps and tenth for the most Teach for America volunteers. According to the Princeton Review, AU students rank first for most politically active and run the seventh most active student government in the country; the American University was established in the District of Columbia by an Act of Congress on December 5, 1892 due to the efforts of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who aimed to create an institution that could train future public servants. Hurst chose the site of the university, which at the time was the rural periphery of the District. After more than three decades devoted principally to securing financial support, the university was dedicated on May 15, 1914, with its first instructions beginning October of that year, when 28 students were enrolled, 19 of whom were graduates and the remainder special students not candidates for a degree; the First Commencement, at which no degrees were awarded, was held on June 2, 1915.
The Second Annual Commencement was held the following year and saw the awarding of the first degrees: one master's degree and two doctor's degrees. AU was notable in admitting women and African Americans, uncommon in higher education at the time. Shortly after these early commencement ceremonies, classes were interrupted by war. During World War I, the university allowed the U. S. military to use some of its grounds for testing. In 1917, the U. S. military divided American University into Camp American University and Camp Leach. Camp American University became the birthplace of the United States' chemical weapons program and the site of chemical weapons testing. Camp Leach was home to advanced research and testing of modern camouflage techniques; as of 2014, the Army Corps of Engineers is still removing ordnance including mustard gas and mortar shells. Instruction was offered only at the graduate level, in accordance with the original plan of the founders; this changed in 1925 with the establishment of the College of Liberal Arts, which offered the first undergraduate degrees and programs.
What is now the School of Public Affairs was founded in 1934 to educate future federal employees in new approaches to public administration introduced by the New Deal. AU's relationship to the U. S. government continued during World War II, when the campus hosted the U. S. Navy Bomb Disposal School and a WAVE barracks. For AU's role in these wartime efforts, the Victory ship SS American Victory was named in its honor; the post-war period saw considerable growth and restructuring of AU. In 1947, the Washington Semester Program was established, pioneering the concept of semester-long internships in the nation's capital. In 1949, the university merged with the Washington College of Law, which had begun in 1896 as the first law school founded by women and the first coeducational institution for the professional study of law in the District. Shortly thereafter, three departments were reorganized as schools: the School of Busines
Eastman School of Music
The Eastman School of Music is the professional school of music of the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York. It was established in 1921 by philanthropist George Eastman, it offers Bachelor of Music degrees, Master of Arts degrees, Master of Music degrees, Doctor of Philosophy degrees, Doctor of Musical Arts degrees in many musical fields. The school awards a "Performer's Certificate" or "Artist's Diploma". In 2015, there were more than 900 students enrolled in the collegiate division of the Eastman School. Students came from every state of the United States, with 25% foreign students; each year 2000 students apply. The acceptance rate was 13% in 2011 and about 1,000 students are enrolled in the Eastman School’s Community Music School. Alfred Klingenberg, a Norwegian pianist, was the school's first director, he was succeeded by composer Howard Hanson in 1924, who had an enormous impact on the development of the school, holding his post for four decades and continuing his involvement at Eastman after his retirement.
Since the founding of the Eastman School of Music in 1921, the school has been directed by six men. Alfred Klingenberg served as the school’s first director from 1921 to 1923. After a one-year interim under Acting Director Raymond Wilson, the young American composer and conductor Howard Hanson was appointed director of the school in 1924. Dr. Hanson is credited for transforming the Eastman School into a top school. Upon his retirement in 1964, after serving as director of the school for 40 years, Hanson was succeeded by conductor Walter Hendl. Hendl served as director from 1964 to 1972, was succeeded by pianist and musicologist Robert Freeman who served from 1972 to 1996. Associate Director Daniel Patrylak served as the acting director from the time of Mr. Hendl’s resignation until Robert Freeman assumed the position in July 1973. Following the resignation of Robert Freeman in 1996, James Undercofler was appointed Director and Dean of the Eastman School, held that position until he resigned in 2006 to accept the position of C.
E. O. and President of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Jamal Rossi, an Eastman alumnus, was appointed Interim Dean of the Eastman School in April 2006. On May 21, 2007, composer/conductor Douglas Lowry the dean of the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music, was appointed Dean of the Eastman School, to begin serving in 2007. Following Lowry's death in 2013, Rossi was appointed Dean; the Eastman School occupies parts of five buildings in New York. The main hall includes the renovated 3,094-seat Eastman Theater, the 455-seat Kilbourn Hall, the 222-seat Hatch Recital Hall, offices for faculty; the Eastman Theatre opened in 1922 as a center for music and silent film with orchestral and organ accompaniment. Today, the 3,094-seat theatre is the primary concert hall for the Eastman School's larger ensembles, including its orchestras, wind ensembles, jazz ensembles, chorale; the Eastman Opera Theatre presents staged operatic productions in the theatre each spring. It is the principal performance venue for the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra.
A $5 million renovation of the theatre was completed in 2004. The theatre is located on the corner of Main and Gibbs Streets. Due to a $10 million donation by Eastman Kodak Inc. in April 2008, the Eastman Theatre was renamed "Kodak Hall at Eastman Theatre" upon the renovation's completion in 2010. The Sibley Music Library—the largest academic music library in North America—is located across the street from the main hall. Hiram Watson Sibley founded the library in 1904 using the fortune he made as first president of Western Union, it moved to its current location in 1989, occupies 45,000 square feet on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th floors of the Miller Center known as Eastman Place. The Sibley Music Library holds 750,000 items, ranging from 11th century codices to the latest compositions and recordings. Considered among its jewels are the original drafts of Debussy's impressionistic masterpiece, "La Mer." The Student Living Center, located at 100 Gibbs Street, is the dormitory building of the Eastman School of Music.
In 1991, the new building was opened at the corner of Main and Gibbs Streets, replacing the University Avenue dormitories built nearly 70 years earlier. It is a four-story quadrangle and 14-story tower surrounding a landscaped inner courtyard, contains its own dining hall; the majority of students enrolled in the undergraduate program live on campus in this building. The school offers Bachelor of Music degrees, Master of Arts degrees, Master of Music degrees, Doctor of Philosophy degrees, Doctor of Musical Arts degrees in many musical fields; the school awards a "Performer's Certificate" or "Artist's Diploma" to students who demonstrate exceptionally outstanding performance ability. The Institute for Music Leadership, formed in 2001, offers a variety of diploma programs designed to educate and give students the skills and experience necessary to meet the demands of performance and education in today’s changing musical world. In 2018, The Institute for Music Leadership created a Master of Arts degree in Music Leadership, designed for musicians who seek to lead traditional and/or non-traditional musical arts organizations.
This new degree program combines intense classroom study, courses from Eastman’s rich performance and scholarly offerings, hands-on experiences through internships and mentorships. Eastman alu
University of Rochester
The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees; the University of Rochester enrolls 5,600 undergraduates and 4,600 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. Additionally, the university is the largest employer in the Greater Rochester area and the 6th largest employer in New York. According to the National Science Foundation ranking of total research and development expenditures, the University of Rochester spent $346 million on R&D in 2016, the 66th highest figure, nationally; the College of Arts and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted to optics, awards half of all optics degrees nationwide, is regarded as the premier optics program in the nation; the Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s, rank in the top 5 in their fields.
The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university's resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise; the university is home to Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a US Department of Energy supported national laboratory. The University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music, ranks first among music schools in the U. S; the Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States. In its history, 7 university alumni, 4 faculty, 1 senior research associate at Strong Memorial Hospital have been awarded Nobel Prizes; the University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton, founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution, in 1817.
This institution gave birth to The University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition; when it aspired to grant higher degrees, it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division. The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846, after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university. Madison University was renamed as Colgate University. Asahel C. Kendrick, professor of Greek, was among the faculty. Kendrick served as acting president, he reprised this role until 1853, when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting. The University of Rochester's new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850.
The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years, upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder, which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions. Classes began that November, with 60 students enrolled, including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862, the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street, West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit, Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:'They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society's Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors' apartments, all for $700 a year, they had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage... called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title "University of Rochester" on the wall, they had runners on the road to catch students.
And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe."For the next 10 years, the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment, student body, faculty. In parallel, a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university, upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years, this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities houses and academic buildings including Anderson Hall, Sibley Library and Carnegie Laboratories, the Memorial Art Gallery, Cutler Union; the first female students were admitted in 1900, the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s, a number of women took classes and labs at the university as "visitors" but were not enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman, Hele