Battle of Lincoln (1141)
The Battle of Lincoln, or the First Battle of Lincoln, occurred on 2 February 1141 between King Stephen of England and forces loyal to Empress Matilda. Stephen was captured during the battle and deposed while Matilda ruled for a short time; the forces of King Stephen of England had been besieging Lincoln Castle but were themselves attacked by a relief force loyal to Empress Matilda and commanded by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, Matilda's half-brother. The Angevin army consisted of the divisions of Robert's men, those of Ranulf, Earl of Chester and those disinherited by Stephen, while on the flank was a mass of Welsh troops led by Madog ap Maredudd, Lord of Powys, Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd. Cadwaladr was the brother of Owain, Prince of Gwynedd, but Owain did not support any side in the Anarchy. Stephen's force included William of Ypres; as soon as the battle was joined, the majority of the leading magnates fled the king. Other important magnates captured with the king were Baldwin fitz Gilbert; as the royal troops listened to the exhortations of Stephen's lieutenant, Baldwin fitz Gilbert, the advancing enemy was heard and soon the disinherited Angevin knights charged the cavalry of the five earls.
On the left Earl William Aumale of York and William Ypres charged and smashed the poorly armed,'but full of spirits', Welsh division but were themselves in turn routed'in a moment' by the well-ordered military might of Earl Ranulf who stood out from the mass in'his bright armour'. The earls and outfought, were soon put to flight and many of their men were killed and captured. King Stephen and his knights were surrounded by the Angevin force. Might you have seen a dreadful aspect of battle, on every quarter around the king's troop fire flashing from the meeting of swords and helmets – a dreadful crash, a terrific clamour – at which the hills re-echoed, the city walls resounded. With horses spurred on, they charged the king's troop, slew some, wounded others, dragging some away, made them prisoners. No rest, no breathing time was granted them, except in the quarter where stood that most valiant king, as the foe dreaded the incomparable force of his blows; the earl of Chester, on perceiving this, envying the king his glory, rushed upon him with all the weight of his armed men.
Was seen the might of the king, equal to a thunderbolt, slaying some with his immense battle-axe, striking others down. Arose the shouts afresh, all rushing against him and him against all. At length through the number of the blows, the king's battle-axe was broken asunder. With his right hand, drawing his sword, well worthy of a king, he marvellously waged the combat, until the sword as well was broken asunder. On seeing this William Kahamnes, a most powerful knight, rushed upon the king, seizing him by the helmet, cried with a loud voice, "Hither, all of you come hither! I have taken the king!" The rest of his division fought on with no hope of escape until all had surrendered. Baldwin fitz Richard and Richard fitz Urse'having received many wounds, and, by their determined resistance, having gained immortal honour' were taken prisoner. After fierce fighting in the city's streets, Stephen's forces were defeated. Stephen himself was taken to Bristol, where he was imprisoned, he was subsequently exchanged for Robert of Gloucester, captured in the Rout of Winchester the following September.
This ended Matilda's brief ascendancy in the wars with Stephen. The Welsh contingent of the Angevin forces included Maredudd and Cadwgan, two of the five sons of Madog ap Idnerth, the ruling prince of Fferllys. Conversely, Stephen was aided like Hugh de Mortimer. Following the Battle, his cause seeming lost, Hugh turned his attention to Fferllys, invaded its northern parts the following year, killing Cadwgan. In 1146, he invaded the south of Fferllys, killed Maredudd. Matlida's son, forced Hugh to surrender his Welsh possessions; this battle is featured in the historical novel The Pillars of the Earth by Ken Follett, is described as it happened, including the capture of King Stephen and his subsequent exchange. It is recounted in "When Christ and his Saints Slept" by Sharon Penman; the battle of Lincoln is an important plot element in Dead Man's Ransom, a novel in the Brother Cadfael series by Edith Pargeter. An older novel, The Villains of the Piece, by Graham Shelby has a chapter in it describing First Lincoln.
Battle of Lincoln
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of 3,485 km2. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire and Berkshire; the county town was Wilton, after which the county is named, but Wiltshire Council is now based in the county town of Trowbridge. Wiltshire is characterised by its high wide valleys. Salisbury Plain is noted for being the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks, as a training area for the British Army; the city of Salisbury is notable for its medieval cathedral. Important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, the National Trust's Stourhead, near Mere; the county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir Wiltonshire, is named after the former county town of Wilton. Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology; the Mesolithic and Bronze Age people that occupied southern Britain built settlements on the hills and downland that cover Wiltshire. Stonehenge and Avebury are the most famous Neolithic sites in the UK.
In the 6th and 7th centuries Wiltshire was at the western edge of Saxon Britain, as Cranborne Chase and the Somerset Levels prevented the advance to the west. The Battle of Bedwyn was fought in 675 between Escuin, a West Saxon nobleman who had seized the throne of Queen Saxburga, King Wulfhere of Mercia. In 878 the Danes invaded the county. Following the Norman Conquest, large areas of the country came into the possession of the crown and the church. At the time of the Domesday Survey the industry of Wiltshire was agricultural. In the succeeding centuries sheep-farming was vigorously pursued, the Cistercian monastery of Stanley exported wool to the Florentine and Flemish markets in the 13th and 14th centuries. In the 17th century English Civil War Wiltshire was Parliamentarian; the Battle of Roundway Down, a Royalist victory, was fought near Devizes. In 1794 it was decided at a meeting at the Bear Inn in Devizes to raise a body of ten independent troops of Yeomanry for the county of Wiltshire, which formed the basis for what would become the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry, who served with distinction both at home and abroad, during the Boer War, World War I and World War II.
The Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry lives on as Y Squadron, based in Swindon, B Squadron, based in Salisbury, of the Royal Wessex Yeomanry. Around 1800 the Kennet and Avon Canal was built through Wiltshire, providing a route for transporting cargoes from Bristol to London until the development of the Great Western Railway. Information on the 261 civil parishes of Wiltshire is available on Wiltshire Council's Wiltshire Community History website which has maps, demographic data and modern pictures and short histories; the local nickname for Wiltshire natives is "Moonrakers". This originated from a story of smugglers who managed to foil the local Excise men by hiding their alcohol French brandy in barrels or kegs, in a village pond; when confronted by the excise men they raked the surface to conceal the submerged contraband with ripples, claimed that they were trying to rake in a large round cheese visible in the pond a reflection of the full moon. The officials took them for simple yokels or mad and left them alone, allowing them to continue with their illegal activities.
Many villages claim the tale for their own village pond, but the story is most linked with The Crammer in Devizes. Two-thirds of Wiltshire, a rural county, lies on chalk, a kind of soft, porous limestone, resistant to erosion, giving it a high chalk downland landscape; this chalk is part of a system of chalk downlands throughout eastern and southern England formed by the rocks of the Chalk Group and stretching from the Dorset Downs in the west to Dover in the east. The largest area of chalk in Wiltshire is Salisbury Plain, used for arable agriculture and by the British Army as training ranges; the highest point in the county is the Tan Hill–Milk Hill ridge in the Pewsey Vale, just to the north of Salisbury Plain, at 295 m above sea level. The chalk uplands run northeast into West Berkshire in the Marlborough Downs ridge, southwest into Dorset as Cranborne Chase. Cranborne Chase, which straddles the border, like Salisbury Plain, yielded much Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology; the Marlborough Downs are part of a 1,730 km2 conservation area.
In the northwest of the county, on the border with South Gloucestershire and Bath and North East Somerset, the underlying rock is the resistant oolite limestone of the Cotswolds. Part of the Cotswolds AONB is in Wiltshire, in the county's northwestern corner. Between the areas of chalk and limestone downland are clay vales; the largest of these vales is the Avon Vale. The Avon cuts diagonally through the north of the county, flowing through Bradford-on-Avon and into Bath and Bristol; the Vale of Pewsey has been cut through the chalk into Greensand and Oxford Clay in the centre of the county. In the south west of the county is the Vale of Wardour; the southeast of the county lies on the sandy soils of the northernmost area of the New Forest. Chalk is a porous rock, so the chalk hills have little surface water; the main settlements in the county are therefore situated at wet points. Notably, Salisbury is situated between the chalk of marshy flood plains; the county has green belt along its western fringes as a part of the extensive Avon green belt, reaching as far as the outskirts of Rudloe/Corsham and Trowbridge, preventing urban spr
The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1153, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order. The conflict was a succession crisis precipitated by the accidental death of William Adelin, the only legitimate son of Henry I, in a shipwreck in 1120. Henry's attempts to install his daughter, the Empress Matilda, as his successor were unsuccessful and on Henry's death in 1135, his nephew Stephen of Blois seized the throne with the help of Stephen's brother, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Stephen's early reign was marked by fierce fighting with English barons, rebellious Welsh leaders and Scottish invaders. Following a major rebellion in the south-west of England, Matilda invaded in 1139 with the help of her half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Neither side was able to achieve a decisive advantage during the first years of the war; the castles of the period were defensible, much of the fighting was attritional in character, comprising sieges and skirmishing between armies of knights and footsoldiers, many of them mercenaries.
In 1141 Stephen was captured following the Battle of Lincoln, causing a collapse in his authority over most of the country. However, on the verge of being crowned queen, Empress Matilda was forced to retreat from London by hostile crowds. Stephen almost seized Matilda in 1142 during the siege of Oxford, but the Empress escaped from Oxford Castle across the frozen River Thames to safety; the war dragged on for many more years. Empress Matilda's husband, Geoffrey V of Anjou, conquered Normandy, but in England neither side could achieve victory. Rebel barons began to acquire greater power in northern England and in East Anglia, with widespread devastation in the regions of major fighting. In 1148 the Empress returned to Normandy, leaving the campaigning in England to her young son Henry FitzEmpress. In 1152 Stephen and Matilda of Boulogne, queen consort and Stephen's wife, unsuccessfully attempted to have their eldest son, recognised by the Church as the next king of England. By the early 1150s the barons and the Church wanted a long-term peace.
When Henry FitzEmpress re-invaded England in 1153, neither faction's forces were keen to fight. After limited campaigning and the siege of Wallingford and Henry agreed a negotiated peace, the Treaty of Wallingford, in which Stephen recognised Henry as his heir. Stephen died the next year and Henry ascended the throne as Henry II, the first Angevin king of England, beginning a long period of reconstruction. Chroniclers described the period as one in which "Christ and his saints were asleep" and Victorian historians called the conflict "the Anarchy" because of the chaos, although modern historians have questioned the accuracy of the term and of some contemporary accounts; the origins of the Anarchy lay in a succession crisis involving Normandy. In the 11th and 12th centuries, north-west France was controlled by a number of dukes and counts in conflict with one another for valuable territory. In 1066 one of these men, Duke William II of Normandy, mounted an invasion to conquer the rich Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, pushing on into south Wales and northern England in the coming years.
The division and control of these lands after William's death proved problematic and his children fought multiple wars over the spoils. William's son Henry I seized power after the death of his elder brother William Rufus and subsequently invaded and captured the Duchy of Normandy, controlled by his eldest brother Robert Curthose, defeating Robert's army at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry intended for his lands to be inherited by his only legitimate son, seventeen-year-old William Adelin. In 1120, the political landscape changed when the White Ship sank en route from Barfleur in Normandy to England. With Adelin dead, the inheritance to the English throne was thrown into doubt. Rules of succession in western Europe at the time were uncertain. In other parts of Europe, including Normandy and England, the tradition was for lands to be divided up, with the eldest son taking patrimonial lands—usually considered to be the most valuable—and younger sons being given smaller, or more acquired, partitions or estates.
The problem was further complicated by the sequence of unstable Anglo-Norman successions over the previous sixty years: there had been no peaceful, uncontested successions. With William Adelin dead, Henry had only one other legitimate child, but female rights of inheritance were unclear during this period. Despite Henry taking a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, it became unlikely that Henry would have another legitimate son and instead he looked to Matilda as his intended heir. Matilda had been married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, from which she claimed the title of empress, her husband died in 1125 and she was remarried in 1128 to Geoffrey V of Anjou, whose county bordered the Duchy of Normandy. Geoffrey was unpopular with the Anglo-Norman elite: as an Angevin ruler, he was a traditional enemy of the Normans. At the same time, tensions continued to grow as a result of Henry's domestic policies, in particular the high level of revenue he was raising to pay for his various wars. Conflict was curtailed, however, by the power of the king's reputation.
Henry attempted to build up a base of political support for Matilda in bot
Stephen, King of England
Stephen referred to as Stephen of Blois, was King of England from 1135 to his death, as well as Count of Boulogne from 1125 until 1147 and Duke of Normandy from 1135 until 1144. Stephen's reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda, he was succeeded by Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings. Stephen was born in the County of Blois in central France. Placed into the court of his uncle, Henry I of England, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands, he married Matilda of Boulogne, inheriting additional estates in Kent and Boulogne that made the couple one of the wealthiest in England. Stephen narrowly escaped drowning with Henry I's son, William Adelin, in the sinking of the White Ship in 1120; when Henry I died in 1135, Stephen crossed the English Channel and with the help of his brother Henry of Blois, a powerful ecclesiastic, took the throne, arguing that the preservation of order across the kingdom took priority over his earlier oaths to support the claim of Henry I's daughter, the Empress Matilda.
The early years of Stephen's reign were successful, despite a series of attacks on his possessions in England and Normandy by David I of Scotland, Welsh rebels, the Empress Matilda's husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. In 1138 the Empress's half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. Together with his close advisor, Waleran de Beaumont, Stephen took firm steps to defend his rule, including arresting a powerful family of bishops; when the Empress and Robert invaded in 1139, Stephen was unable to crush the revolt and it took hold in the south-west of England. Captured at the battle of Lincoln in 1141, Stephen was abandoned by many of his followers and lost control of Normandy. Stephen was freed only after his wife and William of Ypres, one of his military commanders, captured Robert at the Rout of Winchester, but the war dragged on for many years with neither side able to win an advantage. Stephen became concerned with ensuring that his son Eustace would inherit his throne.
The King tried to convince the Church to agree to crown Eustace to reinforce his claim. In 1153 the Empress's son, Henry FitzEmpress, invaded England and built an alliance of powerful regional barons to support his claim for the throne; the two armies met at Wallingford, but neither side's barons were keen to fight another pitched battle. Stephen began to examine a process hastened by the sudden death of Eustace. In the year Stephen and Henry agreed to the Treaty of Winchester, in which Stephen recognised Henry as his heir in exchange for peace, passing over William, Stephen's second son. Stephen died the following year. Modern historians have extensively debated the extent to which Stephen's personality, external events, or the weaknesses in the Norman state contributed to this prolonged period of civil war. Stephen was born in Blois in France, in either 1092 or 1096, his father was Stephen-Henry, Count of Blois and Chartres, an important French nobleman, an active crusader, who played only a brief part in Stephen's early life.
During the First Crusade Stephen-Henry had acquired a reputation for cowardice, he returned to the Levant again in 1101 to rebuild his reputation. Stephen's mother, was the daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, famous amongst her contemporaries for her piety and political talent, she had a strong matriarchal influence on Stephen during his early years. France in the 12th century was a loose collection of counties and smaller polities, under the minimal control of the king of France; the king's power was linked to his control of the rich province of Île-de-France, just to the east of Stephen's home county of Blois. In the west lay the three counties of Maine and Touraine, to the north of Blois was the Duchy of Normandy, from which William the Conqueror had conquered England in 1066. William's children were still fighting over the collective Anglo-Norman inheritance; the rulers across this region spoke a similar language, albeit with regional dialects, followed the same religion, were interrelated.
Stephen had one sister, along with two probable half-sisters. Stephen's eldest brother was William. William was intellectually disabled, Adela instead had the title passed over him to her second son, who went on to acquire the county of Champagne as well as Blois and Chartres. Stephen's remaining older brother, died young in his early teens, his younger brother, Henry of Blois, was born four years after him. The brothers formed a close-knit family group, Adela encouraged Stephen to take up the role of a feudal knight, whilst steering Henry towards a career in the church so that their personal career interests would not overlap. Unusually, Stephen was raised in his mother's household rather than being sent to a close relative. Stephen's early life was influenced by his relationship with his uncle Henry I. Henry seized powe
The Becket controversy or Becket dispute was the quarrel between Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, King Henry II of England, from 1163 to 1170. The controversy culminated with Becket's murder in 1170, was followed by Becket's canonization in 1173 and Henry's public penance at Canterbury in July 1174. King Henry II appointed his chancellor, Thomas Becket, as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162; this appointment was made to replace Theobald of Bec, the previous archbishop, who had died in 1161. Henry hoped that by appointing his chancellor, with whom he had good relations, royal supremacy over the English Church would be reasserted and royal rights over the Church would return to what they had been in the days of Henry's grandfather, King Henry I of England. However, shortly after Becket's consecration, the new archbishop resigned the chancellorship, changed his entire lifestyle. Becket had lived ostentatiously, but he now wore a cilice and lived like an ascetic; that said, modern Becket historian Frank Barlow argues that the stories of Becket wearing a hair shirt are embellishments.
He no longer aided the king in defending royal interests in the church, but instead began to champion ecclesiastical rights. Although a number of small conflicts contributed to the controversy, the main source of conflict was over what to do with clergy who committed secular crimes; because those men who took minor orders were considered clergy, the quarrel over the so-called "criminous clerks" covered up to one-fifth of the male population of England at the time. Becket held the position that all clergy, whether only in minor orders or not, were not to be dealt with by secular powers, that only the ecclesiastical hierarchy could judge them for crimes those that were secular in nature. Henry, felt that this position deprived him of the ability to govern and undercut law and order in England. Henry held that the laws and customs of England supported his position, that Theobald of Bec, the previous archbishop, had admitted in 1154 to the papacy that the English custom was to allow secular courts to try clerks accused of crimes.
Among the other issues between the king and the archbishop were the actions Becket took to recover lands lost to the archdiocese, some of which he reacquired with a royal writ that authorized the archbishop to restore any alienated lands. His high-handedness caused many complaints to the king, added to the dispute. Another disagreement involved Henry's attempts to collect sheriff's aid in 1163. Becket argued that the aid was a free will offering to the sheriffs, could not be compelled; this culminated in a heated argument at Woodstock, Oxfordshire in July 1163. Yet another contributing factor was Becket's excommunication of a royal tenant-in-chief who had resisted the archbishop's attempt to install a clerk in a church where the tenant claimed the right to name the appointment. A still quarrel between the king and Becket resulted in Becket giving way to the king's statement that the custom of England was that no tenant-in-chief could be excommunicated without royal permission. In October 1163, Henry summoned the ecclesiastical hierarchy to Westminster to hear his complaints about the governance of the English Church.
At first, the bishops did not agree with the king, who asked them if they would agree to observe the ancient customs of England. The bishops remained steadfastly behind Becket, refused to agree to observe the customs if they conflicted with canon law; the council only met for a day, the next day, the king took his heir, Henry the Young King, out of Becket's custody, as well as confiscating all the honours that he had given to Becket. This was a dismissal of Becket from royal favour. Over the next year, both sides maneuvered to gain advantages, working on diplomatic efforts to secure allies; the king, advised by Arnulf of Lisieux, worked on the bishops and managed to swing many of them over to his viewpoint. Both sides petitioned the papacy, Becket sent diplomatic feelers to King Louis VII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor; the pope, Alexander III, refused to take sides, urged moderation on both sides. Becket began to secure possible safe places of refuge on the continent, if he should need to go into exile.
In late January 1164, the king summoned his major barons as well as the bishops to Clarendon Palace for a council. Once it assembled, the king demanded that the bishops and Becket swear to uphold without reservations the customs of the church as they had been in the king's grandfather's reign. At first, Becket refused, but threats and other arguments persuaded him to support the customs, Becket ordered the remaining bishops to assent also; the king proposed to have a committee of barons and clerks compile these customs into a written document, which would be presented to the council. This was done, but in the middle of the recitation of the customs, Becket asked for a postponement in order for him to consult with others about the customs. However, he accepted these customs, the bishops swore to uphold these, which subsequently became known as the Constitutions of Clarendon. In August 1164, Becket attempted to go to France without permission, forbidden by the Constitutions, he was caught, tried on 6 October 1164 at a royal court on different charges of failing to adequately address a suit brought against him by nobleman John Marshal about lands that Becket had confiscated.
Once at the council, Becket was found guilty of ignoring the court summons and under pressure from the bishops, accepted the sentence of confiscation of all non-landed property pending the pleasure of the king. However, the original disp
Thomas Becket known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and Thomas à Becket, was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III; the main sources for the life of Becket are a number of biographies written by contemporaries. A few of these documents are by unknown writers, although traditional historiography has given them names; the known biographers are John of Salisbury, Edward Grim, Benedict of Peterborough, William of Canterbury, William fitzStephen, Guernes of Pont-Sainte-Maxence, Robert of Cricklade, Alan of Tewkesbury, Benet of St Albans, Herbert of Bosham. The other biographers, who remain anonymous, are given the pseudonyms of Anonymous I, Anonymous II, Anonymous III.
Besides these accounts, there are two other accounts that are contemporary that appear in the Quadrilogus II and the Thómas saga erkibyskups. Besides these biographies, there is the mention of the events of Becket's life in the chroniclers of the time; these include Robert of Torigni's work, Roger of Howden's Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi and Chronica, Ralph Diceto's works, William of Newburgh's Historia Rerum, Gervase of Canterbury's works. Becket was born about 1119, or in 1120 according to tradition, he was born in Cheapside, London, on 21 December, the feast day of St Thomas the Apostle. He was the son of Matilda Beket. Gilbert's father was from Thierville in the lordship of Brionne in Normandy, was either a small landowner or a petty knight. Matilda was of Norman descent, her family may have originated near Caen. Gilbert was related to Theobald of Bec, whose family was from Thierville. Gilbert began his life as a merchant as a textile merchant, but by the 1120s he was living in London and was a property owner, living on the rental income from his properties.
He served as the sheriff of the city at some point. They were buried in Old St Paul's Cathedral. One of Becket's father's wealthy friends, Richer de L'Aigle invited Thomas to his estates in Sussex where Becket was exposed to hunting and hawking. According to Grim, Becket learned much from Richer, a signatory of the Constitutions of Clarendon against Thomas. Beginning when he was 10, Becket was sent as a student to Merton Priory in England and attended a grammar school in London the one at St Paul's Cathedral, he did not study any subjects beyond the quadrivium at these schools. He spent about a year in Paris around age 20, he did not, study canon or civil law at this time and his Latin skill always remained somewhat rudimentary. Some time after Becket began his schooling, Gilbert Beket suffered financial reverses, the younger Becket was forced to earn a living as a clerk. Gilbert first secured a place for his son in the business of a relative—Osbert Huitdeniers—and later Becket acquired a position in the household of Theobald of Bec, by now the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Theobald entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and sent him to Bologna and Auxerre to study canon law. Theobald in 1154 named Becket Archdeacon of Canterbury, other ecclesiastical offices included a number of benefices, prebends at Lincoln Cathedral and St Paul's Cathedral, the office of Provost of Beverley, his efficiency in those posts led to Theobald recommending him to King Henry II for the vacant post of Lord Chancellor, to which Becket was appointed in January 1155. As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king's traditional sources of revenue that were exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics. King Henry sent his son Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses; the younger Henry was reported to have said Becket showed him more fatherly love in a day than his father did for his entire life. Becket was nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, several months after the death of Theobald.
His election was confirmed on 23 May 1162 by a royal council of noblemen. Henry may have hoped that Becket would continue to put the royal government first, rather than the church. However, the famous transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time. Becket enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury from a Nottingham Alabaster in the Victoria & Albert Museum Becket was ordained a priest on 2 June 1162 at Canterbury, on 3 June 1162 was consecrated as archbishop by Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester and the other suffragan bishops of Canterbury. A rift grew between Henry and Becket as the new archbishop resigned his chancellorship and sought to recover and extend the rights of the archbishopric; this led to a series of conflicts with the King, including that over the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergymen, which accelerated antipathy between Becket and the king. Attempts by Henry to influence the other bishops against Becket began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of the traditional rights of the royal government in regard to the church.
This led to the Constitutions of Clarendon, where Becket was asked to agree to the King's rights or face political repercussions. King Henry II presided over the assemblies of most of the higher English clergy at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In sixteen constitutions, he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connec
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons and French, following the Norman conquest. A small number of Normans had earlier befriended future Anglo-Saxon King of England, Edward the Confessor, during his exile in his mother's homeland of Normandy; when he returned to England some of them went with him, so there were Normans settled in England prior to the conquest. Following the death of Edward, the powerful Anglo-Saxon noble, Harold Godwinson, acceded to the English throne until his defeat by William, Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings; the invading Normans came from the duchy of Normandy in the kingdom of France. They formed a ruling class in Britain, distinct from the native populations. Over time their language evolved from the continental Old Norman to the distinct Anglo-Norman language. Anglo-Normans established control over all of England, as well as parts of Wales. After 1130, parts of southern and eastern Scotland came under Anglo-Norman rule, in return for their support of David I's conquest.
The Norman conquest of Ireland in 1169 saw Anglo-Normans settle vast swaths of Ireland, becoming the Hiberno-Normans. The composite expression regno Norman-Anglorum for the Anglo-Norman kingdom that comprises Normandy and England appears contemporaneously only in the Hyde Chronicle; the Norman conquest of England, being a conquest by a people whose tongue and institutions were different from those of the English in many aspects, was an event of an altogether different character from the Danish conquest, a conquest by a people whose tongue was more akin to those of the English, but whose religion was pagan. The English were Catholic and shared this religion with the Normans and they had an influence in England, before the conquest. Furthermore, the relationships between the sailors from both sides of the English channel had maintained a certain common culture; the Normans were not a homogeneous group springing from Scandinavian stock, but hailed from a region of France known as Normandy. The Normans who invaded England did it with a strong contingent from a wide cross-section of north western and central France, from Maine, Brittany, Poitou and "France", altogether non-Norman men accounted for more than a quarter of the army at Hastings.
In terms of culture, they represented the Northern French civilisation, who only spoke French and other Langues d'oïl. The Norman settlers felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers, despite the fact that the Normans were themselves descendants of the Danish Vikings. However, in their own army, they did not feel any sense of community with the Poitou, the Bretons, other groups that had different dialects and traditions; the association between these different troops was only occasional and corresponds to an immediate necessity for the Norman ruler. In fact, the Normans met with the steadiest resistance in a part of England, the most influenced by the Danish. Ousting the Danish leaders who conquered parts of England and provided some of the stiffest resistance to the Normans, replacing the powerful English territorial magnates, while co-opting the most powerful of them, the Normans imposed a new political structure, broadly termed "feudal". Many of the English nobles lost titles. A number of free geburs had their rights and court access much decreased, becoming unfree villeins, despite the fact that this status did not exist in Normandy itself.
At the same time, many of the new Norman and Northern-France magnates were distributed lands by the King, taken from the English nobles. Some of these magnates used their original French-derived names, with the prefix'de,' meaning they were lords of the old fiefs in France, some instead dropped their original names and took their names from new English holdings; the Norman conquest of England brought Britain and Ireland into the orbit of the European continent what remained of Roman-influenced language and culture. If the earlier Anglo-Saxon England was tied to local traditions, the England emerging from the Conquest owed a debt to the Romance languages and the culture of ancient Rome, not so important before the Conquest, but was maintained at a high level by the English Catholic Church and the clerks of England, it transmitted itself in the emerging feudal world. That heritage can be discerned in language, incorporating shards of the French language and the Roman past, in architecture, in the emerging Romanesque architecture, in a new feudal structure erected as a bulwark against the chaos that overtook the Continent following the collapse of Roman authority and the subsequent Dark Ages.
The England that emerged from the Conquest was a decidedly different place, but one, opened up to the sweep of outside influences. The Norman conquest of England signalled a revolution in military styles and methods; the old Anglo-Saxon military elite began to emigrate the generation next younger to that defeated at Hastings, who had no particular future in a country controlled by the conquerors. William, encouraged them to leave, as a security measure; the first to leave went to Denmark and many of these mo