Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence, he emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India, he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.
He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.
Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.
He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which culminated...in The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.
He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary her
Verghese Kurien, known as the'Father of the White Revolution' in India, was a social entrepreneur whose "billion-litre idea", Operation Flood, the world's largest agricultural dairy development programme, made dairy farming India's largest self-sustaining industry and the largest rural employment provider, being a third of all rural income, with benefits of raising incomes and credit, riddance of debt dependence, education, gender parity and empowerment, breakdown of caste barriers and grassroots democracy and leadership. It made India the world's largest milk producer from a milk-deficient nation, which doubled milk available per person and increased milk output four-fold, in 30 years, he pioneered the'Anand pattern' of dairy cooperatives to replicate it nationwide, based on using suitable'top-down' and'bottom up' approaches to a low-input, low-output Amul, his standalone cooperative and today India's largest food brand, where no milk from a farmer was refused and 70–80% of the price by consumers went as cash to dairy farmers who controlled the marketing, the procurement and the processing of milk and milk products as the dairy's owners, while hiring professionals for their skills and inducting technology, in managing it.
A key invention at Amul, the world's first, was the production of milk powder from the abundant buffalo-milk, instead of from the conventional cow-milk, short in supply in India. Keen on a strong linkage between town and country, he surmounted skepticism and adversity with his indefatigable fighting spirit and outmaneuvering skills to capture a commanding share of the market of the city of Bombay, which got him wide attention, he had the foresight to shrewdly use the clout resulting from its recognition, by employing his networking skills and resources at his command in negotiating international help and support from the governments of at least nine prime ministers of the country over more than five decades, all on terms set by him, making everyone who mattered come to Anand in Bombay's hinterland, where he stayed put, to see his showpiece venture, rather than meet them in the capital cities. Termed "a crocodile who swims in milk", he would steadfastly stave off meddling by politicians and bureaucrats while building his cooperatives to national scale and founding institutions, encroachment by multinational companies on markets nurtured by him.
He made India self-sufficient in edible oils, taking on a powerful and violently resistant oil supplying cartel. Regarded as one of the greatest proponents of the cooperative movement in the world where, by unleashing the power of the people through people's own institutions, production by masses triumphs over mass-production, his work has lifted millions out of poverty in India and outside, he was born on 26 November 1921 in Kerala to a Syrian Anglican family. And schooled at Diamond Jubilee Higher Secondary School, Gobichettipalayam, in Coimbatore district while his father worked as a civil surgeon at the government hospital there, he joined Loyola College in Madras at the age of 14, graduating in science with physics in 1940, got a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the College of Engineering, University of Madras, in 1943 He had to fend for himself as he was young for his age in every class. This according to him, developed his sense of independence, he lost his father at 22 and his grand-uncle moved his family to his home in Trichur.
A keen military cadet and a boxer at college, when he wanted to join the army as an engineer, his mother persuaded him to join the Tata Steel Technical Institute, Jamshedpur on a recommendation to the management by his uncle, a director with the Tatas, from where he graduated in 1946, but soon found himself wanting to get away from the hangers-on and yesmen of his uncle. So he left and applied for a government of India scholarship, was chosen to study dairy engineering, an irrelevant discipline, much to his surprise and reluctance, but this time his uncle refused to bail him out, he was thus, sent to the Imperial Institute of Animal Husbandry in Bangalore where he spent nine months, bid time out to be sent to America. Here too, by choosing some dairying electives, rather perfunctorily, at Michigan State University, he returned with a master's degree in mechanical engineering, instead, in 1948. While there, when he found himself at the receiving end of racist jibes, in his words, "the Indian in him, saw him put the natives back in their place".
He would say, "I was sent to... study dairy engineering... I cheated a bit though, studied metallurgical and nuclear engineering, disciplines... to be of far greater use to my soon-to-be independent country and, quite frankly, to me."He did train in dairy technology, with a sense of purpose in 1952-53, on a government sponsorship to New Zealand, a bastion of cooperative dairying and to Australia, when he had to learn to set up the Amul dairy. In 1949, Kurien was sent by the government of India to its run-down, experimental creamery at Anand, in Bombay province, began to work rather half-heartedly, to serve out his bond-period against the scholarship given by them for his master's degree, he began to while away his time going off to Bombay city on weekends and on some pretext of work or else, volunteering to tinker with the primitive dairy equipment of Tribhuvandas Patel, who sought his help to process
Kozhikode known as Calicut, is a city in Kerala and the headquarters of the Kozhikode district. The Kozhikode metropolitan area is the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala with a population of 2 million as of 2011; the city lies about 360 km south west of Bangalore, 235 km south of Mangalore and 525 km south west of Chennai. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of Indian spices, it was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris in the Middle Ages and of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period; the English landed followed by the French and the Dutch. In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in, it was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007. The exact origin of the name Kozhikode is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode is derived from Koyil-kota; the name got corrupted into Kolikod, or its anglicized version Calicut. Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ. Tamils called. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut; the word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth, exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut. It is the historical capital of Kerala as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad, near Calicut.
Kozhikode is a town with a long recorded history. From time immemorial, the city has attracted travellers with its prosperity, it has traded in spices like black pepper and cardamom with Arabs, Jews and Chinese for more than 500 years. As Kozhikode offered full freedom and security, the Arab and the Chinese merchants preferred it to all other ports; the globe-trotter Ibn Battuta said, "We came next to Kalikut, one of the great ports of the district of Malabar, in which merchants of all parts are found."Kozhikode was the capital of Malabar during the time of Sri Samoothiri Maharajas, who ruled the region before the British took over. The city's first recorded contact with Europe was when Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad in May 1498, among the leaders of a trade mission from Portugal, he was received by his highness Sri Samoothiri Maharaja. Feroke is a prominent commercial town located adjacent to the city of Kozhikode; the remnants of Tipu Sultan’s Fort area telltale of the Mysore Emperor’s dream to make Farookabad, now Ferok, his new capital, but that dream was never realized.
Known as Farookabad during the reign of Tipu Sultan, he wanted to make Farookabad his capital when he conquered Malabar in 1788. But it came under the jurisdiction of the British. Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta, who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city, he describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them". Ma Huan, the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world, he makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes and the matrilineal system of succession.
Abdur Razzak the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries from Abyssinia and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon and zedary, he calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles. The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin calls'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode include Duarte Barbosa. Kozhikode and its suburbs formed; the Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands. And after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki came to terms with the troops and people. After this, the town
Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50% of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular language. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia, North America, the Caribbean and Africa; the demonymn Indian today applies to nationals of the Republic of India, although before the partition of India in 1947, nationals residing in the entirety of British India were known as Indians as well. The name Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India; the designation "Bhārata" appears in the official Sanskrit name of Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Vedic and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as "Bhārata varṣam" and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents; the Bhāratas were a vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.
India is named after legendary Emperor Bharata, a descendant of the Bhāratas tribe, scion of Kuru Dynasty who unified the Indian Subcontinent under one realm. उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।। "The country that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam. In the Hindu text, Skanda Purana it is stated that "Rishabhanatha was the son of Nabhiraja, Rishabha had a son named Bharata, after the name of this Bharata, this country is known as Bharata-varsha." This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana, Vayu Purana, Linga Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Agni Purana, Skanda Purana and Markandeya Purana that this country is known as Bharata Varsha after Bharat Chakravartin.ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत् भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत् Rishabhanatha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh, Bharatvarsha arose from Bharata, Sumati arose from Bharata — Vishnu Purana In early Vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta was in popular use before Bhārata.
The Manusmṛti gives the name Āryāvarta to "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern to the Western Sea". While the word Indian and India is derived from Greek Ἰνδία, via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus river, since Herodotus ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; the name is derived from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, but meaning "river" generically. The history of India includes the prehistoric societies in the Indian subcontinent; the Indian people established during ancient, medieval to early eighteenth century some of the greatest empires and dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Karkota Empire, Pala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire. The first great Empire of the Indian people was the Maurya Empire having Patliputra as its capital, conquered the major part of South Asia in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka alongside their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in the World.
The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration and Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of Asia, while Chola Empire in the south had flourishing maritime trade links with the Roman Empire during this period; the ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the Hindu–Arabic numeral system decimal system during this period. During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia. During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. From the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four great kings of the world.
The medieval south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra liv
Syama Prasad Mukherjee
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was an Indian politician and academician, who served as Minister for Industry and Supply in Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet. After falling out with Nehru, Mukherjee quit the Indian National Congress and founded the right wing nationalist political party Bharatiya Jana Sangh, a predecessor to the Bharatiya Janata Party, in 1951, he was the president of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha from 1943 to 1946. Mukherjee was opposed to Article 370 seeing as a threat to the unity of the country and fought against it inside and outside the parliament with one of the goals of Bharatiya Jana Sangh being the abrogation of the article, he died in 1953. Since BJP is the successor party of Bhartiya Jana Sangh, Mukherjee is regarded as the founder of BJP too. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee was born in a Bengali Hindu family on 6 July 1901 in Calcutta, his father was Ashutosh Mukherjee, a judge of the High Court of Calcutta, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. His mother was Jogamaya Devi Mukherjee.
He enrolled in Bhawanipur's Mitra Institution in 1906 and his behaviour in school was described favourably by his teachers. In 1914, he was admitted into Presidency College, he stood seventeenth in the Inter Arts Examination in 1916and graduated in English, securing the first position in first class in 1921. He was married to Sudha Devi on 16 April 1922. Mukherjee completed an M. A. in Bengali, being graded as first class in 1923 and became a fellow of the Senate in 1923. He completed his B. L. in 1924. He enrolled as an advocate in Calcutta High Court in 1924, the same year in which his father had died. Subsequently, he left for England in 1926 to study at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the English Bar in the same year. In 1934, at the age of 33, he became the youngest Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta. During his term as Vice-Chancellor, Rabindranath Tagore delivered the University Convocation Address in Bengali for the first time, the Indian vernacular was introduced as a subject for the highest examination.
Mukherjee received the D. Litt from Calcutta University on 26 November 1938. Mukherjee started his political career in 1929, when he entered the Bengal Legislative Council as an Indian National Congress candidate representing Calcutta University. However, he resigned the next year. Subsequently, he contested the election as an independent candidate and was elected in the same year. In 1937, he was elected as an independent candidate in the elections which brought the Krishak Praja Party-All India Muslim League coalition to power, he served as the Finance Minister of Bengal Province in 1941–42 under A. K. Fazlul Haq's Progressive Coalition government, formed on 12 December 1941 after the resignations of Muslim League ministers of the government. During his tenure, his statements against the government were censored and his movements were restricted, he was prevented from visiting the Midnapore district in 1942 when severe floods caused a heavy loss of life and property. He resigned on 20 November 1942 accusing the British government of trying to hold on to India under any cost and criticised its repressive policies against the Quit India Movement.
After resigning, he mobilised support and organised relief with the help of Mahabodhi Society, Ramakrishna Mission and Marwari Relief Society. In 1946, he was again elected as an independent candidate from the Calcutta University, he was elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly of India in the same year. Mukherjee joined the Hindu Mahasabha in Bengal in 1939 and became its acting president that same year, he was appointed as the working president of the organisation in 1940. In February 1941, Mukherjee told a Hindu rally that if Muslims wanted to live in Pakistan they should "pack their bag and baggage and leave India... wherever they like". He was elected as the President of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha in 1943, he remained in this position till 1946, with Laxman Bhopatkar becoming the new President in the same year. Mukherjee demanded the partition of Bengal in 1946 to prevent the inclusion of its Hindu-majority areas in a Muslim-dominated East Pakistan. A meeting held by the Mahasabha on 15 April 1947 in Tarakeswar authorised him to take steps for ensuring partition of Bengal.
In May 1947, he wrote a letter to Lord Mountbatten telling him that Bengal must be partitioned if India was not. He opposed a failed bid for a united but independent Bengal made in 1947 by Sarat Bose, the brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, a Bengali Muslim politician, his views were affected by the Noakhali genocide in East Bengal, where mobs belonging to the Muslim League massacred Hindus. Following the Hindu Mahasabha's official decision to boycott the Quit India movement and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh's decision of non-participation in the movement, Mukherjee wrote a letter to Sir John Herbert, Governor of Bengal as to how they should respond to "Quit India" movement. In this letter, dated 26 July 1942 he wrote: Let me now refer to the situation that may be created in the province as a result of any widespread movement launched by the Congress. Anybody, who during the war, plans to stir up mass feeling, resulting internal disturbances or insecurity, must be resisted by any Government that may function for the time being Mukherjee in this letter reiterated that the Fazlul Haq-led Bengal Government, along with its alliance partner Hindu Mahasabha would make every possible effort to defeat the Quit India Movement in the province of Bengal and made a concrete proposa