John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes CB FBA, was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics and he instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate boom, Keynes advocated the use of fiscal and monetary policies to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. He and other economists had disputed the ability of government to regulate the business cycle favorably with fiscal policy. When Time magazine included Keynes among its Most Important People of the Century in 1999, the Economist has described Keynes as Britains most famous 20th-century economist. In addition to being an economist, Keynes was also a servant, a director of the Bank of England. John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England and his father, John Neville Keynes, was an economist and a lecturer in moral sciences at the University of Cambridge and his mother Florence Ada Keynes a local social reformer. Keynes was the first born, and was followed by two more children – Margaret Neville Keynes in 1885 and Geoffrey Keynes in 1887, Geoffrey became a surgeon and Margaret married the Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Archibald Hill. According to the economist and biographer Robert Skidelsky, Keyness parents were loving and they remained in the same house throughout their lives, where the children were always welcome to return. Keyness mother made her childrens interests her own, and according to Skidelsky, because she could grow up with her children, they never outgrew home. In January 1889, at the age of five and a half and he quickly showed a talent for arithmetic, but his health was poor leading to several long absences. He was tutored at home by a governess, Beatrice Mackintosh, in January 1892, at eight and a half, he started as a day pupil at St Faiths preparatory school. By 1894, Keynes was top of his class and excelling at mathematics, in 1896, St Faiths headmaster, Ralph Goodchild, wrote that Keynes was head and shoulders above all the other boys in the school and was confident that Keynes could get a scholarship to Eton. In 1897, Keynes won a scholarship to Eton College, where he displayed talent in a range of subjects, particularly mathematics, classics. At Eton, Keynes experienced the first love of his life in Dan Macmillan, despite his middle-class background, Keynes mixed easily with upper-class pupils. In 1902 Keynes left Eton for Kings College, Cambridge, after receiving a scholarship for this also to read mathematics, Alfred Marshall begged Keynes to become an economist, although Keyness own inclinations drew him towards philosophy – especially the ethical system of G. E. Moore. Keynes joined the Pitt Club and was an member of the semi-secretive Cambridge Apostles society. Like many members, Keynes retained a bond to the club after graduating, before leaving Cambridge, Keynes became the President of the Cambridge Union Society and Cambridge University Liberal Club
Keynes in 1933
King's College, Cambridge. Keynes's grandmother wrote to him saying that, since he was born in Cambridge, people will expect him to be clever.
Keynes's colleague, David Lloyd George. Keynes was initially wary of the "Welsh Wizard," preferring his rival Asquith, but was impressed with Lloyd George at Versailles; this did not prevent Keynes from painting a scathing picture of the then-prime minister in his Economic Consequences of the Peace.