North Wales is a region of Wales. Retail and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Bangor, it is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, to the east by the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire. North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd, defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); the division with the rest of Wales depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium; the historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.
The region is steeped in history and was for a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity; the area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris and Harlech, it shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere reserve in Wales, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. The region is made up of the following administrative areas: the county borough of Wrexham the county of Flintshire the county of Denbighshire the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes: the preserved county of Clwyd the preserved county of Gwynedd North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999.
There is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name, which covers the northeast of Wales as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales. The area is rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast, means. Farming, once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance; the average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status. The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town; the total population of North Wales is 687,937. The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno and Tywyn; the A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales. North Wales has a diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. North Wales has a distinct regional identity, its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk".
Geoffrey Winthrop Young
Geoffrey Winthrop Young D. Litt. was a British climber and educator, author of several notable books on mountaineering. Young was born in Kensington, the middle son of Sir George Young, 3rd Baronet, a noted classicist and charity commissioner, of Formosa Place at Cookham in Berkshire, where he grew up, his mother Alice Eacy Kennedy, was the daughter of Dr Evory Kennedy of Belgard Co. Dublin and had lived in India as Lady Lawrence, wife of Sir Alexander Lawrence, Bt, nephew to the Viceroy, Lord Lawrence. Widowed when Sir Alexander died in a bridge collapse, Alice returned to England, marrying Sir George in 1871. Winthrop's brother Edward Hilton Young became the 1st Baron Kennet. Educated at Marlborough, Young began rock climbing shortly before his first term at Trinity College, where he studied Classics and won the Chancellor's Medal for English Verse two years running. While there, Young wrote a humorous college climbing guide called The Roof-Climber's Guide to Trinity, in part a parody of early alpine guidebooks, in part a useful reference work for those, like him, who were keen to clamber up Cambridge's highest spires.
During the Edwardian Period, up until the outbreak of hostilities heralding World War I, Young made several new and difficult ascents in the Alps, including noted routes on the Zermatt Breithorn on Monte Rosa, the west ridge of the Gspaltenhorn, on the west face of the Weisshorn, a dangerous and repeated route on the south face of the Täschhorn. His finest rock climb was the Mer de Glace face of the Aiguille du Grépon. In 1911, with H. O. Jones, he ascended the Brouillard ridge of Mont Blanc and made the first complete traverse of the west ridge of the Grandes Jorasses, the first descent of the ridge to the Col des Hirondelles, his favoured, but not only, guide was Josef Knubel of St Niklaus. Winthrop Young put up new routes on the crags of the Lake District and Wales, he was elected president of the Climbers' Club in 1913, he organised the Pen-y-Pass gatherings that propelled the advancement of rock climbing and included such technical luminaries as J. M. Archer Thompson, George Leigh Mallory, Siegfried Herford, John Percy Farrar and Oscar Eckenstein.
These parties, beginning in earnest about 1907, sometimes reaching sixty men and children, flooded the hotel and overflowed into Eckenstein's miner's cabin and various tents. They came to an end in 1914. During the war, Young was at first a correspondent for the liberal Daily News, but as a conscientious objector, was active in the FAU, the Friends' Ambulance Unit, he received several decorations, but on 31 August 1917 an explosion caused injuries requiring the amputation of one of his legs. After the amputation, Young walked sixteen miles in two days to avoid being captured by the Austrians, he continued alpine climbing for a number of years – using a specially designed artificial leg that accepted a number of attachments for snow and rock work – and climbed the Matterhorn in 1928. At the conclusion of the war in 1918 he married Eleanor Winthrop Young, who helped him return to climbing after his amputation and accompanied him on expeditions; the biography written by Alan Hankinson mentions Winthrop Young's bisexuality.
In 1920 Young published the 300-page manual of mountaineering instruction entitled Mountain Craft, to which Eckenstein and J. Norman Collie contributed; the editor of the Alpine Club, John Percy Farrar, wrote to Young on the book's publication, saying:'The book is magnificent... It will be standard for so long; the profound amount of work put into it staggers me.'To support himself and his family he worked for the Rockefeller Foundation, spent much time in Germany, – having met Kurt Hahn before the War – helped Hahn immigrate to England in 1934. Much of what may be called an outdoor adventure education springs from this connection; the now famous Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme and the International Award scheme comes from this co-operation between Hahn and Young. The Outward Bound movement, after World War II, owes a considerable debt to their friendship. During World War II, Young was president of the Alpine Club and it was through his efforts that the British Mountaineering Council, the umbrella organisation for climbers in Great Britain, was created in 1945.
The Roof-Climber's Guide to Roof Climbing Freedom. Poems Mountain Craft On High Hills: Memories of the Alps Collected Poems Mountains with a Difference The Grace of Forgetting Snowdon Biography with Sutton & Noyce
Great Ormond Street Hospital
Great Ormond Street Hospital is a children's hospital located in the Bloomsbury area of the London Borough of Camden, a part of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust. The hospital is the largest centre for child heart surgery in the UK and one of the largest centres for heart transplantation in the world. In 1962 they developed the first lung bypass machine for children. With children's book author Roald Dahl, they developed an improved shunt valve for children with water on the brain, non-invasive heart valve replacements, they did the first UK clinical trials of the rubella vaccine, the first bone marrow transplant and gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency. It is associated with University College London and in partnership with the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, adjacent to it, is the largest centre for research and postgraduate teaching in children's health in Europe. In 1929, J. M. Barrie donated the copyright to Peter Pan to the hospital.
The Hospital for Sick Children was founded on 14 February 1852 after a long campaign by Dr. Charles West, was the first hospital in England to provide in-patient beds for children. Despite opening with just 10 beds, it grew into one of the world's leading children's hospitals through the patronage of Queen Victoria, counting Charles Dickens, a personal friend of the Chief Physician Dr West, as one of its first fundraisers; the Nurses League was formed in February 1937. Great Ormond Street Hospital was nationalised in 1948. During the early years of the NHS, private fundraising for the hospital was restricted, though the hospital was permitted to continue to receiving pre-existing legacies. Audrey Callaghan, wife of James Callaghan, served the hospital as Chairman of the Board of Governors from 1968 to 1972 and as Chairman of the Special Trustees from 1983 until her final retirement in 1990. Diana, Princess of Wales, served as president of the Hospital from 1989 until her death. A plaque at the entrance of the hospital commemorates her services.
The Charles West School of Nursing transferred from Great Ormond Street to London South Bank University in 1995. In 2002 Great Ormond Street Hospital commenced a redevelopment programme, budgeted at £343 million and the next phase of, scheduled to be complete by the end of 2016. In July 2012, Great Ormond Street Hospital was featured in the opening ceremony of the London Summer Olympics. In 2017 Great Ormond Street Hospital was subject to international attention regarding the Charlie Gard treatment controversy; the hospital's archives are available for research under the terms of the Public Records Act 1958 and a catalogue is available on request. Admission records from 1852 to 1914 have been made available online on the Historic Hospital Admission Records Project. St. Christopher's Chapel is a chapel decorated in the Byzantine style and Grade II* listed building located in the Variety Club Building of the hospital. Designed by Edward Middleton Barry and built in 1875, it is dedicated to the memory of Caroline Barry, wife of William Henry Barry who provided the £40,000 required to build the Chapel and a stipend for the chaplain.
It was built in "elaborate Franco-Italianate style". As the chapel exists to provide pastoral care to ill children and their families, many of its details refer to childhood; the stained glass depicts the Nativity, the childhood of Christ and biblical scenes related to children. The dome depicts a pelican pecking at her breast in order to feed her young with drops of her own blood, a traditional symbol of Christ's sacrifice for humanity; when the old hospital was being demolished in the late 1980s, the chapel was moved to its present location via a'concrete raft' to prevent any damage en route. The stained glass and furniture were temporarily removed for repair, it was reopened along with the new Variety Club Building on 14 February 1994 by Diana, Princess of Wales president of the hospital. In April 1929 the hospital was the recipient of playwright J. M. Barrie's copyright to the Peter Pan works, with the provision that the income from this source not be disclosed; this gave the institution control of the rights to these works, entitled it to royalties from any performance or publication of the play and derivative works.
Four theatrical feature films were produced, innumerable performances of the play have been presented, numerous editions of the novel were published under licence from the hospital. Its trustees commissioned a sequel novel, Peter Pan in Scarlet, published in 2006 and received mixed reviews, with a film adaptation planned; when the copyright first expired at the end of 1987 in the UK, 50 years after Barrie's death, the UK government's Copyright and Patents Act of 1988 granted the hospital a perpetual right to collect royalties for public performances, commercial publication, or other communications to the public of the work but this does not constitute a true copyright. When copyright term itself was subsequently extended to the author's life plus 70 years by a European Union directive in 1996 standardising terms throughout the EU, GOSH revived its copyright of Peter Pan which expired in 2007; the terms of the Copyright and Patents Act now prevail in the UK. GOSH has been in legal disputes in the United States, where the copyright term is based on date of publication, putting the 1911 novel in the public domain, although the Hospital asser
In climbing, a piton is a metal spike, driven into a crack or seam in the climbing surface with a climbing hammer, which acts as an anchor to either protect the climber against the consequences of a fall or to assist progress in aid climbing. Pitons are equipped with a ring to which a carabiner is attached. Pitons are still used where there is no alternative. Repeated hammering and extraction of pitons damages the rock, climbers who subscribe to the clean climbing ethic avoid their use as much as possible. With the popularization of clean climbing in the 1970s, pitons were replaced by faster and easier-to-use clean protection, such as nuts and camming devices. Pitons are still found in place on some established free climbing routes, as fixed belay station anchors, in places where nuts or cams do not work. Pitons manufactured to fit a wide range of cracks. From small to large, the most common are: RURP – for Realized Ultimate Reality Piton – a tiny piton the size of a postage stamp used in thin, shallow seams.
It was designed by Tom Frost and Yvon Chouinard in 1959, manufactured by Chouinard Equipment in the 1960s. It is not a strong piece, is used for aid climbing, although it can feature as protection on extreme free routes. More recent versions of the RURP include Bird Peckers. Knifeblade – known as Bugaboos, are a thin straight piton, that work in thin, deep cracks. Lost Arrow – designed by John Salathé and Yvon Chouinard, are a hot-forged, tapered piton that performs well in medium-size cracks. Angle – A piton made of steel sheet bent into a "U", "V", or "Z" shape. Bongs – The largest pitons are angles made from aluminium sheet called bongs, named for the sound they produce while being hammered into place, or the sound they make when dropped. Bongs have become rare with the advent of camming units, nuts which protect the same wide cracks more and without causing damage to the rock. Early pitons were made of malleable iron and soft steel and would deform to the shape of the crack when driven into the rock, which worked well in the irregular cracks found on European limestone.
Soft pitons are difficult to remove without damaging the piton, so they were left in place and became fixed anchor points on a climb. During climbing exploration of the hard granite in Yosemite Valley in the 1950s and 1960s, it was found that soft pitons did not work well; the long routes developed in Yosemite made it impractical and costly to fix routes, the soft pitons were not durable enough to be placed and removed more than a few times. Pitons needed to be used again on subsequent pitches, sometimes many times. Leaving gear in place went against the ethics of many climbers. John Salathé pioneered designs using hardened steel which were much tougher than the European pitons. Salathé's pins, which he developed for a climb of the Lost Arrow, resisted deformation and were easier to remove and reuse, were durable enough to be reused indefinitely. FilmsIn the James Bond film For Your Eyes Only, James Bond makes use of pitons while climbing a sheer cliff face, as a means to infiltrate the villain Kristatos' hideout.
Just before he gets to the top of the cliff, Bond is met by one of Kristatos' assassins. Apostis tries to kill Bond by knocking his pitons out of the rock, which would cause Bond to fall to his death. Just before Apostis knocks out the last piton, Bond unclips another piton from his belt and uses it as a throwing knife, injuring Apostis and sending the assassin falling to his death. Bond is able to infiltrate Kristatos' hideout. GamesIn the video game I Am Alive, the main character can use a piton to rest and replenish their stamina while climbing for extended periods of time. In Uncharted 4: A Thief's End, Nathan Drake acquires a piton from a hanged corpse; the tool becomes more used in the half of the game. LiteratureDan Simmons' historical fiction novel, The Abominable, centers on mountain climbing and depicts passages in which piton use is crucial. Additionally, the world class British Alpinist, Richard Davis Deacon, sneers at the Germans' heavy use of such equipment, while the narrator, his younger American protege, deems it brilliant.
TelevisionIn the MacGyver season 2 episode "Eagles", MacGyver must climb a mountain to save baby eagles. Short of equipment, he uses tent stakes as pitons; the Alienist Season 1 Episode 4, the two Jewish twins who works on the case, discover a metal tool on the ground of the crime scene.. One of the twins, called Marcus finds a'piton' on the ground, used by their suspect. Copperhead Climbing hammer Bolt Climbing equipment
The Llanberis Pass in Snowdonia carries the main road from the south-east to Llanberis, over Pen-y-Pass, between the mountain ranges of the Glyderau and the Snowdon massif. At the bottom of the pass is the small village of Nant Peris; the Llanberis Pass lies between the mountain massifs of Snowdon and the Glyderau in the county of Gwynedd, in northwestern Wales. The summit of the pass is 359 m above sea level, is the site of the Pen-y-Pass Hotel, now a Youth Hostel; the A4086 road traverses the pass. The Nant Peris valley lies to the northwest descending to the town of Llanberis, the Llyn Peris and Llyn Padarn lakes and continues on as the Afon Rhythallt to Caernarfon and the Menai Strait; the valley is narrow and steep-sided, with rocky crags and boulders on either side of the road. About one mile to the east of Pen-y-Pass is the Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel. To the east of this are the headwaters of the Dyffryn Mymbyr, a tributary of the River Llugwy which it joins at Capel Curig. To the south of Pen-y-gwryd are the headwaters of the Afon Glaslyn which flows southwestwards towards Beddgelert.
Many fine crags are accessible from the road, the area is popular with rock climbers and abseilers. On the north side, the principal crags are: Carreg Wastad, Clogwyn y Grochan. On the south side, the principal'roadside' cliff is Dinas Mot; the Cromlech Boulders are used for bouldering. These roadside boulders were saved from destruction in a 1973 road widening scheme by a six-year protest by local people, historians and geologists. Climbers associated with the area include John Menlove Edwards and Joe Brown; the British 1953 Everest expedition trained in the area, were based at the Pen-y-Gwryd Hotel at the eastern end of the pass. At Pen-y-Pass there is a car park and a cafe, three different footpaths set off up Snowdon, as well as two others to the east leading to the summits of Glyder Fawr and Glyder Fach. the car park is full and a shuttle bus service from Llanberis, with a park and ride runs from near the Vaynor Arms. The Snowdonia Sherpa bus service network run by Express Motors and GHA Coaches operates frequent services between Betws-y-Coed, Capel Curig, Pen-y-Gwryd and Pen-y-Pass and between Pen-y-Pass, Nant Peris and Llanberis.
A Walk down the Llanberis Pass An Illustrated Guide to the Llanberis Pass
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Fettes College is a private co-educational independent boarding and day school in Edinburgh, with over two-thirds of its pupils in residence on campus. The school was a boarding school for boys only and became co-ed in 1983. In 1978 the College had a nine-hole golf course, an ice-skating rink used in winter for ice hockey and in summer as an outdoor swimming pool, a cross-country running track and a rifle shooting range within the forested 300-acre grounds. Fettes is sometimes referred to as a public school, although the term is traditionally used in Scotland for state schools; the school was founded with a bequest of Sir William Fettes in 1870 and started admitting girls in 1970. It has nine houses; the main building was designed by David Bryce. To perpetuate the memory of his only son William, who had predeceased him in 1815, Sir William Fettes, a former Lord Provost of Edinburgh and a wealthy city merchant, bequeathed the very large sum of £166,000 to be set aside for the education of poor children and orphans.
After his death the bequest was invested, the accumulated sum was used to acquire the 350 acres of land, to build the main building and to found the school in 1870. Fettes College opened with 53 pupils. Following serious fires, the swimming baths were rebuilt in 1890 and the chemistry laboratory was rebuilt in 1897; the cricket pavilion was completed in 1906. In summer 1914 the school's summer camp at Barry had to be abandoned when both the commanding officer and the adjutant were called up for service in the First World War. Of the 2,000 former pupils who had by been educated at the school, 1,094 were called up and 246 died in the war. A war memorial designed by Birnie Rhind and bearing the inscription "carry on" was unveiled by Major-General Sir William Macpherson in the school grounds in 1921. A central heating system was first introduced in the main building in 1920 and electric light was first introduced in the school in 1924. In October 1939, early in the Second World War, the school had its first experience of hostilities when a German Junkers Ju 88 flew low over the school playing fields en-route to bomb Rosyth Dockyard.
Kimmerghame House was requisitioned for use as a section of the mine research unit HMS Vernon. A total of 118 former boys died in the Second World War. In the mid-1940s Sean Connery, a milkman with the St. Cuthbert's Co-operative Society, delivered milk to the school in the mornings; the school chapel was enlarged by adding a chancel and a gallery in 1948. A new school running track was opened in 1954 giving a boost to athletics at the school and The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh visited the school in 1955. In the early 1960s the school was required to sell 18 acres of land to allow Telford College to be built and to sell 14 acres for a new headquarters for Lothian and Borders Police. Following a public inquiry in 1965 the school was forced to sell 15 acres of land to allow Broughton High School to be re-built. A new dining hall was opened in 1966 and a new school library was opened in 1970; the Queen Mother opened a new science school in 1970. An all-boys school until 1970, when female pupils were first admitted for the final year, Fettes became co-educational in 1983.
In 1988 the school sold 13 acres of land to McCarthy & Stone for residential use for £3 million: the proceeds were used by the school to finance the refurbishment of the boys' houses. In the late 1990s the school performed well academically: in 1998 Fettes was placed fourth in the Daily Telegraph league table of schools. In 1999 Fettes was placed fifth in the Sunday Times list of top mixed independent schools in the UK and in 2001 Fettes was declared "Scottish School of the year" by the Sunday Times. In March 2009 Fettes won the Scottish Schools U18 Rugby Cup, at Murrayfield Stadium, for the first time and in April 2009 Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education published a report on Fettes that evaluated the school as "excellent" in four out of five Quality Indicators and "very good" in the other, it is said that Fettes "used to have a hearty, rugger-bugger, Caledonian image". Some journalists have described Fettes as "the Eton of the North". Fettes College follows the English rather than Scottish education system.
Pupils take GCSEs rather than Scottish Standard Grades and students now have the choice between A Levels and the new International Baccalaureate Diploma, but cannot take Scottish exams. Life at Fettes revolves around sports like rugby, cricket, inter house tennis and squash in the afternoons and the various clubs and societies like sub-aqua, judo, fencing, CCF, debating society, chess, war gaming, model railway, music society, classic dancing club, house prep etc. in the evenings. Fettes is one of only three schools in Scotland to have this status. There are nine houses: four for boys, four for girls and one for boys and girls; the houses are named after the estates of the first Trustees. The male houses are large period buildings; the new house was built to reduce the pressure on the three girls' houses, which were accommodating more pupils than the four boys' houses. The Upper Sixth Boarding House, for both boys and girls in their last year at Fettes, opened in September 2007. Carrington Glencorse Kimmerghame Moredun (1870–presen