Extortion is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion. It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from threats from unspecified other parties. Extortion is practiced by organized crime groups; the actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense, making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the demanding and obtaining of something through force, but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant; the term extortion is used metaphorically to refer to usury or to price-gouging, though neither is considered extortion. It is often used loosely to refer to everyday situations where one person feels indebted against their will, to another, in order to receive an essential service or avoid legal consequences.
Neither extortion nor blackmail requires a threat of a criminal act, such as violence a threat used to elicit actions, money, or property from the object of the extortion. Such threats include the filing of reports of criminal behavior to the police, revelation of damaging facts, etc. In law, the word extortion can refer to political corruption, such as selling one's office or influence peddling, but in general vocabulary the word first brings to mind blackmail or protection rackets; the logical connection between the corruption sense of the word and the other senses is that to demand bribes in one's official capacity is blackmail or racketeering in essence. Extortion is distinguished from robbery. In robbery, whether armed or not, the offender takes property from the victim by the immediate use of force or fear that force will be used. Extortion, not limited to the taking of property, involves the verbal or written instillation of fear that something will happen to the victim if they do not comply with the extortionist's will.
Another key distinction is that extortion always involves a verbal or written threat, whereas robbery does not. In United States federal law, extortion can be committed with or without the use of force and with or without the use of a weapon. In blackmail, which always involves extortion, the extortionist threatens to reveal information about a victim or their family members, embarrassing damaging, or incriminating unless a demand for money, property, or services is met. In the United States, extortion may be committed as a federal crime across a computer system, phone, by mail, or in using any instrument of interstate commerce. Extortion requires that the individual sent the message willingly and knowingly as elements of the crime; the message only has to be sent to commit the crime of extortion. In England and Wales extorting property and money by coercion is the offence of Blackmail which covers any "unwarranted demand with menaces" including physical threats. See section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 plus sections 29 and 30 of the Larceny Act 1916.
A group of people may be committing conspiracy. Extortion is a common law offence in Scotland of using threat of harm to demand money, property or some advantage from another person, it does not matter whether the demand itself is legitimate as the offence can still be committed when illegitimate threats of harm are used. Cyberextortion is when an group uses the internet as an offensive force; the group or individual sends a company a threatening email stating that they have received confidential information about their company and will exploit a security leak or launch an attack that will harm the company's network. The message sent through the email demands money in exchange for the prevention of the attack. In March 2008, Anthony Digati was arrested on federal charges of extortion through interstate communication. Digati put $50,000 into a variable life insurance policy by New York Life Insurance Company and wanted a return of $198,303.88. When the firm didn't comply, he threatened to send out 6 million spam emails.
He registered a domain in February 2008 that contained New York Life's name in the URL to display false public statements about the company and increased his demand to $3 million. According to prosecutors, Digati's intent was not to inform or educate but he wanted to "damage the reputation of New York Life and cost the company millions of dollars in revenue,”. New York Life contacted the Federal Bureau of Digati was apprehended. On February 15, 2011, Spanish police apprehended a man who attempted to blackmail Nintendo over customer information he had stolen; the man stole personal information about 4,000 users and emailed Nintendo Ibérica, Nintendo's Spanish division, accused the company of data negligence. He threatened the company that he would make the information public and complain to the Spanish Data Agency if his demands were not met. After Nintendo ignored his demands, he published some of the informati
De Telegraaf is the largest Dutch daily morning newspaper. The paper edition had a daily circulation of 430,686 in 2015. Paul Jansen has been the editor-in-chief since August 2015. De Telegraaf is based in Amsterdam. Paul Jansen is the editor-in-chief of the paper, owned by the Telegraaf Media Groep that publishes the free daily Metro. De Telegraaf was founded by Henry Tindal, who started another paper De Courant; the first issue appeared on 1 January 1893. Following Tindal's death on 31 January 1902 the printer HMC Holdert, with backing from financiers, took over De Telegraaf and De Courant on 12 September 1902; this proved to be a good investment with regard to De Courant, enabling Holdert between 1903 and 1923 to take over one newspaper after another, suspending publication as he went. He added the name Amsterdamsche Courant as a subtitle to De Telegraaf, Het Nieuws van den Dag to De Courant. During World War I, when the Netherlands was neutral, Holdert's French sympathies and his pro-British standpoint caused De Telegraaf to be the focus of some controversy, as the Netherlands were pro-German at the time.
In 1926, Holdert began construction of a new printing facility at the Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal in Amsterdam, designed by J. F. Staal and G. J. Langhout. Construction was completed and the building occupied in 1930. During World War II, the Telegraaf companies published pro-German papers, which led to a thirty-year ban on publishing after the war; the prohibition was, lifted in 1949 and De Telegraaf flourished anew to become the biggest newspaper in the Netherlands. At one point, in June 1966, the Telegraaf building was besieged by angry construction workers and Provo followers, after a false report that a victim of a labour dispute had been killed not by the police but by a co-worker. In 1974, De Telegraaf moved to a new location on the Basisweg. In the period of 1995–1996 De Telegraaf had a circulation of 760,000 copies, making it the best-selling paper in the country. De Courant/Nieuws van de Dag ceased publication in 1998. In 1999, the circulation of the paper was 808,000 copies, making it the ninth best selling European newspaper.
De Telegraaf was the eighth top European newspaper with a circulation of 807,000 copies in 2001. It was added a Sundays edition on 21 March 2004; the Sunday edition was dropped on 27 December 2009. Circulation was 488,902 copies in 2013. De Telegraaf changed from broadsheet to tabloid in October 2014. In 2014, 455,727 and 430,686 in 2015. Distribution had been reduced to 393,537 in 2017. On 26 June 2018, a delivery van intentionally rammed into the office building of De Telegraaf, catching fire afterwards, started by the driver who made his getaway with another car; the building took considerable damage. Police believe; the Panorama office was hit by an anti-tank missile - a biker gang member was arrested for that attack. This national newspaper contains many "sensational" and sports-related articles, one or more pages the content of, supplied by the gossip-magazine Privé; the financial news coverage is more serious in tone. The paper targets a broad audience in a conservative and populist style, attracting specific target groups for the paper's advertisers.
The newspaper not only reports news, but actively campaigns in political issues. Official website
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Neerpelt is a former municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg. In December 2012, it had a total population of 16,742, of which 3.090 were foreigners from neighbouring The Netherlands. The total area is 42.78 km² which gives a population density of 384 inhabitants per km². Effective 1 January 2019, Neerpelt and Overpelt were merged into the new municipality of Pelt. Provinciaal Domein Dommelhof is the cultural center of Neerpelt; this institute houses several smaller organisations: Musica: Impulse Center for music, manager of het Klankenbos on the Dommelhof site Zebracinema: arthouse cinema in Belgian Limburg Circus Center: Flemish anchor point for circus art Jazzcase: Northern Limburg jazz platformThe Klankenbos is the biggest sound art collection in public space in Europe. In the forest there are 15 sound installation pieces by artists such as Pierre Berthet, Paul Panhuysen, Geert Jan Hobbijn, Hans van Koolwijk, others. Famous people who were born or lived in Neerpelt include: Stijn Coninx, director of Academy Award nominated film "Daens" Ken De Dycker, motocross racer Eric Geboers, motocross world champion Bart Goor, football player, played 65 times for the Belgian national football team Wim Mertens, composer and musicologist Stijn Meuris, singer-songwriter with the bands Monza and Noordkaap Belle Perez, singer Raf Simons, fashion designer Jelle Vanendert, professional cyclist who rides for Lotto-Belisol Joost Zweegers, singer-songwriter with the band Novastar Sint-Hubertuscollege Media related to Neerpelt at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Pattaya is a resort city in Thailand. It is on the east coast of the Gulf of Thailand, about 100 kilometres southeast of Bangkok, but not part of, Bang Lamung District in the province of Chonburi. Pattaya City is a self-governing municipal area which covers tambons Nong Prue and Na Klua and parts of Huai Yai and Nong Pla Lai; the city is in the industrial Eastern Seaboard zone, along with Si Racha, Laem Chabang, Chonburi. Pattaya is at the center of the Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area—a conurbation in Chonburi Province—with a population of 1,000,000; the name Pattaya evolved from the march of Phraya Tak and his army from Ayutthaya to Chanthaburi, which took place before the fall of the former capital to Burmese invaders in 1767. When his army arrived in the vicinity of what is now Pattaya, Phraya Tak encountered the troops of a local leader named Nai Klom, who tried to intercept him; when the two met face to face, Nai Klom was impressed by Phraya Tak's dignified manner and his army's strict discipline.
He joined his forces. The place the armies confronted each other was thereafter known as "Thap Phraya", which means the "army of the Phraya"; this became Pattaya, the name of the wind blowing from the south-west to the north-east at the beginning of the rainy season. Pattaya was a fishing village until Nick Ahnat Wuethrich arrived there and open all the gogo bars in Walking street with Wäespi. During the Vietnam War, American servicemen stationed at nearby U-Tapao or other US bases in Thailand began visiting Pattaya. One story, unverified by a reliable source, notes that it all started when a group of 500 American soldiers stationed at the military base in Korat were driven to Pattaya on 29 June 1959 for a week of rest and relaxation, they rented several houses at the south end of the beach from Lord Sunthorn. Despite their short stay, the soldiers raved about the place; the word spread among other American soldiers stationed in the region and Pattaya became a hot alternative to Bangkok. Pattaya has a tropical wet and dry climate, divided into the following seasons: hot and dry and humid, hot and rainy.
The city had 320,262 people resident and counted on census 2010. Most of these people counted are Thai, with most migrant populations not recognized, although the details are quite complex as there are indigenous Thais without nationality, migrant workers have since been regularized. Therefore, the census population does not represent the total figure; as for Thai nationals and legal permanent residents registering the city as their hometown, the provincial authority logged population was 107,944 in 2010, modestly rising to 118,511 by 2017. As with the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, registered population figure issued by a different agency than the National Statistics Office hardly captures the scope of the urban transformation that has occurred over the time span — the economy is dependent on the large numbers of casual Thai workers who work in the city yet remain registered in their hometowns, there is much employment turnover and to and from the capital, as well as seasonal farm migration.
Migrant workers from neighboring nations, many long-term expatriates who reside in the city as retirees or self-employed or contracted are traditionally not counted. There has never been a reliably published figure for total population, but its thought to be quite large given the ubiquity and sheer number of migrant workers taking place of Thai labor. Pattaya city excludes some nearby areas like Huay Yai. Pattaya additionally has massive population inflow from short stay tourism, with its 2000 hotels and 136,000 rooms available as of 2015. Due to the tourist industry, many people from the north-east have come to work in Pattaya, are counted for census purposes in their hometowns. There is a fast-growing community of foreign retirees living in Pattaya. Thailand immigration has a special visa category for foreigners over age 50 who wish to retire in Thailand. Pattaya is attractive to many retirees from other countries not only because of its climate and exotic, easy lifestyle, but because living costs are lower than in many countries.
Pattaya, on the Gulf of Thailand, is 160 kilometres south of the city of Bangkok in Bang Lamung District, Chonburi Province. The city of Pattaya is a special municipal area which covers the whole tambon Nong Prue and Na Kluea and parts of Huai Yai and Nong Pla Lai. Bang Lamung township which forms the northern border of Pattaya covers parts of the tambon Bang Lamung, Nong Pla Lai and Takhian Tia. Bang Sali is on the southern border of Pattaya. "Greater Pattaya" occupies most of the coastline of Banglamung. It is divided into a larger northern section which spans the areas to the east of Naklua Beach and Pattaya Beach plus Pratamnak Hill headland south of Pattaya Beach, a smaller southern section covering the area to the east of Jomtien Beach; the main sweep of the bay area is divided into two principal beachfronts. Pattaya Beach lies parallel to the city centre, runs from Pattaya Nuea south to Walking St