Odawara is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of February 2015, the city had an estimated population of 194,672, a population density of 1,710 persons per km2; the total area is 113.79 km2. The area around present-day Odawara has been settled since prehistoric times, archaeological evidence indicates that the area had a high population density in the Jōmon period. From the Ritsuryō system of the Nara period, the area became part of Ashigarashimo District of Sagami Province, it was divided into shōen during the Heian period controlled by the Hatano clan and its branches. During the Genpei War between the Heike clan and Minamoto no Yoritomo, the Battle of Ishibashiyama was fought near present-day Odawara. During the Sengoku period, Odawara developed as a castle town and capital of the domains of the Hōjō clan, which covered most of the Kantō region; the Hōjō were defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the Battle of Odawara in 1590, despite the impregnable reputation of Odawara Castle. The territory came under the control of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Under the Tokugawa shogunate, Odawara was the center of Odawara Domain, a feudal han ruled by a succession of daimyō. The castle town prospered as Odawara-juku, a post station on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto. After the Meiji Restoration, Odawara Domain became'Odawara Prefecture', merged with the short-lived'Ashigara Prefecture' before joining Kanagawa Prefecture in 1876. During this period, the center of economic and political life in Kanagawa shifted to Yokohama. Odawara suffered a strong decline in population, made more severe when the original route of the Tōkaidō Main Line bypassed the city in favor of the more northerly route via Gotemba; the epicenter of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923 was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba and Shizuoka Prefectures, caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. Ninety percent of the buildings in Odawara collapsed and fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing.
Odawara regained some measure of prosperity with the opening of the Tanna Tunnel in 1934, which brought the main routing of the Tōkaidō Main Line through the city. Odawara was raised from the status of town to city on December 20, 1940. On August 15, 1945, Odawara was the last city in Japan to be bombed by Allied aircraft during World War II. On November 1, 2000, Odawara exceeded 200,000 in population, was proclaimed a special city. Odawara lies in the far western portion of Kanagawa Prefecture, it is bordered by the Hakone Mountains to the north and west, the Sakawa River to the east, Sagami Bay of the Pacific Ocean to the south. Kanagawa Prefecture Minamiashigara Ninomiya Ōi, Nakai Hakone, Yugawara Odawara is a major commercial center for western Kanagawa Prefecture. Manufacturing includes light industry, chemicals and food processing. Agriculture and commercial fishing play a minor role in the local economy. Odawara is a bedroom community for Yokohama and Tokyo. Companies headquartered in Odawara include: Suzuhiro Co.
Meganesuper Co. Ltd. Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd Odawara Auto Machine MFG. Co. Ltd. Odakyu Sharyo Kogyo Co Ltd Odakyu Hakone Holdings Co. Ltd. Hakone Tozan Railway Sagami Trust Bank Nippon Injector Corporation JR Central - Tōkaidō Shinkansen Odawara JR Central - Gotemba Line Shimo-Soga - Kōzu JR East - Tōkaidō Main Line Kōzu - Kamonomiya - Odawara - Hayakawa - Nebukawa Odakyu Electric Railway - Odakyu Odawara Line Kayama - Tomizu - Hotaruda - Ashigara - Odawara Hakone Tozan Railway - Hakone Tozan Line Odawara - Hakone-Itabashi - Kazamatsuri - Iriuda Izuhakone Railway - Daiyūzan Line Odawara - Midorichō - Isaida - Gohyakurakan - Anabe - Iidaoka - Sagami-Numata Odawara-Atsugi Road Japan National Route 1, to Tokyo or Kyoto Japan National Route 135, to Shimoda Japan National Route 138, to Fujiyoshida Japan National Route 255, to Hadano Japan National Route 271, to Atsugi Bus service to Izu Peninsula Besides Odawara Castle, Odawara is a major transit point for the Hakone hot springs resort area and the sightseeing locations of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park.
Within the city itself, the Yugawara area is a well-known hot spring resort. Enoura, a coastal area of Odawara known for its pristine sea, has an abundance of kumamomi, a type of fish that prefers clear and clean water. Sea turtles are sometimes present there; because of the clear water and plentiful undersea life, many people come to Enoura for scuba diving. Traditionally, Odawara is known for its production of kamaboko processed fish, umeboshi salted plums, traditional herbal medicines; the Suzuhiro Kamaboko Village is a place to experience making and learning more about Odawara Kamaboko. - Nikkō, since December 19, 1980 - Kishiwada, since June 26, 1968 - Chula Vista, United States, since November 8, 1981 - Manly, New South Wales, since 1991 - Shenzhen, China, since February 4, 1993 Kai Atō - actor Yōhei Kōno - politician Ninomiya Sontoku - Edo period economist and philosopher Rumina Sato - mixed martial arts fighter Kitamura Tokoku - author Yoshiyuki Tomino - anime movie director Baku Yumemakura - science fiction author Hammer, Joshua..
Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-6465-5 Official Website Odawara Tourism Website
John Franklin Swift
John Franklin Swift. He was author. Swift was a Republican member of the California State Assembly, he represented the 8th district in 1863 and 1873-75. In 1875, he lost to William A. Piper, he represented the 13th District from 1877 to 1880. In 1886, he lost to Democrat Washington Montgomery Bartlett. Along with Newton Booth, Swift formed an Independent Republican party whose platform was dominated by an anti-monopoly plank. Swift served as the United States Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan from 1889 to 1891. Swift was born in Bowling Green and died in Tokyo, but spent most of his career in San Francisco, California. Swift was admitted to the California bar in 1857, he worked for the U. S. Land Office from 1865-1866, he was appointed to serve as a regent for the University of California from 1872-88. In 1888, Swift was the delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention. In 1867 Swift travelled on the USS Quaker City to the Holy City, the trip that Mark Twain made famous in his book Innocents Abroad.
Swift's version of this journey is captured in his book Going to Jericho. As a legislator, Swift wrote provisions in the California State Constitution which gave the county board of supervisors the authority to control water rates. In June, 1880, as a member of the treaty commission to China headed by James Burrill Angell, U. S. Chief Chinese Negotiator, Swift traveled with fellow commission member William Henry Trescot and Angell to Peking, China; the result was the Angell Treaty of 1880 which limited the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. The Angell Treaty regulated and limited the immigration of Chinese laborers to the United States but did not prohibit it outright, it separated U. S. trade interests from the immigration issue, made a legal opening for an exclusion law. In Chae Chan Ping v. the United States, Swift and LA District Attorney Stephen M. White on behalf of California succeeded in moving the U. S. Supreme Court to uphold the constitutionality of the Chinese Exclusion Act, 1888, he is considered one of the writers of the Sagebrush School with Joseph T. Goodman, Mark Twain, Fred H. Hart, Henry Rust Mighels, Dan DeQuille, Samuel Post Davis, John Franklin Swift, Charles Carroll Goodwin, Joseph Wasson, Rollin M. Daggett. and others.
Bret Hart commented that "of the three humorous writers: Twain and Swift, the last was the greatest genius. Going to Jericho. Swift was married to Mary A. Wood, daughter of Emily Morrell and William Wood
Robert B. Van Valkenburgh
Robert Bruce Van Valkenburgh was a United States Representative from New York, officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, subsequent US Minister Resident to Japan. Born in Prattsburgh, Steuben County, New York, he attended Franklin Academy there, he studied law, was admitted to the bar, commenced practice in Bath. He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1852, 1857 and 1858. In 1858, he was the Republican candidate for Speaker, but was defeated by Democrat Thomas G. Alvord on the 53rd ballot. Van Valkenburgh was in command of the recruiting depot in Elmira and organized seventeen regiments early in the Civil War, he was elected as a Republican to the 37th and 38th United States Congresses, holding office from March 4, 1861, to March 3, 1865. While in the House he was Chairman of the Committee on Militia, he served as colonel of the 107th New York Volunteer Infantry, was its commander at the Battle of Antietam. Following the war, he was Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1865.
He was appointed Minister Resident to Japan on January 18, 1866, remained on the post until November 11, 1869. It was in his role as Minister Resident in Japan that Van Valkenburgh prevented the delivery of the CSS Stonewall to the forces of the Tokugawa clan during the Boshin War. After his return from Japan, Van Valkenburgh settled in Florida, was appointed associate justice of the Florida Supreme Court on May 20, 1874, he remained on the bench until his death in Suwannee Springs, near Live Oak in 1888. He was buried at the Old St. Nicholas Cemetery, on the south side of the St. Johns River, south of Jacksonville. United States Congress. "Robert B. Van Valkenburgh". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Harvard University Press
Harvard University Press is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou; the press maintains offices in Cambridge, Massachusetts near Harvard Square, in London, England. The press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press. TriLiteral was sold to LSC Communications in 2018. Notable authors published by HUP include Eudora Welty, Walter Benjamin, E. O. Wilson, John Rawls, Emily Dickinson, Stephen Jay Gould, Helen Vendler, Carol Gilligan, Amartya Sen, David Blight, Martha Nussbaum, Thomas Piketty; the Display Room in Harvard Square, dedicated to selling HUP publications, closed on June 17, 2009. HUP owns the Belknap Press imprint, which it inaugurated in May 1954 with the publication of the Harvard Guide to American History; the John Harvard Library book series is published under the Belknap imprint.
Harvard University Press distributes the Loeb Classical Library and is the publisher of the I Tatti Renaissance Library, the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library, the Murty Classical Library of India. It is distinct from Harvard Business Press, part of Harvard Business Publishing, the independent Harvard Common Press, its 2011 publication Listed: Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act by Joe Roman received the 2012 Rachel Carson Environment Book Award from the Society of Environmental Journalists. Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-38080-6. Official website Blog of Harvard University Press
Treaty of San Francisco
The Treaty of San Francisco, Peace Treaty with Japan or known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty) between Japan and the Allied Powers, was signed by 49 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco, California. It came into force on April 28, 1952 and ended the American-led Allied Occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan; this treaty served to end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals; this treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System.
This treaty introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined. Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Japan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the Soviet Union, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay and Vietnam attended the Conference. China was not invited due to disagreements on whether the established but defeated Republic of China or the newly formed People's Republic of China represented the Chinese people. Burma and Yugoslavia were invited, but did not participate. India signed a separate peace treaty, the Treaty of Peace Between Japan and India, for the purpose of giving Japan a proper position of honor and equality among the community of free nations, on June 9, 1952.
As a consequence of U. K.–U. S. Disagreement over Chinese participation, neither North nor South Korea was invited. Italy was not invited either, notwithstanding the fact that the government had issued a formal declaration of war to Japan on July 14, 1945, just a few weeks before the end of the war. Pakistan as a state had not existed at the time of the war but was invited anyway since it was a successor state to British India, a major combatant against Japan. Portugal was not invited—even though its territory of East Timor had been invaded by Japan, disregarding Portugal's status as neutral country in the war; the Soviet Union took part in the San Francisco conference, the Soviet delegation was led by the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. From the start of the conference the Soviet Union expressed vigorous and vocal opposition to the draft treaty text prepared by the United States and the United Kingdom; the Soviet delegation made several unsuccessful procedural attempts to stall the proceedings.
The Soviet Union's objections were detailed in a lengthy September 1951 statement by Gromyko. The statement contained a number of Soviet Union's claims and assertions: that the treaty did not provide any guarantees against the rise of Japanese militarism, it was not until October 19, 1956, that Japan and the Soviet Union signed a Joint Declaration ending the war and reestablishing diplomatic relations. The ongoing Chinese Civil War and thus the question of which Chinese government was legitimate presented a dilemma to conference organizers; the United States wanted to invite the Republic of China on Taiwan to represent China, while the United Kingdom wished to invite the People's Republic of China on mainland China as China's representative. As a compromise, neither government was invited. On August 15, 1951 and September 18, 1951 the PRC published statements denouncing the treaty, stating that it was illegal and should not be recognized. Besides their general exclusion from the negotiation process, the PRC claimed that Xisha and Dongsha in the South China Sea were part of China.
The treaty either did not address these islands, or in the case of the Pratas Islands turned them over to the United Nations. A major player in providin
Townsend Harris was a successful New York City merchant and minor politician, the first United States Consul General to Japan. He negotiated the "Harris Treaty" between the US and Japan and is credited as the diplomat who first opened the Empire of Japan to foreign trade and culture in the Edo period. Harris was born in Washington County in upstate New York, he moved early to New York City, where he became a successful importer from China. In 1846 Harris joined the New York City Board of Education, serving as its president until 1848, he was an avid and critical reader and taught himself French and Spanish. He founded the Free Academy of the City of New York, which became the City College of New York, to provide education to the city's working people. A city high school bearing Harris's name, Townsend Harris High School, soon emerged as a separate entity out of the Free Academy's secondary-level curriculum. Townsend Harris High School was re-created in 1984 as a public magnet school for the humanities.
In 1848 he went to California and during the following six years made trading voyages to China and the Dutch and British Indies, becoming acquainted with many Asian customs and societies. He acted for a time as American vice-consul at the Chinese treaty port of Ningpo. Harris, though anxious to get to his new post in Japan, went first to Bangkok, to update the 1833 Roberts Treaty. In his formal audience with the English-speaking and Western-oriented Second King, Phra Pin Klao, Harris stated America's position:The United States does not hold any possessions in the East, nor does it desire any; the form of government forbids the holding of colonies. The United States therefore cannot be an object of jealousy to any Eastern Power. Peaceful commercial relations, which give as well as receive benefits, is what the President wishes to establish with Siam, such is the object of my mission. Finalization of the British Bowring Treaty of 1855 delayed Harris for a month, but he had only to negotiate minor points to transform it into the Harris Treaty of 1856.
Re-designated the Treaty of Amity and Navigation, the amendments granted Americans extraterritorial rights in addition to those in the Roberts Treaty. American missionary Stephen Matoon, who had acted as translator, was appointed the first United States consul to Siam. President Franklin Pierce named Harris the first Consul General to Tokugawa Japan in July, 1856, where he opened the first US Consulate at the Gyokusen-ji Temple in the city of Shimoda, Shizuoka Prefecture, some time after Commodore Perry had first opened trade between the US and Japan in 1854. Harris demanded the courtesies due to an accredited envoy, refused to deliver his president's letter to any one but the Shogun in Edo, to him personally. After prolonged negotiations lasting 18 months, Harris received a personal audience of the Shogun in the palace. After another four months, he negotiated the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, or the "Harris Treaty of 1858," securing trade between the US and Japan and paving the way for greater Western influence in Japan's economy and politics.
Harris served during the first Japanese Embassy to the United States, during which a false report reached the US of his death. Harris returned home in 1861. Upon his departure, senior Japanese diplomat Moriyama wrote to him "You have been more than a friend. You have been our teacher. Your spirit and memory will live forever in the history of Japan."Harris was favorably impressed by his experiences in Japan at the end of its self-imposed period of isolation. He wrote: "The people all appeared clean and well fed... well clad and happy looking. It is more like the golden age of simplicity and honesty than I have seen in any other country". According to a persistent legend, Harris adopted a 17-year-old geisha known as Okichi, whose real name was Kichi Saitou; the legend has it that she was pressured into the relationship by Japanese authorities and ostracized after Harris' departure committing suicide in 1892. However, it appears that Okichi was one of Harris' housekeepers, the Kodansha Encyclopedia states that Harris fired her after just three days of work.
As reported in The New York Times, when he was interviewed in 1874 by the author William Elliot Griffis who had returned from Japan, his first question was, "What do the Japanese think of me?" Masao Miyoshi asserts in his book As We Saw Them: The First Japanese Embassy to the United States that the restrictive lifestyle for Townsend Harris as ambassador in Japan "had forever molded the opener of Japan into a hermit" for the rest of his life while in New York City. Harris is buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. In 1986, the nation of Japan presented a gift of a refurbished gravesite including paving stones, a stone lantern, a cherry tree, a dogwood tree, two commemorative stones, in commemoration of the continuing respect and affection of the Japanese people for Harris. Harris was portrayed by John Wayne in the 1958 movie The Barbarian and the Geisha, directed by John Huston. Although the primary plot, dealing with Harris' attempt diplomatically to achieve détente between the U. S. and Japan, is accurate, the subplot dealing with the love affair between Harris and Okichi is fictionalHarris appears as the main character of several episodes of the satirical Japanese manga-based anime, Gag Manga Biyori as a desperate man with a thick accent attempting to outshine Commodore Perry's arrival in a black-hulled ship in 1853, while maki
Charles Page Bryan
Charles Page Bryan was an American lawyer and diplomat. Bryan was born in Chicago, Illinois, on October 2, 1855, he received his preparatory education in that city, subsequently becoming a student at the University of Virginia and taking his degree in law at Columbian University, Washington, D. C. From 1879 to 1883 he practiced his profession in Colorado and took an active part in politics, being elected as a Republican to the Colorado House of Representatives in 1880. In 1883 he returned to his former home, where he soon became a leader in State politics, he served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from 1888 to 1897 and served on the staffs of three successive governors of the State, in each instance with the rank of colonel. In 1891 and 1892 he made tours of Europe in the interest of the Chicago Exposition, making the acquaintance of many of the foremost rulers and statesmen of the countries visited, his diplomatic career began in 1897, when he was appointed minister to China by President William McKinley.
The following year he received the appointment as envoy to Brazil. In this role, he laid the firm foundation for the cordial relations between the United States and Brazil. In 1902 he was transferred to Switzerland, but in a few months thereafter he was given the more important post of minister to Portugal, where he remained for six years. In 1909 he was transferred as minister to Belgium, after serving two years became ambassador to Japan, he retired from the diplomatic service in 1912, made his home in Washington and Chicago, dividing his time between the two cities. He was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, of the Society of Foreign Wars, a veteran of the Spanish–American War, was a member of leading clubs in New York and Chicago, he died in Washington, D. C. March 13, 1918. Charles Page Bryan at Find a Grave