Secretary of State for Wales
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales. He or she is the head of the Wales Office, he or she is responsible for ensuring Welsh interests are taken into account by Her Majesty's Government, representing the government within Wales and overseeing the passing of legislation, only for Wales. The current Secretary of State for Wales is Alun Cairns, following his appointment in 2016. In the first half of the 20th century, a number of politicians had supported the creation of the post of Secretary of State for Wales as a step towards Home Rule for Wales. A post of Minister of Welsh Affairs was created in 1951 under the Home Secretary and was upgraded to Minister of State level in 1954; the Labour Party proposed the creation of a Welsh Office run by a Secretary of State for Wales in their manifesto for the 1959 general election. When they came to power in 1964 this was soon put into effect.
The post of Secretary of State for Wales came into existence on 17 October 1964. The position entailed responsibility for Wales, expenditure on certain public services was delegated from Westminster. In April 1965 administration of Welsh affairs, divided between a number of government departments, was united in a newly created Welsh Office with the Secretary of State for Wales at its head, the Welsh Secretary became responsible for education and training, health and industry, environment and agriculture within Wales. During the 1980s and 1990s, as the number of Conservative MPs for Welsh constituencies dwindled to zero, the office fell into disrepute. Nicholas Edwards, MP for Pembrokeshire, held the post for eight years. On his departure, the government ceased to look within Wales for the Secretary of State, the post was used as a way of getting junior high-fliers into the Cabinet. John Redwood in particular caused embarrassment when he publicly demonstrated his inability to sing Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau", the Welsh national anthem, at a conference.
The introduction of the National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Government, after the devolution referendum of 1997, was the beginning of a new era. On 1 July 1999 the majority of the functions of the Welsh Office transferred to the new assembly; the Welsh Office was disbanded, but the post of Secretary of State for Wales was retained, as the head of the newly created Wales Office. Since 1999 there have been calls for the office of Welsh Secretary to be scrapped or merged with the posts of Secretary of State for Scotland and Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, to reflect the lesser powers of the role since devolution. Colour key Conservative National Liberal Labour Note First Minister for Wales Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Secretary of State for Scotland Labour Party in Wales – covers the history of the post Hain promoted in Brown's cabinet, BBC News Online, 28 June 2007 Hain takes work and pensions job, BBC News Online, 28 June 2007
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Gonville & Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at one of the wealthiest; the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fourteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long historical associations with medical teaching due to its alumni physicians: John Caius and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include James Chadwick and Howard Florey. Stephen Hawking Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, was a fellow of the college until his death in 2018; the college maintains reputable academic programmes in many other disciplines, including law, English literature and history. Gonville & Caius is said to have rights to much of the land in Cambridge. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College; the college and its masters have been influential in the development of the university, founding other colleges like Trinity Hall and Darwin College and providing land on the Sidgwick Site, e.g. for the Squire Law Library.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years he left a struggling institution with no money; the executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to its current location. He leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed as the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton Archbishop of Armagh. By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville & Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573, he provided the college with significant funds and extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius insisted on several unusual rules.
He insisted that the college admit no scholar who “is deformed, blind, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, sick in a serious measure”. Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day. By 1630, the college had expanded having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since the college has grown and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university; the college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 110 Fellows, over about 200 staff. Gonville & Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014; the college’s present Master, the 43rd, is Pippa Rogerson.
The first buildings to be erected on the college’s current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall and Master’s Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest purpose-built college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, in continuous use as such; the chapel is situated centrally within the college, reflecting the college's religious foundation. On the re-foundation by Caius, the college was updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court, he was responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility. In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly, and graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library, is only used for special occasions such as graduation. The students of Gonville and Caius refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity; the buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college. New lecture rooms were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed by Rattee and Kett in 1884. Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts, it is so named. Although none of the
Gareth Williams, Baron Williams of Mostyn
Gareth Wyn Williams, Baron Williams of Mostyn, was a Welsh barrister and Labour politician, Leader of the House of Lords, Lord President of the Council and a member of the Cabinet at the time of his sudden death in 2003. Williams was born near Prestatyn, in North Wales, a son of Albert Thomas Williams and his wife Selina, née Evans, he was educated at Queens' College, Cambridge. He had a successful legal career, having been called to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1965, taking silk in 1978, being a Recorder in 1978-2003, being a Deputy High Court Judge, being the Leader of the Wales and Chester Circuit in 1987-89, was a Member of the Bar Council in 1986-92 and became the Chairman in 1992, he was created a life peer on 20 July 1992 as Baron Williams of Mostyn, of Great Tew in the County of Oxfordshire and became an opposition spokesman in the House of Lords on Legal Affairs, Northern Ireland. After Labour's election victory he appointed a Home Office minister, in 1999 became Attorney General for England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
He was appointed Leader of the House of Lords in 2001 with the sinecure office of Lord Privy Seal, for which Lord President of the Council was substituted in 2003. As part of the celebrations to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Life Peerages Act, Lord Williams was voted by the current members of the House of Lords as the outstanding life peer since the creation of the life peerage. In his book A View from the Foothills Chris Mullin wrote that he thought that Gareth Williams was most to succeed Derry Irvine as Lord Chancellor. Williams married first in 1962 Pauline, daughter of Ernest Clarke, by her had two daughters and Emma, a son, Daniel, they divorced, he married secondly in 1994 Veena M Russell, by her had one daughter, Imogen. He collapsed and died at his home in Gloucestershire, at the age of 62, he was survived by his four children. 1941–1978: Mr Gareth Williams 1978–1992: Mr Gareth Williams 1992–1999: The Rt Hon. The Lord Williams of Mostyn 1999–2003: The Rt Hon; the Lord Williams of Mostyn Burke's Peerage & Baronetage edited by Charles Mosley "Interview: Lord Williams" - Guardian Unlimited Politics interview with Lord Williams by Julian Glover, dated Friday, 28 June 2002, giving the peer's views on reform of the House of Lords "Leader of House of Lords dies" - BBC News article, dated Saturday, 20 September 2003 "Lords loses smooth operator" - BBC News article, dated Saturday, 20 September 2003 "Tributes to a superb wit" - BBC News article, dated Saturday, 20 September 2003