The Star (London)
The Star was a London evening newspaper founded May 3, 1788 under the original title Star and Evening Advertiser and was the first daily evening newspaper in the world. Founding sponsors of the new paper included publisher John Murray and William Lane of the Minerva Press
HMS Beagle was a Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. The vessel, constructed at a cost of £7,803, was launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom, for that occasion is said to have been the first ship to sail under the old London Bridge. There was no immediate need for Beagle so she "lay in ordinary", moored afloat but without masts or rigging, she was adapted as a survey barque and took part in three survey expeditions. The second voyage of HMS Beagle is notable for carrying the graduated naturalist Charles Darwin around the world. While the survey work was carried out, Darwin travelled and researched geology, natural history and ethnology onshore, he gained fame by publishing his diary journal, best known as The Voyage of the Beagle, his findings played a pivotal role in the formation of his scientific theories on evolution and natural selection.
The Cherokee class of 10-gun brig-sloops was designed by Sir Henry Peake in 1807, over 100 were constructed. The working drawings for HMS Beagle and HMS Barracouta were issued to the Woolwich Dockyard on 16 February 1817, amended in coloured ink on 16 July 1817 with modifications to increase the height of the bulwarks by an amount varying from 6 inches at the stem to 4 inches at the stern. Beagle's keel was laid in June 1818, construction cost £7,803, the ship was launched on 11 May 1820. In July of that year she took part in a fleet review on the River Thames, celebrating the coronation of King George IV of the United Kingdom. Captain Pringle Stokes was appointed captain of Beagle on 7 September 1825, the ship was allocated to the surveying section of the Hydrographic Office. On 27 September 1825 Beagle fitted out for her new duties, her guns were reduced from ten cannon to six and a mizzen mast was added to improve her handling, thereby changing her from a brig to a bark. Beagle set sail from Plymouth on 22 May 1826 on her first voyage, under the command of Captain Stokes.
The mission was to accompany the larger ship HMS Adventure on a hydrographic survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, under the overall command of the Australian Captain Phillip Parker King and Surveyor. Faced with the more difficult part of the survey in the desolate waters of Tierra del Fuego, Captain Stokes fell into a deep depression. At Port Famine on the Strait of Magellan he locked himself in his cabin for 14 days after getting over-excited and talking of preparing for the next cruise, shot himself on 2 August 1828. Following four days of delirium Stokes recovered but his condition deteriorated and he died on 12 August 1828. Captain Parker King replaced Stokes with the First Lieutenant of Beagle, Lieutenant William George Skyring as commander, both ships sailed to Montevideo. On 13 October King sailed Adventure to Rio de Janeiro for refitting and provisions. During this work Rear Admiral Sir Robert Otway, commander in chief of the South American station, arrived aboard HMS Ganges and announced his decision that Beagle was to be brought to Montevideo for repairs, that he intended to supersede Skyring.
When Beagle arrived, Otway put the ship under the command of his aide, Flag Lieutenant Robert FitzRoy. The 23-year-old aristocrat FitzRoy proved meticulous surveyor. In one incident a group of Fuegians stole a ship's boat, FitzRoy took their families on board as hostages, he held two men, a girl and a boy, given the name of Jemmy Button, these four native Fuegians were taken back with them when Beagle returned to England on 14 October 1830. During this survey, the Beagle Channel was named after the ship; the log book from the first voyage, in Captain FitzRoy's handwriting, was acquired at auction at Sotheby's by the Museo Naval de la Nación located in Tigre, Buenos Aires Province, where it is now preserved. FitzRoy had been given reason to hope that the South American Survey would be continued under his command, but when the Lords of the Admiralty appeared to abandon the plan, he made alternative arrangements to return the Fuegians. A kind uncle contacted the Admiralty. Soon afterwards FitzRoy heard that he was to be appointed commander of HMS Chanticleer to go to Tierra del Fuego, but due to her poor condition Beagle was substituted for the voyage.
FitzRoy was re-appointed as commander on 27 June 1831 and Beagle was commissioned on 4 July 1831 under his command, with Lieutenants John Clements Wickham and Bartholomew James Sulivan. Beagle was taken into dock at Devonport for extensive rebuilding and refitting; as she required a new deck, FitzRoy had the upper-deck raised by 8 inches aft and 12 inches forward. The Cherokee-class ships had the reputation of being "coffin" brigs, which handled badly and were prone to sinking. Apart from increasing headroom below, the raised deck made Beagle less liable to top-heaviness and possible capsize in heavy weather by reducing the volume of water that could collect on top of the upper deck, trapped aboard by the gunwales. Additional sheathing added to the hull added about seven tons to her burthen and fifteen to her displacement; the ship was one of the first to be fitted with the lightning conductor invented by William Snow Harris. FitzRoy spared no expense in her fitting out, which included 22 chronometers, five examples of the Sympiesometer, a kind of mercury-free bar
Murray's Handbooks for Travellers
Murray's Handbooks for Travellers were travel guide books published in London by John Murray beginning in 1836. The series covered parts of Asia and northern Africa. According to scholar James Buzard, the Murray style "exemplified the exhaustive rational planning, as much an ideal of the emerging tourist industry as it was of British commercial and industrial organization generally." The guidebooks became popular enough to appear in works of fiction such as Charles Lever's Dodd Family Abroad. After 1915 the series continued as the Blue Guides. A Hand-book for Travellers on the Continent, London: John Murray and Son, 1838, OCLC 2030550 A Hand-book for Travellers on the Continent, London: J. Murray and Son, 1839 A Hand-book for Travellers in the Ionian Islands, Turkey, Asia Minor, Constantinople, London: J. Murray, 1840, OCLC 397597 Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy, London: J. Murray and Son, 1843 Richard Ford, A Handbook for Travellers in Spain, London: J. Murray A Hand-book for Travellers in the Ionian Islands, Turkey, Asia Minor, Constantinople, London: J. Murray, 1845, OCLC 397597 A Hand-book for Travellers on the Continent, London: J. Murray, 1845, OCLC 2172798 Gardner Wilkinson, Hand-book for Travellers in Egypt, J. Murray, OCLC 23931478 Hand-book for Travellers in France, London: Murray, 1848 Hand-book for Northern Europe, London: John Murray, 1849 v.2 Finland and Russia Octavian Blewitt, A Hand-book for Travellers in central Italy, London: J. Murray, OCLC 5719060 Peter Cunningham, Handbook of London, London: John Murray, OCLC 4773921 A Hand-book for Travellers in Devon & Cornwall..
London: J. Murray, 1851, OCLC 2169402 Murray's Handbook for Modern London, London: John Murray, 1851, OCLC 9005002 Murray's Handbook for Belgium and the Rhine, London: J. Murray, 1852 Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy, London: J. Murray, 1853, OCLC 2300845 Handbook for Travellers in Greece, London: J. Murray, 1854 A Handbook for Travellers in Turkey, London: J. Murray, 1854, OCLC 2145740 Richard Ford, A Handbook for Travellers in Spain, London: J. Murray, OCLC 2145740 Handbook for Travellers in Central Italy, London: J. Murray, 1857 A Handbook for Travellers in France, London: J. Murray, 1858, OCLC 6774411 A Handbook for Travellers in Kent and Sussex, London: J. Murray, 1858 Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine, London: J. Murray, 1858, OCLC 2300777 Handbook for Travellers in Wiltshire and Somersetshire, London: J. Murray, 1859, OCLC 2016234 A Handbook for India, London: J. Murray, 1859, OCLC 4366789 A Handbook for Travellers in Berks and Oxfordshire, London: J. Murray, 1860, OCLC 2099710 A Handbook for Travellers in South Wales, London: J. Murray, 1860, OCLC 2094865 A Handbook for Travellers in France, London: J. Murray, 1861 Handbook for Travellers in Ireland, London: J. Murray, 1866, OCLC 2013636 A Handbook of Rome and its Environs, London: J. Murray, 1867, OCLC 4038432 A Handbook for Travellers in North Wales, London: J. Murray, 1868, OCLC 2109683 Hand-book for Travellers in Russia and Finland, London: J. Murray, 1868 A Handbook for Travellers in Southern Italy, London: J. Murray, 1868 A Hand-book for Travellers on the Continent, London: J. Murray, 1868 Handbook for Essex, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire..
London: J. Murray, 1870 Handbook for Shropshire and Lancashire, London: J. Murray, 1870, OCLC 2109674 A Handbook for Travellers on the Continent: Being a Guide to Holland, Prussia, Northern Germany, the Rhine from Holland to Switzerland, London: J. Murray, 1871, OCLC 5358857 Handbook to London as it is, London: J. Murray, 1871, OCLC 2157993 A Handbook for Travellers in Gloucestershire and Herefordshire.. London: J. Murray, 1872, OCLC 2167311 Handbook for Essex, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, London: J. Murray, 1875, OCLC 2094145 Handbook for Travellers in Portugal, London: J. Murray, 1875 Handbook for Travellers in Scotland, London: J. Murray, 1875, OCLC 4658476 Handbook for Travellers in Holland and Belgium, London: Murray, 1876, OCLC 221452961 James Thorne, Handbook to the environs of London, London: John Murray Handbook for England and Wales, London: J. Murray, 1878, OCLC 2167328 Handbook of the Madras Presidency, London: J. Murray, 1879 Handbook for visitors to Paris, London: Murray, 1879 Handbook to London as it is, London: J. Murray, 1879 Handbook for Lancashire, London: J. Murray, 1880, OCLC 2167424 Handbook of the Bombay Presidency with an Account of Bombay City, London: J. Murray, 1881, OCLC 2094004 Handbook of the Bengal Presidency with an Account of Calcutta City, London: J. Murray, 1882, OCLC 2093946 Handbook for Travellers in Yorkshire, London: J. Murray, 1882, OCLC 2096198 R. Lambert Playfair, Handbook to the Mediterranean, London: John Murray Pt. 1 Handbook for Travellers in Denmark, with Sleswig and Holstein, Iceland, London: J. Murray, 1883 Handbook for Travellers in Greece, London: J. Murray, 1884, OCLC 2832159 A Handbook of Rome and its Environs, London: J. Murray, 1888 R. Lambert Playfair, Handbook for Travellers in Algeria and Tunis, London: J. Murray, OCLC 12720545 Handbook for Travellers in Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire..
London: J. Murray, 1892, OCLC 2097091 R. Lambert Playfair, Handbook to the Mediterranean, London: John Murray, OCLC 6853896 Pt.1.
John Murray III
John Murray III was a British publisher, third of the name at the John Murray company founded in London in 1768. The eldest son of John Murray II by Anne Elliott, daughter of Charles Elliot, the Edinburgh publisher, he was born on 16 April 1808; when he was four years old his father moved the firm to 50 Albemarle Street, which became a meeting-place for men of letters. He was educated at Charterhouse School and Edinburgh University, where he graduated in 1827, he completed his education by foreign travel, in Weimar delivering the dedication of Lord Byron's Marino Faliero to Goethe. There resulted the research for a series of books for tourists, the Murray's Handbooks for Travellers. In 1836 Murray saw through the press the first of the handbooks, his own Holland and the Rhine. Subsequently, he enlisted specialists: Richard Ford, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Sir Francis Palgrave. From 1830 to 1843 Murray helped, his own publishing projects included: Nineveh and its Remains, publicising of Austen Henry Layard's discoveries.
Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published by Murray in 1859. An enterprise of a different kind was The Speaker's Commentary, prompted by John Evelyn Denison. Murray's Magazine, started in 1887, ran to 1891; the firm published numerous illustrated books of travels. Murray had been well-connected in the literary world since his early days, he was a magistrate for Surrey, a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, known as a member of the Athenæum Club. He died at 50 Albemarle Street on 2 April 1892. After a preliminary service in St. James's, Piccadilly, he was buried on 6 April in the parish church at Wimbledon, where he had resided for nearly 50 years. Murray published anonymously in 1877 Scepticism in Geology. Murray married in 1847 Marion, youngest daughter of Alexander Smith, banker, of Edinburgh, sister of David Smith, writer to the signet, he left two sons and Hallam, who ran the family business, two daughters. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed..
"Murray, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Zachs, William. "Murray family". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/64922
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which presented uniformitarianism–the idea that the Earth was shaped by the same scientific processes still in operation today–to the broad general public. Principles of Geology challenged theories popularised by Georges Cuvier, which were the most accepted and circulated ideas about geology in Europe at the time, his scientific contributions included an explanation of earthquakes, the theory of gradual "backed up-building" of volcanoes, in stratigraphy the division of the Tertiary period into the Pliocene and Eocene. He coined the currently-used names for geological eras, Palaeozoic and Cenozoic, he incorrectly conjectured that icebergs may be the emphasis behind the transport of glacial erratics, that silty loess deposits might have settled out of flood waters. Lyell, following deistic traditions, favoured an indefinitely long age for the earth, despite geological evidence suggesting an old but finite age.
He was a close friend of Charles Darwin, contributed to Darwin's thinking on the processes involved in evolution. He helped to arrange the simultaneous publication in 1858 of papers by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection, despite his personal religious qualms about the theory, he published evidence from geology of the time man had existed on Earth. Lyell was born into a wealthy family, on 14 November 1797, at the family's estate house, Kinnordy House, near Kirriemuir in Forfarshire, he was the eldest of ten children. Lyell's father named Charles Lyell, was noted as a translator and scholar of Dante. An accomplished botanist, it was he who first exposed his son to the study of nature. Lyell's grandfather Charles Lyell, had made the family fortune supplying the Royal Navy at Montrose, enabling him to buy Kinnordy House; the family seat is located near the Highland Boundary Fault. Round the house, in the strath, is good farmland, but within a short distance to the north-west, on the other side of the fault, are the Grampian Mountains in the Highlands.
His family's second country home was in a different geological and ecological area: he spent much of his childhood at Bartley Lodge in the New Forest, in Hampshire in southern England. Lyell entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1816, attended William Buckland's lectures, he graduated with a BA Hons. Second class degree in classics, in December 1819, gained his M. A. 1821. After graduation he took up law as a profession, entering Lincoln's Inn in 1820, he completed a circuit through rural England. In 1821 he attended Robert Jameson's lectures in Edinburgh, visited Gideon Mantell at Lewes, in Sussex. In 1823 he was elected joint secretary of the Geological Society; as his eyesight began to deteriorate, he turned to geology as a full-time profession. His first paper, "On a recent formation of freshwater limestone in Forfarshire", was presented in 1822. By 1827, he had abandoned law and embarked on a geological career that would result in fame and the general acceptance of uniformitarianism, a working out of the ideas proposed by James Hutton a few decades earlier.
In 1832, Lyell married Mary Horner in Bonn, daughter of Leonard Horner associated with the Geological Society of London. The new couple spent their honeymoon in Italy on a geological tour of the area. During the 1840s, Lyell travelled to the United States and Canada, wrote two popular travel-and-geology books: Travels in North America and A Second Visit to the United States. After the Great Chicago Fire, Lyell was one of the first to donate books to help found the Chicago Public Library. In 1866, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Lyell's wife died in 1873, two years Lyell himself died as he was revising the twelfth edition of Principles, he is buried in Westminster Abbey. Lyell was knighted in 1848, in 1864, made a baronet, an hereditary honour, he was awarded the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1858 and the Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society in 1866. Mount Lyell, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park, is named after him. In Southwest Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand, the Lyell Range, Lyell River and the gold mining town of Lyell were all named after Lyell.
The jawless fish Cephalaspis lyelli, from the Old Red Sandstone of southern Scotland, was named by Louis Agassiz in honour of Lyell. Lyell had private means, earned further income as an author, he came from a prosperous family, worked as a lawyer in the 1820s, held the post of Professor of Geology at King's College London in the 1830s. From 1830 onward his books provided both fame; each of his three major books was a work continually in progress. All three went through multiple editions during his lifetime, although many of his friends thought the first edition of the Principles was the best written. Lyell used each edition to incorporate additional material, rearrange existing material, revisit old conclusions in light of new evidence. Principles of Geology, Lyell's first book, was his most famous, most influential, most important. First published in three volumes in 1830–33, it established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist and pr
The Scottish Government is the executive government of the devolved Scottish Parliament. The government was established in 1999 as the Scottish Executive under the Scotland Act 1998, which created a devolved administration for Scotland in line with the result of the 1997 referendum on Scottish devolution; the government consists of cabinet secretaries, who attend cabinet meetings, ministers, who do not. It is led by the first minister, who selects the cabinet secretaries and ministers with approval of parliament; the Scottish Government holds executive over devolved and not explicitly reserved matters of the Scottish Parliament, which are powers not reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament by Schedule 5 to the Scotland Act 1998, the subsequent revisions of the devolution settlement by the Scotland Act 2012 and 2016. Devolved matters that were decided upon by the Scotland Act 1998 included; the government is led by the First Minister. The Scottish Parliament nominates one of its members to be appointed as First Minister by the Head of State.
He or she is assisted by various Cabinet Secretaries with individual portfolios, who are appointed by the First Minister with the approval of Parliament. Junior Ministers are appointed to assist Cabinet Secretaries in their work; the Scottish Law officers, the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General, can be appointed without being a Member of the Scottish Parliament, they are subject to Parliament's approval and scrutiny. Law Officers are appointed by the head of state on the recommendation of the First Minister. Collectively, The First Minister, Cabinet Secretaries, Junior Ministers and the Law Officers are known as the "Scottish Ministers"; the Scottish Government uses a government structure that has a dual executive structure of a Cabinet that invokes collective decision-making, as well as non-cabinet members as Junior Ministers. The title Cabinet Secretary means a member of the Government who partakes in Cabinet, whereas Junior Ministers assist Cabinet Secretaries but are not part of the Scottish Cabinet.
The Cabinet Secretaries and Junior Ministers are: The Scottish Cabinet is the group of ministers who are collectively responsible for all Scottish Government policy. While parliament is in session, the cabinet meets weekly. Meetings are held on Tuesday afternoons in Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister; the cabinet consists of the cabinet secretaries, excluding the Scottish Law Officers. The Lord Advocate attends meetings of the cabinet only when requested by the first minister, he is not formally a member; the cabinet is supported by the Cabinet Secretariat, based at St Andrew's House. There are two sub-committees of Cabinet: Cabinet Sub-Committee on Legislation Membership: the Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, the Minister for Parliamentary Business, the Lord Advocate. Scottish Government Resilience Room Cabinet Sub-Committee Membership: Cabinet Secretary for Justice, the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, the Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing,the Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment and the Lord Advocate.
For several years prior to the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games there had been a third sub-committee of Cabinet: Glasgow 2014 Legacy Plan Delivery Group Membership: Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, Minister for Community Safety, Minister for Culture, External Affairs and the Constitution, Minister for Enterprise and Tourism, Minister for Environment, Minister for Housing and Communities, Minister for Public Health and Sport, Minister for Schools and Skills, the Minister for Transport and Climate Change. Scottish Government includes a civil service that supports the Scottish ministers. According to 2012 reports, there are 16,000 civil servants working in core Scottish Government directorates and agencies; the civil service is a matter reserved to the British parliament at Westminster: Scottish Government civil servants work within the rules and customs of Her Majesty's Civil Service, but serve the devolved administration rather than British government. The permanent secretary is the most senior Scottish civil servant, leads the strategic board, supports the first minister and cabinet.
The current permanent secretary is Leslie Evans, who assumed the post in July 2015. The permanent secretary is a member of Her Majesty's Civil Service, therefore takes part in the permanent secretaries manageme