Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Île aux Noix
Île aux Noix is an island on the Richelieu River in Quebec, close to Lake Champlain. The island is the site of Fort Lennox National Historic Site of Canada. Politically, it is part of Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix. Île aux Noix is a 210 acres island in the Richelieu River. The French and Indian War caused the French to build a fort in 1759, named fort de l'Isle aux Noix, to slow the British advance on Montreal, but were forced to surrender it in 1760. In 1775, the island was taken by American forces, used as a base by the American generals Philip Schuyler and Richard Montgomery for attacks on Montreal and Quebec; the Americans used the island again in 1776 during their retreat from Canada. Their army spent 10 days on the island: more than 900 American soldiers died and were buried in two mass graves on Isle aux Noix; the British built a new fort in 1778 and named it the fort of Isle aux Noix. During the War of 1812, the British used the island to supply their operations against the American fleet on Lake Champlain.
The present Fort Lennox was built from 1819 to 1829, when the old fortifications were demolished. It is now a popular tourist location; the Île aux Noix Naval Shipyard was a Royal Navy yard from 1812 to 1834 in Quebec and served the RN's Lake Champlain fleet during the War of 1812. HMS Confiance was one of several warships built here; the population of New France during the last years of the Seven Years' War lived through difficult times. It faced an appreciable reduction in support from the home country, at a time when France's resources were being stripped by the situation on the European continent. In the colony from year to year and soldiers saw their hopes crushed as they worked out strategies, which were deprived of the necessary royal support; the campaigns of 1759 and 1760 provide strong evidence of this situation and it is in this context that the strategists decided to build a fort on Île aux Noix. From August 16 to 28, 1760, French soldiers commanded by Colonel Bougainville, withstood a siege led by Amherst.
Bougainville realised. On August 27, Bougainville had his troops silently leave the island in the middle of the night and headed to Montreal where he hoped his soldiers could help; the siege of Isle aux Noix ended on August 28, when a group of about 40 French soldiers surrendered to the British forces. The last French governor-general of New France, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, surrendered to British Major General Jeffrey Amherst on September 8, 1760. France ceded Canada to the British in the Treaty of Paris, signed on February 10, 1763; the strategic importance of Île aux Noix decreased as soon as the conquest of Canada was complete in 1760. Amherst had not thought it wise to preserve the French fortifications on Île aux Noix and therefore he ordered the razing of the entrenchments to salvage the construction materials, which might be reused at Crown Point. After New France became a British colony, there was not much use for Île aux Noix as a military post; the French fort was destroyed.
Yet after the American invasion of the province of Quebec in 1775-1776 by means of the Richelieu River, the British authorities decided to build a new fort on the island in 1778. It was used during the War of 1812; that fort was demolished to make place for Fort Lennox. In 1775, the island was taken by American forces and used as a base by the American generals Philip Schuyler and Richard Montgomery for attacks on Montreal and Quebec. After being defeated at Quebec and abandoning Montreal, the Continental Army regrouped at the island in 1776 in its retreat from the province of Quebec; the site returned to British hands as an important frontier fort, now its southernmost on the Richelieu. Blockhouses were constructed in 1779 to resist further attack. A much more impressive fortification was built from 1779 to 1782. During the War of 1812, the race for naval superiority in the area re-established the military importance of the island, which became the main support point for the British navy on this border.
The flagship of the British squadron on Lake Champlain, HMS Confiance, a 36 gun 5th rate frigate, became the largest vessel constructed at Île aux Noix. See Battle of Lake Champlain The postwar period provided another opportunity to rethink the defensive system on the Upper Richelieu in the light of the experience acquired in the War of 1812; this time the endless debate between Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec and Île aux Noix brought the engineer officers into direct opposition to the naval officers. The engineers favoured Saint-Jean because of the many possibilities of bypassing Île aux Noix, while the naval officers, convinced by the experiences of the recent war, preferred Île aux Noix because of its advantages against an operation over water; the latter were further favoured by the activities of the Americans a short distance from the border, since the construction of Fort Montgomery provided the competent British authorities with an argument for supporting Île aux Noix. French regulars British 1st Regiment of Foot From 1940 the island was the home of an internment camp which held European Jewish refugees, forcibly removed from Britain.
The camp was called Camp I Camp No. 41. Internees were treated as enemy aliens, only after a year did the Canadian authorities begin to treat them as refugees, they were still not free to leave the camp, however, in some cases until 1944. Charbonneau, A.. The Fortifications of Île Aux Noix. Supply and Services Canada. ISBN 0-660-15194-4 Île aux Noix Fort Lennox National Historic Site
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants)
The 84th Regiment of Foot was a British regiment in the American Revolutionary War, raised to defend present day Ontario and Atlantic Canada from the constant land and sea attacks by American Revolutionaries. The 84th Regiment was involved in offensive action in the Thirteen Colonies; the regiment consisted of 2,000 men in twenty companies. The 84th Regiment was raised from Scottish soldiers who had served in the Seven Years' War and stayed in North America; as a result, the 84th Regiment had one of the oldest and most experienced officer corps of any regiment in North America. The Scottish Highland regiments were a key element of the British Army in the American Revolution; the 84th Regiment was clothed and accoutred the same as the Black Watch, with Lieutenant Colonel Allan Maclean commanding the first battalion and Major General John Small of Strathardle commanding the second. The two Battalions saw little action together; the British Province of Quebec was the target of an invasion by Continental Army forces in 1775.
The distinguished war hero, Lieutenant Colonel Allan Maclean of Torloisk, was authorized by Lieutenant General Thomas Gage to raise a regiment from Scottish communities in Canada, New York and the Carolinas. The 84th Highland Regiment was the first to be raised from American Loyalists; the soldiers were drawn from those who had served Britain in the Seven Years' War – the 42nd Regiment of Foot, 77th Regiment of Foot, 78th Fraser Highlanders. The prospect of raising regiments in the Thirteen Colonies was a dangerous mission. Only two battalions of the five requested were raised because of the difficulty of recruiting; when Maclean arrived in New York not long after the war broke out, he was warned not to disembark in his uniform for fear of attack. As a result, when travelling alone he dressed as a doctor; the dangers of recruiting American Loyalists became clearer after the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, a patriot victory, in North Carolina. Members of the 84th Highland Regiment were in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, North Carolina in early 1776.
On 27 February 1776, the 84th Regiment, with a number of new recruits, was marching to the port of Wilmington, North Carolina. There they were to join with a force arriving from Europe and participate in operations in the southern colonies; the recruited force, at first numbering 1,600 American Loyalists but reduced during the march by desertions to fewer than 800, faced off against 1,000 American Patriots. The American Loyalists' movement was blocked by Patriot forces on two occasions, but the Loyalists managed to bypass them to reach the bridge over Widow Moore's Creek. Captain McLeod, who had survived the Battle of Bunker Hill, was killed leading the charge at Moore's Creek Bridge. Half of the regiment was captured and thirty were killed; the majority of the Carolina recruits were never able to join the regiment since the Loyalist forces were scattered after the battle. Lt. Col. Donald MacDonald helped with the recruiting in North Carolina and fought in the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. Both MacLean and MacDonald were taken prisoner.
In 1777 the Headquarters moved from Quebec to Sorel. Under McLean's command, the First Battalion acted to defend Quebec from American Patriot forces, it marched from Quebec in an attempt to repel Brigadier General Richard Montgomery's invasion in the Siege of Fort St. Jean, Quebec; the regiment made two attempts to relieve the fort, but returned to Quebec, where it helped to stiffen the resolve of the civil population until Carleton's return from Montreal. The regiment was involved in the Battle of Quebec. Montgomery and Benedict Arnold, who led an expedition through the wilderness of what is now Maine, combined forces and mounted attack on Quebec City. At a crucial moment in the battle, Captain McDougal led 120 of the 84th and 60 Royal Navy sailors against a force of New Hampshire troops commanded by Henry Dearborn, they overwhelmed Dearborn's men. In the war, they took part in raids upon Lake Champlain in 1778 and into the Mohawk Valley in 1780, 1781 and 1782; the 84th was tasked with defending British maritime provinces from American Revolutionary attacks by land and sea.
Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. There were constant attacks by American privateers, such as the Sack of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, numerous raids on Liverpool, Nova Scotia and a raid on Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. There was a naval engagement with a French fleet at Sydney, Nova Scotia, near Spanish River, Cape Breton. In the fall of 1775 General George Washington authorized some ship's captains to engage in privateering activities. In violation of their charter, the privateering ships Hancock and Franklin made an unopposed landing at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island on 17 November 1775. Three days they sailed to Nova Scotia and raided Canso, Nova Scotia. In 1779, American privateers returned to Canso and destroyed the fisheries, which were worth £50,000 a year to Britain. To guard against such attacks, the 84th was garrisoned at forts around the maritime provinces. One such fort was Fort Howe, at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy at what is now Saint John, New Brunswick.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia. The French military founded the Fortress of Louisbourg in 1713 and its fortified seaport on the southwest part of the harbour, naming it in honour of Louis XIV; the harbour had been used by European mariners since at least the 1590s, when it was known as English Port and Havre à l'Anglois. The French settlement that dated from 1713 was much altered after its final capture in 1758, its fortifications were demolished in 1760 and the town-site abandoned by British forces in 1768. A small civilian population continued to live there after the military left. English settlers subsequently built a small fishing village across the harbour from the abandoned site of the fortress; the village grew with additional Loyalists settlers in the 1780s. The harbour grew more accessible with the construction of the second Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1842 on the site of the original French lighthouse destroyed in 1758.
A railway first reached Louisbourg in 1877, but it was poorly built and abandoned after a forest fire. However the arrival of Sydney and Louisburg Railway in 1894 brought heavy volumes of winter coal exports to Louisbourg Harbour's ice-free waters as a winter coal port; the harbour was used by the Canadian government ship Montmagny in 1912 to land bodies from the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Incorporated in 1901, the Town of Louisbourg was disincorporated when all municipal units in Cape Breton County were merged into a single tier regional municipality in 1995. Pronounced "Lewisburg" by its English-speaking population, the present community has been identified by different spellings over the years by both locals and visitors; the town was spelled Louisburg and several companies, including the Sydney and Louisburg Railway adopted this spelling. On 6 April 1966, the Nova Scotia House of Assembly passed "An Act to Change the Name of the Town of Louisburg" which resulted in the town changing its official name to the original French spelling Louisbourg.
Louisbourg's economy is dominated by the seasonal tourism seafood processing. The depletion of ground fish stocks has negatively affected local fish processing operations in recent decades. In the 1960s, Parks Canada completed a partial reconstruction of the Fortress of Louisbourg. Today this National Historic Site of Canada is the town's dominant economic engine, employing many residents and attracting thousands of tourists every year; the fortress holds large scale Historical reenactments every few years to mark important historical events and attract visitors to the town. The most recent in July 2008, commemorated the 250th anniversary of the first British siege victory over French forces in July 1758; the town's more recent history is preserved at the Sydney and Louisburg Railway Museum located in the restored railway station in the centre of town. Annually, the community hosts the Louisbourg Crab Fest. A large golf course and residential resort is planned near the community. Louisbourg is home to the Louisbourg Playhouse, a theatre company operating in an Elizabethan theatre, used as a prop in the live action 1994 Disney film Squanto: A Warrior's Tale.
Louisbourg experiences. The highest temperature recorded in Louisbourg was 34.0 °C on 2 September 2010 and 15 July 2013. The coldest temperature recorded was −26.0 °C on 18 January 1982. Louisbourg was mentioned in Nathaniel Hawthorne's story Feathertop; the town is a major setting for Thomas H. Raddall's 1946 novel Roger Sudden; the town "Louisburg" is mentioned in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Evangeline. The 2011 film Take This Waltz begins with a re-enactment scene from the fortress and features the lighthouse in several shots. Fortress of Louisbourg Royal eponyms in Canada Places Names of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, p. 375 Johnston, A. J. B.. Louisbourg: Past, Future. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-771080-52-1. Jedidiah Morse. "Louisbourg". The American Gazetteer. Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, Thomas & Andrews. "Louisburg". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Louisburg". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB, known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator. He twice served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, from 1768 to 1778, concurrently serving as Governor General of British North America in that time, again from 1785 to 1795; the title Baron Dorchester was created on 21 August 1786. He commanded British troops in the American War of Independence, first leading the defence of Quebec during the 1775 rebel invasion and the 1776 counteroffensive that drove the rebels from the province. In 1782 and 1783 he led as the commander-in-chief of all British forces in North America. In this capacity he was notable for carrying out the Crown's promise of freedom to slaves who joined the British, he oversaw the evacuation of British forces and more than 3,000 freedmen from New York City in 1783 to transport them to a British colony; the military and political career of his younger brother, Thomas Carleton, was interwoven with his own, Thomas served under him in the Canadas.
Guy Carleton was born to a Protestant military family that had lived in Ireland since the 17th century, was one of two brothers that served in the British military. He had a sister Connolly Crawford; when he was fourteen his father, Christopher Carleton died, his mother Catherine Carleton remarried Reverend Thomas Skelton. He received a limited education. In 1742, at the age of seventeen, Carleton was commissioned as an ensign into the 25th Regiment of Foot, in which in 1745 he was promoted lieutenant. During this period he became a friend of James Wolfe. Two of his brothers and Thomas joined the British army. In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Despite British troops having been engaged on the European continent since 1742, it was not until 1747 that Carleton and his regiment were despatched to Flanders, they fought the French, but were unable to prevent the Fall of Bergen-op-Zoom, a major Dutch fortress, the war was brought to a halt by an armistice. In 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed and Carleton returned to Britain.
He was frustrated to still only be a lieutenant, believed his opportunities of advancement would be limited with the end of the war. In 1751 he joined the 1st Foot Guards and in 1752 was promoted to captain, his career received a major boost when he was chosen, at the suggestion of Wolfe, to act as a guide to the Duke of Richmond during a tour of the battlefields of the recent war. Richmond would become an influential patron to Carleton. In 1757 was made a lieutenant colonel and served as part of the Army of Observation made up of German troops designed to protect Hanover from French invasion; the army was forced to retreat following the Battle of Hastenbeck and concluded the Convention of Klosterzeven, taking them out of the war. After the Convention was signed, Carleton returned to Britain. In 1758 he was made the lieutenant colonel of the newly formed 72nd Regiment of Foot. James Wolfe selected Carleton as his aide in the 1758 attack on Louisburg. King George II declined to make this appointment because of negative comments he made about the soldiers of Hanover during his service on the Continent.
For some time he was unable to gain active position, until he was sent back to Germany to serve as an aide-de-camp to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. In December 1758 Wolfe, now a major general, was given command of the upcoming campaign against the city of Quebec, selected Carleton as his quarter-master general. King George refused to make this appointment until Lord Ligonier talked to the king about the matter and the king changed his mind; when Lieutenant-Colonel Carleton arrived in Halifax he assumed command of six hundred grenadiers. He was with the British forces when they arrived at Quebec in June 1759. Carleton was responsible for the provisioning of the army and acting as an engineer supervising the placement of cannon. Carleton received a head wound during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and he returned to England after the battle in October 1759. On 29 March 1761, as the lieutenant colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot he took part in the attack on Belle Île, an island of the coast of the northern part of the Bay of Biscay, 10 miles off the coast of France.
Carleton led an attack on the French, but was wounded and prevented from taking any further part in the fighting. After four weeks of fighting, the British gained complete control of the island, he was made colonel in 1762 and took part in the British expedition against Cuba, which included Richard Montgomery, who went on to oppose him in 1775. On 22 July, he was wounded leading an attack on a Spanish outpost. In 1764 he transferred to the 93rd Regiment of Foot. On 7 April 1766, Carleton was named acting Lieutenant Governor and Administrator of Quebec with James Murray in charge, he arrived in Quebec on 22 September 1766. As Carleton had no experience in public affairs and came from a politically insignificant family, his appointment is unusual and was a surprise to him. One connection may have been due to the Duke of Richmond, who in 1766 been made Secretary of State for the North American colonies. Fourteen years earlier, Carleton had tutored the Duke; the Duke was the colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot.
He appointed Carleton as commander-in-chief of all troops stationed in Quebec. The government consisted of a Governor, a council, an assembly; the governor could veto any action of the council, but London had given Carleton instructions that all of his actions required the approval of the coun