Martin Schröder (aviator)
Johan Martin Schröder is a Dutch pilot and founder of Martinair, the second Dutch airline and the first Dutch air charter company. At the founding in 1958 the company was known as Martin's Air Charter. In 1998 Schröder retired as president and CEO, he was succeeded by Aart van Bochove. Between September 1975 and September 1976 Schröder was chairman of AMREF Flying Doctors Nederland. In 1981 he became an honorary member of the organisation, his son Marc Schröder founded the unmanned filling station chain Tango and Route Mobiel, a roadside assistance service. Martin Schröder, lastige pionier met passie, BN De Stem, 24 May 2008
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance; as of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne, Société Générale de Transport Aérien. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlin's Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and international rival UTA – Union de Transports Aériens.
It served as France's primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a total revenue of €12.53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25.5% total market share, was the largest airline in the world in terms of operating revenue. On 25 July 2000, a Concorde that Air France owned crashed on a hotel in Gonesse. Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes. Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York City's JFK Airport from Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport; the carrier's regional airline subsidiary, HOP!, operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933, from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne and Société Générale des Transports Aériens.
Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial airline company in France, having been founded as Lignes Aériennes Farman in 1919. The constituent members of Air France had built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa and farther afield. During World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its fleet featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a wooden fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America and the Far East. Although cruising at only 175 miles per hour, the Potez 62 was a robust and reliable workhorse for Air France and remained in service until the Second World War with one used by the Free French Air Force. On 26 June 1945 all of France's air transport companies were nationalised.
On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network. Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946; the same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris. It was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air France's first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world. Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. On 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours. In September 1947 Air France's network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai. By 1948 Air France operated one of the largest fleets in the world. Between 1947 and 1965 the airline operated Lockheed Constellations on passenger and cargo services worldwide.
In 1946 and 1948 the French government authorised the creation of two private airlines: Transports Aériens Internationaux – Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux – and SATI. In 1949 the latter became part of Union Aéromaritime de Transport, a private French international airline. Compagnie Nationale Air France was created by act of parliament on 16 June 1948; the government held 70%. In subsequent years the French state's direct and indirect shareholdings reached 100%. In mid-2002 the state held 54%. On 4 August 1948 Max Hymans was appointed the president. During his 13-year tenure he would implement modernisation practices centred on the introduction of jet aircraft. In 1949 the company became a co-founder of Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, an airline telecommunications services company. In 1952 Air France moved its operations and engineering base to the new Paris Orly Airport South terminal. By the network covered 250,000 km. Air France entered the jet age in 1953 with the original, short-lived de Havilland Comet series 1, the world's first jetliner.
During the mid-1950s it operated the Vickers Viscount turboprop, with twelve entering services between May 1953 and August 1954 on the European routes. On 26 September1953z the government instructed Air France to share long-distance
Gol Transportes Aéreos
Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S. A B3: GOLL3, GOLL4 / NYSE: GOL is a Brazilian airline based in Rio de Brazil. According to the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil, between January and December 2018 Gol had 35.7% of the domestic and 9.6% of the international market shares in terms of passengers per kilometer flown, making it the largest domestic and third largest international airline in Brazil. Gol competes in Brazil and other South American countries with Chilean LATAM Airlines Group, Brazilian Azul and Colombia-based Avianca Holdings S. A, it owns the brand Varig, although now that name refers to what is informally known as the "new" Varig, founded in 2006, not to the extinct "old" Varig airline, founded in 1927. Gol operates international scheduled network, its main hubs are São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport and Tancredo Neves International Airport near Belo Horizonte. Gol has focus operations at Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont Airport, São Paulo-Congonhas Airport, Salgado Filho International Airport in Porto Alegre Gol refers to itself as Gol Intelligent Airlines as a slogan.
The company is traded on the New York Stock Exchange as "GOL Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes S. A."The company's name is a Brazilian Portuguese and Spanish word borrowing from the English word "goal" from Association football. The airline was established in 2000 and started operations on January 15, 2001 with a flight from Brasília to São Paulo, it is a subsidiary of the Brazilian conglomerate Grupo Áurea, based in Minas Gerais state, which has other transportation interests, including Brazil's largest long-distance bus company. Grupo Áurea in turn is owned by the Constantino family. Constantino Júnior was responsible for building the business next to the vice president of the company, David Barioni. On June 24, 2004 Gol launched simultaneous initial public offerings on the New York and São Paulo stock exchanges. In 2007, Gol was owned by AeroPar Participações, American International Group and Air France-KLM; the growth in Gol's stock price made the Constantino family a member of the Forbes magazine billionaire list in 2005.
In 2007, Gol was supposed to begin a code-share agreement with TAP Portugal, opening the European market to the Brazilian airline, the internal Brazilian market to the Portuguese airline. Instead, TAP Portugal chose to cooperate with TAM Airlines. On February 24, 2010 Gol announced it was in "advanced talks" to join Oneworld alliance, which would allow it to catch up with rival TAM, a recent member of Star Alliance. However, on October 6, 2010, the airline announced a change in position by denying any interest in joining an alliance, preferring to remain independent and to establish a "patchwork of code-sharing agreements." Following this trend, on September 28, 2011 Gol and Aerolíneas Argentinas announced the intention to implement a codeshare and frequent flyer programs agreement on a date yet to be announced and pending approval from the governments of Brazil and Argentina. On March 18, 2010 Gol unveiled the expansion of its maintenance base located at Belo Horizonte/Confins - Tancredo Neves International Airport.
Opened in 2006 with the capacity to service 60 aircraft per year, the expansion allowed Gol to increase the number to 120. Gol started using the base to service aircraft from other airlines, as of 2013 it serviced airplanes from Azul Brazilian Airlines and Copa Airlines. On December 23, 2010, Gol Airlines started an operational partnership with Brazilian carrier Passaredo Linhas Aéreas; the agreement was rescinded on July 31, 2014, when Passaredo established a similar interline agreement with TAM Airlines instead. On December 7, 2011, Gol announced the intention of Delta Air Lines to purchase 3% of its shares; the agreement includes the creation of mutual code-share flights, alignment of frequent flyer benefits and transfer of Gol's Boeing 767s lease agreements to Delta. On October 1, 2012, Gol confirmed a firm order of 60 Boeing 737 MAXs. References did not specify the type of MAX aircraft. On October 6, 2012, Gol started seasonal operations to Miami and Orlando, available for Smiles account holders and originating in Brazil only.
Technically, they are considered charter flights, although they are not part of an inclusive tour package. In February 2014, Air France–KLM announced it would invest $100 million in Gol Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes in advance of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympics; some disagreement exists as to. In 2014, Gol was ranked the second best low-cost airline in South America after Azul. Gol refers to itself as a low-cost carrier, but it is not regarded as such. According to UFRJ specialist Elton Fernandes, "Gol's costs are not different from those of TAM Airlines. People are accustomed to calling Gol low-cost, it is not low-fare anymore." On March 28, 2007 Gol purchased part of the assets of VARIG - VRG Linhas Aéreas, informally known as the "new Varig," a new company that owned the Varig brand, for US$320 million from Volo Group and MatlinPatterson Global Opportunies hedge fund. At that time, the "old Varig" was under bankruptcy protection. Gol announced that the Varig brand would continue doing business operating as such, rather than its official name VRG Linhas Aéreas.
The transaction, via its GTI subsidiary, required a US$98 million cash payment, with the balance throug
Charles de Gaulle Airport
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport known as Roissy Airport, is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe. Opened in March 1974, it is named after Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces during the Second World War, founder of the French Fifth Republic and President of France from 1959 to 1969. Charles de Gaulle Airport is located within portions of several communes 25 km to the northeast of Paris. Charles de Gaulle Airport serves as the principal hub for Air France and other legacy carriers, as well as a focus city for low-cost carriers easyJet and Norwegian Air Shuttle; the Airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. In 2018, the airport handled 72,229,723 passengers and 480,945 aircraft movements, thus making it the world's tenth-busiest airport, Europe's second-busiest airport in terms of passenger numbers. In terms of cargo traffic, the airport is the twelfth-busiest in the world and the second-busiest in Europe, handling 2,150,950 metric tonnes of cargo in 2012.
Marc Houalla has been the director of the airport since 12 February 2018. Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport covers 32.38 square kilometres of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over three départements and six communes: Seine-et-Marne département: Le Mesnil-Amelot and Mitry-Mory communes; the choice of constructing an international aviation hub outside of central Paris was made due to a limited prospect of potential relocations or expropriations and the possibility of further expanding the airport in the future. Management of the airport lies on the authority of Groupe ADP, which manages Orly, Le Bourget, several smaller airfields in the suburbs of Paris, other airports directly or indirectly worldwide; the planning and construction phase of what was known as Aéroport de Paris Nord began in 1966. On 8 March 1974 the airport, renamed Charles de Gaulle Airport, opened. Terminal 1 was built in an avant-garde design of a ten-floors-high circular building surrounded by seven satellite buildings, each with six gates allowing sunlight to enter through apertures.
The main architect was Paul Andreu, in charge of the extensions during the following decades. Following the introduction of the brand Paris Aéroport to all its Parisian airports, Groupe ADP announced major changes for the Charles de Gaulle Airport: Terminals of the Satellite 1 will be merged, as well as terminals 2B and 2D. A new luggage automated sorting system and conveyor under Terminal 2E Hall L was installed to speed luggage delivery time for airlines operating Paris-Charles de Gaulle's hub; the CDG Express, the direct express rail link from Paris to Charles de Gaulle Airport, is planned for completion by 2023. The Frutiger typeface was commissioned for use in the airport and implemented on signs throughout the building in 1975. Called Roissy, it was renamed after its designer Adrian Frutiger; until 2005, every PA announcement made at Terminal 1 was preceded by a distinctive chime, nicknamed "Indicatif Roissy" and composed by Bernard Parmegiani in 1971. The chime can be heard in the Roman Polanski film Frantic.
The chime was replaced by the "Indicatif ADP" chime. On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including Le Bourget airport. Charles de Gaulle Airport has three terminals: Terminal 1 is the oldest and situated opposite to Terminal 3. Terminal 2 was built for Air France. Terminals 2A to 2F are situated next to each other. Terminal 2G is a satellite building connected by shuttle bus. Terminal 3 hosts low-cost airlines; the CDGVAL light-rail shuttle connects their parking lots. Refer to Ground Transportation below for inter-terminal transfers and transport to central Paris; the first terminal, designed by Paul Andreu, was built in the image of an octopus. It consists of a circular terminal building which houses key functions such as check-in counters and baggage claim conveyors. Seven satellites with boarding gates are connected to the central building by underground walkways; the central building, with a large skylight in its centre, dedicates each floor to a single function.
The first floor is reserved for technical operations and not accessible to the public. The second floor contains shops and restaurants, the CDGVAL inter-terminal shuttle train platforms and check-in counters from a recent renovation; the majority of check-in counters, are located on the third floor, which has access to taxi stands, bus stops and special pick-up vehicles. Departing passengers with valid boarding passes can reach the fourth floor, which houses duty-free stores and border control posts, for the boarding gates; the fifth floor contains baggage claim conveyors for arriving passengers. All four upper floors have assigned areas for airline offices. Passa
HOP! is the brand name of the regional flights operated by subsidiaries of Air France. Its flights are operated by Airlinair, Brit Air and Régional under the HOP! brand. The brand offers daily flights to 50 European destinations, its head office is at Nantes Atlantique Airport. The new airline brand was created to better compete with the low-cost airlines which have taken a significant market share of Air France's regional routes. Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne operates with 44 aircraft to 38 destinations. In October 2018, it was reported that HOP! will face restructuring measures, including the merger of all operations under the AF flight codes of parent Air France and a revision of the operated aircraft types. In February 2019, Air France announced that HOP! Services will be rebranded as "Air France HOP". HOP! has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Air Corsica Air France Alitalia As of April 2019, the HOP! Fleet consists of the following aircraft: Media related to Hop! at Wikimedia Commons Official website
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N. V. is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands. KLM is headquartered with its hub at nearby Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, it is part of the Air France–KLM group, a member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Founded in 1919, KLM is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name and had 35,488 employees and a fleet of 119 as of 2015. KLM operates scheduled cargo services to 145 destinations. In 1919, a young aviator lieutenant named Albert Plesman sponsored the ELTA aviation exhibition in Amsterdam; the exhibition was a great success. In September 1919, Queen Wilhelmina awarded the yet-to-be-founded KLM its "Royal" predicate. On 7 October 1919, eight Dutch businessmen, including Frits Fentener van Vlissingen, founded KLM as one of the first commercial airline companies. Plesman became its first director; the first KLM flight took place on 17 May 1920. KLM's first pilot, Jerry Shaw, flew from London, to Amsterdam; the flight was flown using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel De Haviland DH-16, registration G-EALU, carrying two British journalists and some newspapers.
In 1920, KLM carried 22 tons of freight. In April 1921, after a winter hiatus, KLM resumed its services using its own pilots, Fokker F. II and Fokker F. III aircraft. In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. KLM's first intercontinental flight took off on 1 October 1924; the final destination was Java, in the Dutch East Indies. VII with registration was piloted by Van der Hoop. In September 1929, regular scheduled services between Amsterdam and Batavia commenced; until the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, this was the world's longest-distance scheduled service by airplane. By 1926, it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Bremen and Malmö, using Fokker F. II and Fokker F. III aircraft. In 1930, KLM carried 15,143 passengers; the Douglas DC-2 was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934. The first experimental transatlantic KLM flight was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F. XVIII "Snip"; the first of the airline's Douglas DC-3 aircraft were delivered in 1936.
KLM was the first airline to serve Manchester's new Ringway airport, starting June 1938. KLM was the only civilian airline to receive the Douglas DC-5; when Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, a number of KLM aircraft—mostly DC-3s and a few DC-2s—were en route to or from the Far East, or were operating services in Europe. Five DC-3s and one DC-2 were taken to England. During the war, these aircraft and crew members flew scheduled passenger flights between Bristol and Lisbon under BOAC registration; the Douglas DC-3 PH-ALI "Ibis" registered as G-AGBB, was attacked by the Luftwaffe on 15 November 1942, 19 April 1943, on 1 June 1943 as BOAC Flight 777, killing all passengers and crew. Some KLM aircraft and their crews ended up in the Australia-Dutch East Indies region, where they helped transport refugees from Japanese aggression in that area. After the end of the Second World War in August 1945, KLM started to rebuild its network. Since the Dutch East Indies were in a state of revolt, Plesman's first priority was to re-establish KLM's route to Batavia.
This service was reinstated by the end of 1945. Domestic and European flights resumed in September 1945 with a fleet of Douglas DC-3s and Douglas DC-4s. On 21 May 1946, KLM was the first continental European airline to start scheduled transatlantic flights between Amsterdam and New York City using Douglas DC-4 aircraft. By 1948, KLM had reconstructed its network and services to Africa and South America, the Caribbean resumed. Long-range, pressurized Lockheed Constellations and Douglas DC-6s joined KLM's fleet in the late 1940s. During the immediate post-war period, the Dutch government expressed interest in gaining a majority stake in KLM, thus nationalizing it. Plesman wanted KLM to remain a private company under private control. In 1950, KLM carried 356,069 passengers; the expansion of the network continued in the 1950s with the addition of several destinations in western North America. KLM's fleet expanded with the addition of new versions of the Lockheed Constellation and Lockheed Electra, of which KLM was the first European airline to fly.
On 31 December 1953, the founder and president of KLM, Albert Plesman, died at the age of 64. He was succeeded as president by Fons Aler. After Plesman's death, the company and other airlines entered a difficult economic period; the conversion to jet aircraft placed a further financial burden on KLM. The Netherlands government increased its ownership of the company to two-thirds, thus nationalizing it; the board of directors remained under the control of private shareholders. On 25 July 1957, the airline introduced its flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C – the last KLM aircraft with piston engines – which opened the transpolar route from Amsterdam via Anchorage to Tokyo on 1 November 1958; each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was eq