Code of law
A code of law called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification. Though the process and motivations for codification are similar in different common law and civil law systems, their usage is different. In a civil law country, a code of law exhaustively covers the complete system of law, such as civil law or criminal law. By contrast, in a common law country with legislative practices in the English tradition, a code of law is a less common form of legislation, which differs from usual legislation that, when enacted, modify the existing common law only to the extent of its express or implicit provision, but otherwise leaves the common law intact. A code replaces the common law in a particular area, leaving the common law inoperative unless and until the code is repealed. In a third case of different usage, in the United States and other common law countries that have adopted similar legislative practices, a code of law is a standing body of statute law on a particular area, added to, subtracted from, or otherwise modified by individual legislative enactments.
The legal code was a common feature of the legal systems of the ancient Middle East. The Sumerian Code of Ur-Nammu the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, are among the earliest and best preserved legal codes, originating in the Fertile Crescent. In the Roman empire, a number of codifications were developed, such as the Twelve Tables of Roman law and the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian known as the Justinian Code. However, these law codes did not exhaustively describe the Roman legal system; the Twelve Tables were limited in scope, most legal doctrines were developed by the pontifices, who "interpreted" the tables to deal with situations far beyond what is contained therein. The Justinian Code collected together existing legal material at the time; the Hebrew Written Torah and Oral Torah constitute the earliest and best preserved ethical code at the same time. Halakha is the oldest collective body of religious laws and jurisdictions still in use. In ancient China, the first comprehensive criminal code was the Tang Code, created in 624 AD in the Tang Dynasty.
This, subsequent imperial codes, formed the basis for the penal system of both China and other East Asian states under its cultural influence. The last and best preserved imperial code is the Great Qing Legal Code, created in 1644 upon the founding of the Qing Dynasty; this code was the exclusive and exhaustive statement of Chinese law between 1644 and 1912. Though it was in form a criminal code, large parts of the code dealt with civil law matters and the settlement of civil disputes; the Code ceased its operation upon the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, but significant provisions remained in operation in Hong Kong until well into the 1970s due to a peculiar interaction between it and the British common law system. In Europe, Roman law the Corpus Juris Civilis, became the basis of the legal systems of many countries. Roman law was either adopted through processing by jurists; the accepted Roman law is then codified and forms part of the central Code. The codification movement gathered pace after the rise of nation-states after the Treaty of Westphalia.
Prominent national civil codes include the Napoleonic Code of 1804, the German civil code of 1900 and the Swiss codes. The European codifications of the 1800s influenced the codification of Catholic canon law resulting in the 1917 Code of Canon Law, replaced by the 1983 Code of Canon Law and whose Eastern counterpart is the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. Meanwhile, African civilizations developed their own legal traditions, sometimes codifying them through consistent oral tradition, as illustrated e.g. by the Kouroukan Fouga, a charter proclaimed by the Mali Empire in 1222-1236, enumerating regulations in both constitutional and civil matters, transmitted to this day by griots under oath. The Continental civil law tradition spread around the world along with European cultural and military dominance in recent centuries. During the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted a new Civil Code, based on the French civil code and influenced by the German code. After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 in China, the new Republic of China government abandoned the imperial code tradition and instead adopted a new civil code influenced by the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, influenced by the Japanese code.
This new tradition has been maintained in the legal system of the People's Republic of China since 1949. Meanwhile, codifications became more common in common law systems. For example, a criminal code is found in a number of common law jurisdictions in Australia and the Americas, continues to be debated in England. In the Americas, the influence of Continental legal codes has manifest itself in two ways. In civil law jurisdictions, legal codes in the Continental tradition are common. In common law jurisdictions, there has been a strong trend towards codification; the result of such codification, however, is not always a legal code as found in civil law jurisdictions. For example, the California Civil Code codifies common law doctrine and is different in form and content from all other civil codes. A civil code forms the core of civil law systems; the legal Code covers exhaustively the entire system of private law. Civil codes are sometimes found in common law systems in the Unit
The Verde River is a major tributary of the Salt River in the U. S. state of Arizona. It carries a mean flow of 602 cubic feet per second at its mouth, it is one of the largest perennial streams in Arizona. The river begins below the dam at Sullivan Lake, fed by Big Chino Wash and Williamson Valley Wash in Yavapai County; the Verde flows for 12 miles through private, state and United States Forest Service lands the Tonto National Forest, before encountering the first of two dams that make Horseshoe Lake and Bartlett Lake. The cities of Camp Verde and Cottonwood are the main population centers along the river; the Verde River and the Salt River meet near Fountain Hills. The Salt River flows into the Gila River west of Phoenix. In 1984, the United States Congress designated 40.5 miles of the Verde River as Wild and Scenic through the National Wild and Scenic River program. The Scenic portion begins at Beasley Flats and extends downstream about 19 miles to the northern boundary of the Mazatzal Wilderness.
The Wild portion extends from there to the mouth of Red Creek, about 22 miles further downstream. In 1986, a 6-mile stretch of the river was identified by the state of Arizona as a critical natural resource; this reach of the Verde River and its associated riparian zone, between the town of Clarkdale and the Bridgeport State Route 89A Bridge, became part of the Arizona State Parks system. The park, called the Verde River Greenway State Natural Area, encompasses 480 acres. Dead Horse Ranch State Park, near Cottonwood, is adjacent to the Greenway. Plants found in riparian zones along the river include Arizona alder and walnut trees. Aquatic vertebrates along the Verde River include North American beaver, belted kingfishers, great blue herons, Chiricahua leopard frogs, Sonoran mud turtles, others. Among the 27 species of fish found in the river are carp, flathead catfish, roundtail chub, Gila chub, desert sucker, red shiner, Sonora sucker. Beaver were trapped "with considerable success" on the Verde River by fur trappers led by Ewing Young, including Kit Carson, dating to 1829.
Edgar Alexander Mearns wrote in his 1907 naturalist survey Mammals of the Mexican Boundary of the United States that beaver were present on nearly all streams of the Colorado Basin. Re-introductions of beaver in recent times have transformed small desert streams into robust riparian habitat, increasing species abundance and diversity. Floating the Verde River in rafts and kayaks is a popular pastime as it runs through scenic valleys and the Mazatzal Wilderness; the facilities described below are maintained by the Tonto National Forest authority. Kayak rentals, boating gear and services are available in Clarkdale and Camp Verde. Several commercial outfitters offer guided trips on the Verde River. Popular stretches for commercial boating include the Verde River @ Clarkdale, beginning at the Lower TAPCO River Access Point and floating to the Tuzigoot RAP in Clarkdale; the Verde River above Camp Verde has about 70 miles of fishable waters at an average elevation of 3,800 feet above sea level. The nearest town with fuel, lodging and fishing tackle is Cottonwood.
Fish species frequenting this stretch of the river include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, channel catfish, flathead catfish, yellow perch, carp, and, in winter, rainbow trout. Crayfish and bullfrogs are found. From Camp Verde to Horseshoe Lake, about 60 miles of fishable waters are at an average elevation of 2,800 feet; the nearest town with fuel and other supplies and amenities is Camp Verde. Species along this stretch include largemouth and smallmouth bass, sunfish and flathead catfish, carp and bullfrogs; the same species that are found between Camp Verde and Horseshoe Lake are present along a 12-mile stretch of the river from Horseshoe Lake to Bartlett Lake. The elevation along this stretch averages 1,800 feet above sea level; the nearest town with fuel and supplies is Carefree. Below Bartlett Lake, the elevation averages 1,500 feet over the next 20 miles. Species here include largemouth bass, sunfish and flathead catfish, carp and bullfrogs; the nearest town with fuel and supplies is Fountain Hills.
List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers List of rivers of Arizona List of tributaries of the Colorado River Arizona Fishin' Holes: The Arizona Game and Fish Department's Guide to Public Fishing Waters and Facilities in Arizona. Phoenix: Arizona Game and Fish Department. Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 11: Colorado River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088253-1. OCLC 59003378. Verde Wild and Scenic River – Coconino National Forest Viva La Verde - Viva La Verde Documentary Film Arizona State Parks: Verde River Greenway Arizona Boating Locations Facilities Map Arizona Fishing Locations Map Synthesis of Upper Verde River Research and Monitoring 1993-2008 United States Forest Service Video of Upper Verde River Wildlife at Work: Beaver and Native Fish on the Verde River by Seth Ring - Town of Clarkdale's - Verde River @ Clarkdale
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, in the city of Leavenworth since it was annexed on April 12, 1977, in the northeast part of the state. Built in 1827, it is the oldest active United States Army post west of Washington, D. C. and the oldest permanent settlement in Kansas. Fort Leavenworth has been known as the "Intellectual Center of the Army."Fort Leavenworth was the base of African-American soldiers of the U. S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on 21 September 1866 at Fort Leavenworth. They became known as Buffalo Soldiers, nicknamed by the Native American tribes; the term was applied to all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866. During the country's westward expansion, Fort Leavenworth was a forward destination for thousands of soldiers, immigrants, American Indians and settlers who passed through. On August 1, 1846, a Mormon Battalion, led by Col. James Allen, arrived at Fort Leavenworth. Colonel Allen died at the fort.
Today, the garrison supports the US Army Training and Doctrine Command by managing and maintaining the home of the US Army Combined Arms Center. CAC's mission involves collective training, Army doctrine and battle command. Fort Leavenworth is home to the Military Corrections Complex, consisting of the United States Disciplinary Barracks, the Department of Defense's only maximum security prison and the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility. In addition, the Fort Leavenworth Garrison supports numerous tenant organizations that directly and indirectly relate to the functions of the CAC, including the United States Army Command and General Staff College and the Foreign Military Studies Office; the fort occupies 7,000,000 sq ft of space in 1,000 buildings and 1,500 quarters. It is located on the Frontier Military Scenic Byway, a military road connecting to Fort Scott and Fort Gibson; the garrison commander is a colonel reporting via IMCOM West to the Installation Management Command. The fort is nicknamed the "intellectual center" of the Army because much of its mission involves training.
Major tenants include: United States Army Combined Arms Center which among its various responsibilities is the United States Army Command and General Staff College, which includes a degrees granting graduate school for U. S. and allied officers. The school trains all of the army's majors. All modern five-star army generals have passed through the college including George Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, Henry "Hap" Arnold, Omar Bradley. Since 1978 it has been commanded by a Lieutenant General. In 2007, its commander was David Petraeus, it reports to the United States Army Doctrine Command. United States Disciplinary Barracks, the only maximum security prison for military personnel of all branches. Since a 2007 reorganization, its commander is a colonel who reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a low security prison. Reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Foreign Military Studies Office Munson Army Health Center University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies Sherman Army Airfield—the base airport Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery TRADOC Analysis Center Headquarters of the National Guard's 35th Infantry Division Mission Command Training Program is the focal point for National Guard of the United States division and brigade staff training and development.
Army/ACE Registry Transcript Systems See Fort Leavenworth School District The Fort Leavenworth Lamp newspaper serves the military community living on post. The fort is 10 miles south of the 18th century French Fort de Cavagnal, the farthest west fort in Louisiana, its commandant was François Coulon de Villiers, a brother to Louis Coulon de Villiers, the only military commander to force George Washington to surrender. The French abandoned the fort after ceding its territory to Louisiana at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Early American explorers on the Missouri River to visit the area of Fort de Cavagnal include Lewis and Clark on 26–29 June 1804 and Stephen Harriman Long in 1819; the fort location had been chosen because of its proximity to a large Kansa tribe village. Colonel Henry Leavenworth, with the officers and men of the 3rd Infantry Regiment from Jefferson Barracks at St. Louis, established Fort Leavenworth in 1827 to be a forward base protecting the Santa Fe Trail. Leavenworth's instructions had been the following: Colonel Leavenworth of the 3d Infantry, with four companies of his regiment will ascend the Missouri and when he reaches a point on its left band near the mouth of Little Platte River and within a range of twenty miles above or below its confluence, he will select such position as in his judgment is best calculated for the site of a permanent cantonment.
The spot being chosen, he will construct with the troops of his command comfortable, though temporary quarters sufficient for the accommodation of four companies. This movement will be made as early. Leavenworth
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Augusta is the state capital of the U. S. state of Maine and the county seat of Kennebec County. The city's population was 19,136 at the 2010 census, making it the third-least populous state capital in the United States after Montpelier and Pierre, South Dakota, the ninth-most populous city in Maine. Located on the Kennebec River at the head of tide, Augusta is home to the University of Maine at Augusta. Augusta is the principal city in the Augusta-Waterville Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area was first explored by the ill-fated Popham Colony in September 1607. It was first inhabited by English settlers from the Plymouth Colony in 1628 as a trading post on the Kennebec River; the settlement was known by its Indian name—Cushnoc, meaning "head of the tide." Fur trading was at first profitable, but with Indian uprisings and declining revenues, the Plymouth Colony sold the Kennebec Patent in 1661. Cushnoc would remain unoccupied for the next 75 years; this area was inhabited by a band of the larger Abenaki tribe.
During the 17th century, they were on friendly terms with the English settlers in the region. A hotbed of Abenaki hostility toward British settlements was located further up the Kennebec at Norridgewock. In 1722, the tribe and its allies destroyed Brunswick. In response, Norridgewock was sacked in 1724 during Dummer's War, when English forces gained tentative control of the Kennebec. During the height of the French and Indian War, a blockhouse named Fort Western, was built at Cushnoc on the eastern bank of the Kennebec River in 1754, it was intended as a supply depot for Fort Halifax upriver, as well as to protect its own region from French attack. During the American Revolutionary War Benedict Arnold and his 1,100 troops would use Fort Western as a staging area before continuing their journey up the Kennebec to the Battle of Quebec. Cushnoc was incorporated as part of Hallowell in 1771. Known as "the Fort," it was set off and incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court in February 1797 as Harrington.
In August, the name changed to Augusta after Augusta Dearborn, daughter of Henry Dearborn. In 1799, it became county seat for newly created Kennebec County. Maine became a state in 1820 and Augusta was designated its capital in 1827 over rival cities Portland and Hallowell; the Maine State Legislature continued meeting in Portland, until completion in 1832 of the new Maine State House designed by Charles Bulfinch. Augusta was ranked as a city in 1849. After being named the state capital and the introduction of new industry, the city flourished. In 1840 and 1850, the city ranked among the 100 largest urban populations; the next decade, the city was bypassed by growing metropolises in the Midwest. Excellent soil provided for agriculture, water power from streams provided for the industry. In 1837, a dam was built across the Kennebec. By 1838, 10 sawmills were contracted. With the arrival of the Kennebec & Portland Railroad in 1851, Augusta became an more productive mill town. In 1883, the property of A. & W. Sprague Company was purchased by the Edwards Manufacturing Company, which erected extensive brick mills for manufacturing cotton textiles.
In the late 19th century, a paper and pulp plant was constructed. Other Augusta firms produced lumber, doors, window shutters, broom handles, stone cutters' tools, headstones and furniture; the city developed as a shipping center. Today and post-secondary education are important businesses. Since the mid-eighteenth century, there has been a military presence in Augusta. Fort Western has not had troops garrisoned there since the 1790s, but in 1828, the U. S. Government built an arsenal to protect their interests from Britain. During the Civil War, Augusta was a rendezvous point for soldiers traveling to the front. Many of the soldiers camped on the green in front of the capitol building. In 1862, Camp E. D. Keyes was established in the northwestern portion of the city. During World War I, Camp Keyes was used as a training camp for soldiers; the camp became a headquarters for the Maine National Guard. In 1929, the state legislature approved the placement of the Augusta State Airport next to the camp; as the airport grew, the use of the camp as a training facility was no longer possible.
Today, it is still used for logistical purposes by the National Guard. In the 19th century, Augusta got the railroad; the city installed gas lights in 1859. A telephone service was available in 1880 and a local hospital in 1898. In the early 20th century, Augusta built a film production studio. For much of Augusta's history, the central business district was on and near Water Street on the west bank of the Kennebec River; the street, laid out in the late 1700s, was the location of the area's commercial and industrial life. Many fires damaged this concentrated area, including one significant fire in 1865 that destroyed nearly 100 buildings. In 1890, the first trolley line began operation down Water Street, connecting Augusta with Gardiner and Hallowell to the south. In 1932, buses replaced the trolley line. With the completion of the Maine Turnpike and Interstate 95 in 1955, local commercial developments began to move away from Water Street and closer to the highway. Among the results was a storefront vacancy rate downtown of about 60 percent.
Since the late 2000s, there has been a renewed and ongoing focus by city officials, the Augusta Downtown Alliance, private developers to revitalize the downtown area. Augusta is located at 44°18′26″N 69°46′54″W
Monterey County, California
Monterey County the County of Monterey, is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 415,057; the county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it borders the Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments; the coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula, has made the county world-famous. The city of Monterey was the capital of California under Mexican rule; the economy is based upon tourism in the coastal regions and agriculture in the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's people live near the northern coast and Salinas Valley, while the southern coast and inland mountain regions are sparsely populated. Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874. The area was populated by Ohlone and Esselen tribes; the county derives its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey the Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father were from. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,771 square miles, of which 3,281 square miles is land and 491 square miles is water; the county is 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware, similar in population and size to Santa Barbara County. Los Padres National Forest Pinnacles National Park Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge Ventana Wilderness Monterey County has habitat to support the following endangered species: Hickman's potentilla Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander Santa Cruz Tarweed Southern Steelhead Trout Yadon's piperia Generally, the western/southern parts of the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel Valley and eastern parts of Prundale were the county's most affluent and educated.
These areas had a median household income above that of the California or the U. S. overall and comprised 8%-10% of neighborhoods. Educational attainment was at least on part with, or above and national levels, in these areas while the percentage of people living in poverty was a third or less than national and statewide average. Social deprivation was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, central areas of Monterey, Marina and King City. In central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents. Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated urban areas in the nation. 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income above $100,000 per year, about 60% above the national median. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below. Most affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups.
About 4.5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income below $30,000 per year, about 60% below the national median. This coincided with the 10 poorest of the 20 lowest income neighborhoods listed in the table below. Least affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups; the 2010 United States Census reported that Monterey County had a population of 415,057. The racial makeup of Monterey County was 230,717 White, 12,785 African American, 5,464 Native American, 25,258 Asian, 2,071 Pacific Islander, 117,405 from other races, 21,357 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 230,003 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 401,762 people, 121,236 households, 87,896 families residing in the county. The population density was 121 people per square mile. There were 131,708 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.9% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 6.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 27.8% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races.
46.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.3% were of German and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 52.9% spoke English, 39.6% Spanish and 1.6% Tagalog as their first language. There were 121,236 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.2%