Science journalism conveys reporting about science to the public. The field involves interactions between scientists and the public. One of the first occasions an article was attributed to a "scientific correspondent" was "A Gale in the Bay of Biscay" by William Crookes which appeared in The Times on January 18, 1871, page 7. Thomas Henry Huxley and John Tyndall were scientists who were involved in journalism and Peter Chalmers Mitchell was Scientific Correspondent for The Times from 1918 to 1935; however it was with James Crowther's appointment as the ‘scientific correspondent’ of The Manchester Guardian by C. P. Scott in 1928 that science journalism took shape. Crowther related that Scott had declared that there was ‘no such thing’ as science journalism, at which point Crowther replied that he intended to invent it. Scott was convinced and employed him. Science values detail, the impersonal, the technical, the lasting, facts and being right. Journalism values brevity, the personal, the colloquial, the immediate, stories and being right now.
There are going to be tensions. The aim of a science journalist is to render detailed and jargon-laden information produced by scientists into a form that non-scientists can understand and appreciate while still communicating the information accurately. One way science journalism can achieve, to avoid an information deficit model of communication, which assumes a top-down, one-way direction of communicating information that limits an open dialogue between knowledge holders and the public. Science journalists have training in the scientific disciplines that they cover; some have earned a degree in a scientific field before becoming journalists or exhibited talent in writing about science subjects. However, good preparation for interviews and deceptively simple questions such as "What does this mean to the people on the street?" can help a science journalist develop material, useful for the intended audience. With budget cuts at major newspapers and other media, there are fewer working science journalists working for traditional print and broadcast media than before.
There are very few journalists in traditional media outlets that write multiple articles on emerging science, such as nanotechnology. In 2011, there were 459 journalists who had written a newspaper article covering nanotechnology, of whom 7 wrote about the topic more than 25 times. In January 2012, just a week after The Daily Climate reported that worldwide coverage of climate change continued a three-year slide in 2012 and that among the five largest US dailies, the New York Times published the most stories and had the biggest increase in coverage, that newspaper announced that it was dismantling its environmental desk and merging its journalists with other departments. News coverage on science by traditional media outlets, such as newspapers, magazines and news broadcasts is being replaced by online sources. In April 2012, the New York Times was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for content published by Politico and The Huffington Post, both online sources, a sign of the platform shift by the media outlet.
Tracking the remaining experienced science journalists is becoming difficult. For example, in Australia, the number of science journalists have decreased to abysmal numbers "you need less than one hand to count them." Due to the decreasing number of science journalists, experiments on ways to improve science journalism are rare. However, in one of the few experiments conducted with science journalists, when the remaining population of science journalists networked online the produced more accurate articles than when in isolation. New communication environments provide unlimited information on a large number of issues, which can be obtained anywhere and with limited effort; the web offers opportunities for citizens to connect with others through social media and other 2.0-type tools to make sense of this information. "After a lot of hand wringing about the newspaper industry about six years ago, I take a more optimistic view these days,” said Cristine Russell, president of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing.
“The world is online. Science writers today have the opportunity to communicate not just with their audience but globally.”Blog-based science reporting is filling in to some degree, but has problems of its own. In 2015, John Bohannon produced a deliberately bad study to see how a low-quality open access publisher and the media would pick up their findings, he worked with a film-maker Peter Onneken, making a film about junk science in the diet industry with fad diets becoming headline news despite terrible study design and no evidence. He invented a fake "diet institute" that lacks a website, used the pen name, "Johannes Bohannon," and fabricated a press release. Science journalists come under criticism for misleading reporting of scientific stories. All three groups of scientists and the public criticize science journalism for bias and inaccuracies. However, with the increasing collaborations online between science journalists there may be potential with removing inaccuracies; the 2010 book Merchants of Doubt by historians of science Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway argues that in topics like the global warming controversy, tobacco smoking, acid rain, DDT and ozone depletion, contrarian scientists have sought to "keep the controversy alive" in the public arena by demanding that reporters give false balance to the minority side.
Such as with climate change, this leaves the public with the impression that disagreement within the scientific community is much
Murray is a home rule-class city in Calloway County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the 19th-largest city in Kentucky; the city's population was 17,741 during the 2010 U. S. census, its micropolitan area's population is 37,191. Calloway County is the home of Murray State University; the city now known as Murray began as a post trading center sometime in the early 1820s. It was at first called "Williston" in honor of an early settler; the name was changed to “Pooltown” after Robert Pool, a local merchant. The name was changed again to “Pleasant Springs” before its incorporation on January 17, 1844, when the present name was adopted to honor Rep. John Murray. Murray was not the first county seat, at Wadesboro. Calloway County was much larger than today. In 1842, the state legislature divided the area, creating Marshall County, it was felt that a more centrally located county seat was needed, as the village of Murray was at the geographic center, it was chosen. A new courthouse was built along with a jail, the town Murray was laid out on an 80-acre plot subdivided into 137 business and residential lots divided by eight streets.
Kentucky did not secede from the Union during the Civil War, instead declaring its neutrality, but both Murray and Calloway County were pro-Confederate. No major battles were fought near the town. In the spring of 1862, a Union force stationed in Paducah marched across the county to the Tennessee River, taking anything it wanted from the inhabitants without paying. Parts of Murray were burned on several occasions. Once, part of the town was burned by the Union Army in retaliation for its presumed support for the Confederate guerrillas. A diary kept by Josh Ellison of Murray tells that one night during the winter of 1864-65, a detachment of Union soldiers from Paducah torched every buildings on the east side of the court square, three days burning all those north of the square. An estimated 800 men from the area joined in the Confederate Army, either as infantry in the Kentucky Orphan Brigade or in the cavalry, while about 200 sided with the Union. Calloway County's Confederate veterans are honored by monument on the northeast side of the court house square.
Donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, it is the only Confederate monument in the South that does not face true north. There are several tales about the reason for this, but nowadays no one knows. Founded in 1861, the Southern Kentucky Buckholds rose to prominence led by General Buck Scott in which his great–grandson Guage would be named autist of the year by the Murray Chamber of Commerce. Calloway County's Confederate veterans are honored by monument on the northeast side of the court house square. Donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, it is the only Confederate monument in the South that does not face true north. Murray is located at 36°36′34″N 88°18′56″W, 7 miles north of the Tennessee border. Benton is 19 miles to the north, Mayfield is 24 miles to the northwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.3 square miles, of which 0.29 square miles, or 0.26%, is water. Murray is situated 15 miles west of the 170,000 acres Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, which offers hiking and bison viewing, birding, 1850s historic buildings, nature center, off-highway vehicle riding, boating, camping, a large wildlife population.
Murray has four distinct seasons. The warmest month of the year is July, with an average high temperature of 90 °F; the coldest month is January, with an average high temperature of 45 °F. Murray has had several tornadoes and storms in recent years and has been the site of two F4 tornadoes. On February 5, 2008, Kentucky and surrounding states were subject to many violent tornadoes with some of them in Western Kentucky. On June 30, 2009, a violent storm with winds of up to 90 miles per hour ravaged trees and damaged buildings. On July 4, 2009 another tornado outbreak in Western Kentucky left Independence Day celebrations spoiled throughout the region; the architecture of Murray preserves its history throughout many of its downtown businesses. A commemoration was held on October 28th, 2014, for the 150th Civil War Anniversary of Fort Heiman in New Concord, which became a National Battlefield on October 30th, 2006; as of the census of 2000, there were 14,950 people, 6,004 households, 2,869 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,541.5 people per square mile. There were 6,622 housing units at an average density of 682.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.16% White, 6.80% African American, 0.21% Native American, 2.75% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.73% of the population. There were 6,004 households out of which 19.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.2% were non-families. 39.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.70. In the city, the population was spread out with 13.6% under the age of 18, 33.7% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 16.0% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.7 m
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
John Herschel Glenn Jr. was a United States Marine Corps aviator, astronaut and politician. He was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. Following his retirement from NASA, he served from 1974 to 1999 as a Democratic United States Senator from Ohio. Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War China and Korea, he shot down three MiG-15s, was awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals. In 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight across the United States, his on-board camera took the first panoramic photograph of the United States. He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the nation's first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, the fifth person and third American in space, he received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.
S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven. Glenn resigned from NASA in January 1964, he planned to run for a U. S. Senate seat from Ohio, he retired from the Marine Corps the following year. He lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 1999. In 1998, while still a sitting Senator, Glenn flew on the Discovery space shuttle's STS-95 mission, became the oldest person to fly in space and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012. He died at the age of 95 in 2016. John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born on July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, the son of John Herschel Glenn Sr. who worked for a plumbing firm, Clara Teresa née Sproat, a teacher. His parents had married shortly before his father, a member of the American Expeditionary Force, left for the Western Front during World War I.
The family moved to New Concord, soon after his birth, his father started his own business, the Glenn Plumbing Company. Glenn Jr. was only a toddler when he met Anna Margaret Castor, who would become his wife. The two would not be able to recall a time, he first flew in an airplane with his father. He became fascinated by flight, built model airplanes from balsa wood kits. Along with his adopted sister Jean, he attended New Concord Elementary School, he washed cars and sold rhubarb to earn money to buy a bicycle, after which he took a job delivering The Columbus Dispatch newspaper. He was a member of the Ohio Rangers, an organization similar to the Cub Scouts, his boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as a historic house education center. Glenn attended New Concord High School, where he played on the varsity football team as a center and linebacker, he made the varsity basketball and tennis teams, was involved with Hi-Y, a junior branch of the YMCA. After graduating in 1939, Glenn entered Muskingum College, where he studied chemistry, was a member of the Stag Club fraternity, played on the football team.
Annie majored in music with minors in secretarial studies and physical education while competing on the swimming and volleyball teams. Glenn earned a private pilot license and a physics course credit for free through the Civilian Pilot Training Program in 1941, he did not complete his senior year in residence or take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. When the United States entered World War II, Glenn quit college to enlist in the U. S. Army Air Corps, he was never called to duty by the Army, enlisted as a U. S. Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U. S. Marine Corps. Having completed his flight training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant.
After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353, which flew R4D transport planes from there. Glenn married Annie in a Presbyterian ceremony at College Drive Church in New Concord, Ohio, on April 6, 1943; the fighter squadron VMO-155 was at Camp Kearny flying the Grumman F4F Wildcat. Glenn approached the squadron's commander, Major J. P. Haines, who suggested that he could put in for a transfer; this was approved, Glenn was posted to VMO-155 on July 2, 1943, two days before the squadron moved to Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California. The Wildcat was obsolete by this time, VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943, he was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944. VMO-155 became part of the garrison on Midway Atoll on February 21 moved to the Marshall Islands in June 1944 and flew 57 combat missions in the area, he received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals. At the end of his one-year tour of duty in February 1945, Glenn was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland.
He was ordered back to Cherry Point. There, he joined VMF-913, another Corsair squadron, learned that he had qualified for a regular commission. In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California, he volunt
Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything is the debut non-fiction book by University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and New York Times journalist Stephen J. Dubner, it was published on April 2005, by William Morrow. The book has been described as melding pop culture with economics. By late 2009, the book had sold over 4 million copies worldwide; the book is a collection of articles written by Levitt, an expert who had gained a reputation for applying economic theory to diverse subjects not covered by "traditional" economists. In Freakonomics and Dubner argue that economics is, at root, the study of incentives; the book's chapters cover: Chapter 1: Discovering cheating as applied to teachers and sumo wrestlers, as well as a typical Washington DC area bagel business and its customers Chapter 2: Information control as applied to the Ku Klux Klan and real-estate agents Chapter 3: The economics of drug dealing, including the low earnings and abject working conditions of crack cocaine dealers Chapter 4: The role legalized abortion has played in reducing crime, contrasted with the policies and downfall of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu Chapter 5: The negligible effects of good parenting on education Chapter 6: The socioeconomic patterns of naming children One example of the authors' use of economic theory involves demonstrating the existence of cheating among sumo wrestlers.
In a sumo tournament, all wrestlers in the top division compete in 15 matches and face demotion if they do not win at least eight of them. The sumo community is close-knit, the wrestlers at the top levels tend to know each other well; the authors looked at the final match, considered the case of a wrestler with seven wins, seven losses, one fight to go, fighting against an 8-6 wrestler. Statistically, the 7-7 wrestler should have a below chance, since the 8-6 wrestler is better. However, the 7-7 wrestler wins around 80% of the time. Levitt uses this statistic and other data gleaned from sumo wrestling matches, along with the effect that allegations of corruption have on match results, to conclude that those who have 8 wins collude with those who are 7-7 and let them win, since they have secured their position for the following tournament. Despite condemnation of the claims by the Japan Sumo Association following the book's publication in 2005, the 2011 Grand Tournament in Tokyo was cancelled for the first time since 1946 because of allegations of match fixing.
The authors attempt to demonstrate the power of data mining, as a number of their results emerge from Levitt's analysis of various databases. The authors posit that various incentives encourage teachers to cheat by assisting their students with multiple-choice high-stakes tests; such cheating in the Chicago school system is inferred from detailed analysis of students' answers to multiple choice questions. Levitt asks, "What would the pattern of answers look like if the teacher cheated?", hypothesises that the more difficult questions found at the end of test sections will be answered more than the easy questions at the beginning of test sections. In Chapter 2 of Freakonomics, the authors wrote of their visit to folklorist Stetson Kennedy's Florida home where the topic of Kennedy's investigations of the Ku Klux Klan were discussed. However, in their January 8, 2006, column in The New York Times Magazine and Levitt wrote of questions about Stetson Kennedy's research leading to the conclusion that Kennedy's research was at times embellished for effectiveness.
In the "Revised and Expanded Edition" this embellishment was noted and corrected: "Several months after Freakonomics was first published, it was brought to our attention that this man's portrayal of his crusade, various other Klan matters, was overstated... we felt it was important to set straight the historical record." Freakonomics has been criticized for being a work of sociology or criminology, rather than economics. Israeli economist Ariel Rubinstein criticized the book for making use of dubious statistics and complained that "economists like Levitt... have swaggered off into other fields", saying that the "connection to economics... none" and that the book is an example of "academic imperialism". Arnold Kling has suggested the book is an example of "amateur sociology". Revisiting a question first studied empirically in the 1960s, Donohue and Levitt argue that the legalization of abortion can account for half of the reduction in crime witnessed in the 1990s; this paper has sparked much controversy, to which Levitt has said "The numbers we're talking about, in terms of crime, are trivial when you compare it to the broader debate on abortion.
From a pro-life view of the world: If abortion is murder we have a million murders a year through abortion. And the few thousand homicides that will be prevented according to our analysis are just nothing—they are a pebble in the ocean relative to the tragedy, abortion. So, my own view, when we the study and it hasn't changed is that: our study shouldn't change anybody's opinion about whether abortion should be legal and available or not. It's a study about crime, not abortion."In 2003, Theodore Joyce argued that legalized abortion had little impact on crime, contradicting Donohue and Levitt's results. In 2004, the authors published a response, in which they argued that Joyce's argument was flawed due to omitted-variable bias. In November 2005, Federal Reserve Bank o
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Commercial Appeal
The Commercial Appeal is a daily newspaper of Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area. It is owned by the Gannett Company; the 2016 purchase by Gannett of Journal Media Group gave it control of the two major papers in western and central Tennessee, uniting the Commercial Appeal with Nashville's The Tennessean. The Commercial Appeal is a seven-day morning paper, it is distributed in Greater Memphis, including Shelby and Tipton counties in Tennessee. These are the contiguous counties to the city of Memphis. In 1994, The Commercial Appeal won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning by Michael Ramirez; the paper's name comes from a 19th-century merger between two predecessors, the Memphis Commercial and the Appeal. The Commercial Appeal traces its heritage to the 1839 publication, The Western World & Memphis Banner of the Constitution. Bought by Col. Henry Van Pelt in 1940, it was renamed The Memphis Appeal. During the American Civil War the Appeal was one of the major newspapers serving the Southern cause.
On June 6, 1862, the presses and plates were loaded into a boxcar and published from Grenada, Mississippi. The Appeal journeyed on to Jackson, Meridian, Atlanta, Montgomery and Columbus, where the plates were destroyed on April 16, 1865, temporarily halting publication days before the Confederate surrender; the press was hidden and saved, publication resumed in Memphis, using it, on November 5, 1865. Another early paper, The Avalanche, was incorporated in 1894, publishing as The Appeal-Avalanche until an 1894 merger created The Commercial Appeal; the name is properly The Commercial Appeal and not the Memphis Commercial Appeal as it is called, although the predecessor Appeal was formally the Memphis Daily Appeal. In 1932 the newspaper moved into a disused Ford Motor Company assembly plant at 495 Union Avenue where it stayed until 1977, when a new building was completed adjacent. In 1936 The Commercial Appeal was purchased by the Scripps Howard newspaper chain, and by the Gannett Company. In 2017, Gannett closed the Commercial Appeal's Memphis printing plant, laying off 19 full-time employees, consolidated printing with its newspaper in Jackson, Tennessee.
In April 2018 The Commercial Appeal sold its longtime offices and plant at 495 Union St. in Memphis for $3.8 million, indicating plans to move to another Memphis site. At the time of sale, the property, comprised a 125,000-square-foot office building, a 150,000-square-foot printing and production plant, adjacent real estate. A New York-based real estate company, Twenty Lake Holdings LLC, bought the 6.5 acres with the five-story office building and attached printing/production building. Twenty Lake Holdings, is a division of a hedge fund, accused of a "mercenary strategy" of buying newspapers, slashing jobs, selling the buildings and other assets; the paper in the 1940s had a well known columnist Paul Flowers. The Commercial Appeal has had a mixed record on civil rights. Despite its Confederate background the paper won a Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for its coverage and editorial opposition to the resurgent Ku Klux Klan. From 1916 to 1968, the paper published; the cartoon featured a black man, that many African Americans came to regard as a racist caricature.
In 1917, the paper published the scheduled place for the upcoming Lynching of Ell Persons. During the Civil Rights Movement, the paper avoided coverage, it did take a stance against pro-segregation rioters during the Ole Miss riot of 1962. However, its owner, Scripps-Howard, exerted a conservative and anti-union influence; the paper opposed the Memphis sanitation strike, portraying both labor organizers and Martin L. King, Jr. as outside meddlers. During the late 1960s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation leaked "information of a derogatory nature regarding the Invaders and other black nationalist militants," some of which may have been fabricated by the FBI itself, to a Commercial Appeal reporter who used that information to write articles critical of the Invaders; this manipulation of the Commercial Appeal was part of the FBI's counterintelligence program against black nationalists in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In the fall of 2007, the Appeal touched off a controversial policy that would have linked specific stories and specific advertisers.
The proposal was greeted by outrage among media analysts, so the authors of the so-called'monetization memo'—the Appeal's editor and its sales manager—quietly withdrew the effort. At the end of 2008, The Commercial Appeal posted a controversial database listing Tennessee residents with permits to carry handguns; the database had not been posted online. After a permit-to-carry holder shot and killed a man in Memphis for parking too close to his SUV and vandalizing it, the gun database came to the attention of pro-gun groups, including the NRA and the Tennessee Firearms Association. Legislators who supported gun groups drafted a bill to close the permit-to-carry database; the Tennessee Coalition for Open Government lobbied to keep the database public and the bill to close the database did not pass in the 2009 legislative session. In a February 15, 2009 editorial, the newspaper defended publication of the handgun permit list and suggested it could protect permit holders by steering criminals away from armed households.