Romford (UK Parliament constituency)
Romford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2001 by Andrew Rosindell, a Conservative. It was created in 1885. 1885-1918: The Liberty of Havering-atte-Bower, part of the Sessional Division of Becontree. 1918-1945: The Urban Districts of Barking and Romford, the Rural District of Romford. 1945-1950: The Municipal Borough of Romford. 1950-1955: The Municipal Borough of Romford, the Urban District of Brentwood. 1955-1974: The Municipal Borough of Romford. 1974-1983: The London Borough of Havering wards of Bedfords, Collier Row, Gidea Park, Heath Park and Oldchurch. 1983-1997: The London Borough of Havering wards of Brooklands, Chase Cross, Collier Row, Gidea Park, Heath Park, Oldchurch, Rise Park, St Edward's. 1997-2010: The London Borough of Havering wards of Ardleigh Green, Chase Cross, Collier Row, Gidea Park, Heath Park, Oldchurch, Rise Park, St Edward's. 2010–present: The London Borough of Havering wards of Brooklands, Havering Park, Mawneys, Romford Town, Squirrel's Heath.
Changes at the 2010 boundary reviewParliament accepted the Boundary Commission's Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, which altered this constituency for the 2010 general election: Hylands ward and part of Romford Town ward was transferred into the area from the former constituency of Hornchurch, the shared part of Emerson Park was transferred from Romford to help form the new Hornchurch and Upminster constituency. The constituency covers Romford, Gidea Park and Collier Row in the London Borough of Havering, east London. Although the constituency includes the middle-income Romford Garden Suburb area, ex-council housing forms a substantial part of the constituency bought under the Right to Buy and the borough has a high level of households with vehicle ownership; this seat was created in the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. Although Romford has been marginal in terms of majorities obtained through much of the 20th century, its boundaries have changed, it has been a Conservative seat in recent years.
The 2015 result made the seat the 157th safest of the Conservative Party's 331 seats by percentage of majority. Caused by Wigram's resignationCaused by Theobald's death List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London Notes References Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "R" Politics Resources Electoral Calculus
1935 United Kingdom general election
The 1935 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 14 November 1935 and resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party. The greatest number of members, as before, were Conservatives, while the National Liberal vote held steady; the National Labour vote held steady, but the resurgence in the main Labour vote caused over a third of their MPs, including party leader Ramsay MacDonald, to lose their seats. Labour, under what was regarded internally as the caretaker leadership of Clement Attlee following the resignation of George Lansbury over a month before the election, made large gains over their poor showing at the 1931 general election, registered their highest-ever share of the vote up until this point; the party made a net gain of more than one-hundred seats, thus reversing much of the ground that it had lost in 1931. The Liberals continued their slow political collapse and lost further ground, with their leader, Sir Herbert Samuel, losing his own seat.
The Independent Labour Party stood separately from Labour for the first time since 1895, having stood candidates unendorsed by Labour at the 1931 general election and having disaffiliated from Labour in 1932. The Scottish National Party contested their first general election, the Communist Party gained the West Fife seat, their first in ten years; the major election issues were the continuing unemployment problems and the role of the League of Nations as regarding the Empire of Japan. No general elections were held during the Second World War; as a result, this Parliament would see two leadership changes. Neville Chamberlain took over from Baldwin as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party in 1937. Chamberlain in turn resigned in 1940, when the office of Prime Minister passed to Winston Churchill, who linked the three main parties in the House of Commons in an all-party unity government for the duration of the war. All comparisons are with the 1931 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party.
Such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1935; such circumstances are marked with a †. These are available on the Political Science Resources Elections Database, a link to, given below. MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1935 Craig, F. W. S. British Electoral Facts: 1832–1987, Dartmouth: Gower, ISBN 0900178302 Fry, Geoffrey K. "A Reconsideration of the British General Election of 1935 and the Electoral Revolution of 1945", History, 76: 43–55 Stannage, Baldwin Thwarts the Opposition: The British General Election of 1935 1935 Conservative manifesto 1935 Labour manifesto 1935 Liberal manifesto
1983 United Kingdom general election
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983. It gave the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of the Labour Party in 1945. Thatcher's first four years as Prime Minister had not been an easy time. Unemployment increased during the first three years of her premiership and the economy went through a recession. However, the British victory in the Falklands War led to a recovery of her personal popularity. By the time Thatcher called the election in May 1983, the Conservatives were most people's firm favourites to win the general election; the Labour Party had been led by Michael Foot since the resignation of former Prime Minister James Callaghan in 1980. They had fared well in opinion polls and local elections during this time, but issues developed which would lead directly to their defeat. Labour adopted a platform, considered more left-wing than usual. Several moderate Labour MPs had defected from the party to form the Social Democratic Party.
The opposition vote split evenly between the Alliance and Labour. With its worst electoral performance since 1918, the Labour vote fell by over 3 million votes from 1979 and this accounted for both a national swing of 4% towards the Conservatives and their larger parliamentary majority of 144 seats though the Conservatives' total vote fell by 700,000; this was the last general election where a governing party increased its number of seats until 2015. The Alliance came within 700,000 votes of out-polling Labour. By gaining 25% of the popular vote, the Alliance won the largest such percentage for any third party since the 1923 general election. Despite this, they won only 23 seats, whereas Labour won 209; the Liberals argued that a proportional electoral system would have given them a more representative number of MPs. Changing the electoral system had been a long-running Liberal Party campaign plank and would be adopted by the Liberal Democrats; the election night was broadcast live on the BBC, was presented by David Dimbleby, Sir Robin Day and Peter Snow.
It was broadcast on ITV, presented by Alastair Burnet, Peter Sissons and Martyn Lewis. Three future Leaders of the Labour Party were first elected as Members of Parliament at this election—two of them would hold the office of Prime Minister, whilst Corbyn became Labour leader in 2015. Former Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, Shirley Williams, Bill Rodgers, Joan Lestor and Tony Benn left Parliament as a result of this election, although Benn would return in a by-election the following year, Lestor at the following general election. Michael Foot was elected leader of the Labour Party in 1980; the election of Foot signalled that the core of the party was swinging to the left and the move exacerbated divisions within the party. In 1981 a group of senior figures including Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left Labour to found the Social Democratic Party; the SDP agreed to a pact with the Liberals for the 1983 election and stood as "The Alliance". The campaign displayed the huge divisions between the two major parties.
Thatcher had been unpopular during her first two years in office until the swift and decisive victory in the Falklands War, coupled with an improving economy raised her standings in the polls. The Conservatives' key issues included economic growth and defence. Labour's campaign manifesto involved leaving the European Economic Community, abolishing the House of Lords, abandoning the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent by cancelling Trident and removing cruise missiles—a programme dubbed by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman "the longest suicide note in history". Pro-Labour political journalist Michael White, writing in The Guardian, commented: "There was something magnificently brave about Michael Foot's campaign but it was like the Battle of the Somme." Following boundary changes in 1983, the BBC and ITN co-produced a calculation of how the 1979 general election would have gone if fought on the new 1983 boundaries. The following table shows the effects of the boundary changes on the House of Commons: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited Buckingham Palace on the afternoon of 9 May and asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament on 13 May, announcing that the election would be held on 9 June.
The key dates were as follows: The election saw a landslide victory for the Conservatives, achieving their best results since 1935. Although there was a slight drop in their share of the vote, they made significant gains at the expense of Labour; the night was a disaster for the Labour Party. The massive increase of support for the Alliance at the expense of Labour meant that, in many seats, the collapse in the Labour vote allowed the Conservatives to gain. Despite winning over 25% of the national vote, the Alliance got fewer than 4% of seats, 186 fewer than Labour; the most significant Labour loss of the night was Tony Benn, defeated in the revived Bristol East seat. SDP President Shirley Williams a prominent leader in the Social Democratic Party, lost her Crosby seat which she had won in a by-election in 1981. Bill Rodgers, another leading figure in the Alliance failed to win his old seat that he held as a Labour MP. In Scotland, both Labour a
John Lockwood (British politician)
Lieutenant-Colonel John Cutts Lockwood was a Conservative Party politician in England. At the 1931 general election, he was elected as Member of Parliament for Hackney Central, he was defeated at the 1935 general election, unsuccessfully contested the Bexley constituency at the 1945 general election. He was returned to the House of Commons at the 1950 general election as MP for Romford, held the seat until he stood down at the 1955 general election. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources: UK General Elections since 1832 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Lockwood
Dagenham (UK Parliament constituency)
Dagenham was a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament that elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. It was replaced at the 2010 general election by Dagenham and Rainham. 1945-1974: The Municipal Borough of Dagenham. 1974-1983: The London Borough of Barking wards of Chadwell Heath, Fanshawe, River and Village. 1983-2010: The London Borough of Barking and Dagenham wards of Alibon, Chadwell Heath, Fanshawe, Marks Gate, Triptons and Village. Following their review of parliamentary representation in North London, the Boundary Commission for England created a new constituency of Dagenham and Rainham. History of BoundariesBefore 1945 this Dagenham and surrounds area was part of the Romford constituency. Political HistoryThe MP for the predecessor seat since 1935, Labour's John Parker, stood again on each occasion in this smaller successor area, representing it until 1983. Parker was the last serving MP to have been elected before the Second World War, with 48 years in Parliament, remains the longest-serving Labour MP in history.
Dagenham was held by Labour its inception and was without exception rated by election predictions as a safe seat. Dagenham hosts an at times shrinking skilled manual industry such as the Ford Motor Company works, which downscaled production in 2001, leading to replacement distribution and warehousing businesses as well as local regeneration under the Thames Gateway project from 2005 however higher than national unemployment including following the seat's abolition. See the main successor seat and Rainham for statistics; the largest-polling opposition candidate was Conservative since 1979, with the Liberal Party a greater or equal opponent in elections before that, vying for second place with that party. Unusually, the far-right British National Party was active in this area periodically and its support led to some retained deposits by polling more than 5% of the vote on several occasions, their candidate received nearly 10% of the vote in the 2005 general election and in the 2006 local elections returned 12 councillors to Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council.
The new constituency of Dagenham and Rainham included wards which had not traditionally supported the BNP or Labour, published leaks of BNP databases that year showed that its membership in the area shown was diminishing. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Sir James Blindell was an English Liberal Party politician in the United Kingdom, who served as the Member of Parliament for Holland with Boston from 1929 until his death. Born in Hitchin, Blindell was first elected as the constituency's MP at a by-election in March 1929, caused by the death of the Conservative MP Arthur Dean. At the time he was managing director of a boot manufacturing business. Blindell overturned a Conservative majority of nearly 5,000 to win with a majority of 3,706, his victory was the last Liberal by-election gain until Torrington in 1958. Blindell was re-elected as a Liberal at the 1929 general election, but in 1931 he was one of the Liberal MPs who broke with their party to support Ramsay MacDonald's National Government forming the National Liberal Party, he was re-elected as a National Liberal at the 1931 general election and at the 1935 general election. In both elections, the Conservatives did not field a candidate against him, he was returned with large majorities.
Blindell was knighted in 1936. He was killed in a car accident in 1937 near Spilsby, Lincolnshire; the car overturned. Sir James died within five minutes of massive head injuries. Lady Blindell survived the accident with minor injuries. At the consequent Holland with Boston by-election, 1937, Herbert Butcher held the seat for the National Liberals. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir James Blindell