Governor of Illinois
The Governor of Illinois is the chief executive of the State of Illinois, the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. It is votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state; the governor is responsible for enacting laws passed by the Illinois General Assembly. Illinois is one of 14 states; the governor is commander-in-chief of the state's land and sea forces, when they are in state service. The current governor is Democrat J. B. Pritzker, who took office on January 14, 2019; the term of office of Governor of Illinois is four years, there is no limit on the number of terms a governor may serve. Inauguration takes place on the second Monday in January following a gubernatorial election. A single term ends four years later. A governor is required to be: at least twenty-five years old a United States citizen a resident of Illinois for three years prior to election If the incumbent governor is no longer able or permitted to fulfill the duties of the office of governor, the line of succession is as follows: The governor is allowed the occupancy of the Illinois Governor's Mansion in Springfield, the state capital.
Its first occupant was Governor Joel Aldrich Matteson, who took residence at the mansion in 1855. It is one of three oldest governor's residences in continuous use in the United States; the governor is given the use of an official residence on the state fair grounds located in Springfield. Governors have traditionally used this residence part of the year. However, some governors, such as Rod Blagojevich, have chosen to not use the governor's homes as their primary residence, instead commuting either by car or plane to Springfield from their home cities. Many Chicago-based governors have done much of their business out of the governor's office in Chicago's James R. Thompson Center, an office building owned by the state named for former governor James R. Thompson Illinois' longest-serving governor. Six Illinois governors have been charged with crimes after their governorships. Len Small, governor from 1921 to 1929, was indicted in office for corruption, he was acquitted. Among his defense lawyers was a former governor, Joseph W. Fifer, who asserted in pre-trial hearings, that the governorship has the divine right of kings.
William G. Stratton, governor from 1953 to 1961, was acquitted of tax evasion in 1965. Otto Kerner, Jr. governor from 1961 to 1968. He was prosecuted by future Illinois governor Jim Thompson. Daniel Walker, governor from 1973 to 1977, was involved in the savings and loan scandals and convicted of federal crimes related to fraudulent loans to himself from his own First American Savings & Loan Association of Oak Brook, he was sentenced to seven years in prison with five years of probation following his release. George Ryan, governor from 1999 to 2003, was convicted in 2006 of corruption related to his time as Illinois Secretary of State in the 1990s, when commercial driver's licenses were issued to unqualified truckers in exchange for bribes, one of the truckers was involved in a crash that killed six children. Former governor Jim Thompson, whom Ryan had served under as Lieutenant Governor of Illinois in the 1980s, was manager of the law firm that defended Ryan. Ryan was released in 2013. Rod Blagojevich, governor from 2003 to 2009, Ryan's successor, was impeached and removed from office by the Illinois General Assembly in a unanimous vote in January 2009 after being tied to multiple "pay to play" schemes, including attempting to sell the former Senate seat of then-President-elect Barack Obama.
In August 2010, he was convicted of lying to the FBI in connection with the investigation, but the jury deadlocked on 23 other charges. Blagojevich was retried on 20 counts from his 2010 trial and on June 27, 2011, Blagojevich was convicted on 17 counts of fraud, acquitted on one count and the jury was hung on two. On December 7, 2011, Blagojevich was sentenced to 14 years in prison. List of Governors of Illinois 1.α Current governor of Illinois Bruce Rauner, independently wealthy, has stated that he would only accept $1 in salary. In 2015, the Council of State Governments reported that Rauner had returned all but $1 of his salary to the State of Illinois. However, the pay rate for the title of governor in Illinois remains at $177,412. Illinois Office of the Governor Illinois Executive Mansion Burial places of Illinois Governors Article V in the Illinois Constitution list of government help in Illinois
El Paso, Texas
El Paso is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2017 population estimate for the city from the U. S. Census was 683,577, its metropolitan statistical area covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, has a population of 844,818. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with 1.4 million people. Las Cruces, in the neighboring U. S. state of New Mexico, has a population of 215,579. On the U. S. side, El Paso metropolitan area forms part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces CSA, with a population of 1,060,397. Bi-nationally, these three cities form a combined international metropolitan area sometimes referred to as the Paso del Norte or the Borderplex; the region of 2.5 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The city is home to three publicly traded companies, former Western Refining, now Andeavor. as well as home to the Medical Center of the Americas, the only medical research and care provider complex in West Texas and Southern New Mexico, the University of Texas at El Paso, the city's primary university.
The city hosts the annual Sun Bowl college football post-season game, the second oldest bowl game in the country. El Paso has a strong military presence. William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Biggs Army Airfield, Fort Bliss call the city home. Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, United States Border Patrol El Paso Sector, the U. S. Border Patrol Special Operations Group. In 2010 and 2018, El Paso received an All-America City Award. El Paso ranked in the top three safest large cities in the United States between 1997 and 2014, including holding the title of safest city between 2011 and 2014; the El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks. The evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation.
The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. When the Spanish arrived, the Manso and Jumano tribes populated the area; these were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, genízaros of various ethnic groups. The Mescalero Apache were present. Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was born in 1550 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas and was the first New Spain explorer known to have observed the Rio Grande near El Paso, in 1598, celebrating a Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598. However, the four survivors of the Narváez expedition, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, his enslaved Moor Estevanico, are thought to have passed through the area in the mid-1530s. El Paso del Norte was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte, in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco. In 1680, the small village of El Paso became the temporary base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, until 1692 when Santa Fe was reconquered and once again became the capital.
The Texas Revolution was not felt in the region, as the American population was small. However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico and numerous attempts were made by Texas to bolster these claims. However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in 1846. During this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region; as early as the mid-1840s, alongside long extant Hispanic settlements such as the Rancho de Juan María Ponce de León, Anglo settlers such as Simeon Hart and Hugh Stephenson had established thriving communities of American settlers owing allegiance to Texas. Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844: the Republic of Texas, which claimed the area, wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made the settlements on the north bank of the river part of the US, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico as part of the Republic of Mexico until its cession to the U. S. in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the border was to run north of El Paso De Norte around the Ciudad Juárez Cathedral which became part of the state of Chihuahua. El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat; the United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus ignoring history and topography. A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" was established in 1849 on Coons' Rancho beside the settlement of Franklin, which became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas.
Galesburg is a city in Knox County, United States. The city is 45 miles northwest of Peoria; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 32,195. It is the county seat of Knox County and the principal city of the Galesburg Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Knox and Warren counties. Galesburg is home to Knox College, a private four-year liberal arts college, Carl Sandburg College, a two-year community college. A 496-acre section of the city is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Galesburg Historic District. Galesburg was founded by George Washington Gale, a Presbyterian minister from New York state who dreamed of establishing a manual labor college. A committee from New York purchased 17 acres in Knox County in 1835, the first 25 settlers arrived in 1836, they built temporary cabins in Log City near current Lake Storey, just north of Galesburg, having decided that no log cabins were to be built inside the town limits. Galesburg was home to the first anti-slavery society in Illinois, founded in 1837, was a stop on the Underground Railroad.
The city was the site of the fifth Lincoln–Douglas debate, on a temporary speaker's platform attached to Knox College's "Old Main" building on October 7, 1858. Knox College continues to use Old Main to this day. An Underground Railroad Museum and Lincoln-Douglas Debate Museum were built in Knox College's Alumni Hall after it had finished renovations. Galesburg was the home of Mary Ann "Mother" Bickerdyke, who provided hospital care for Union soldiers during the Civil War. After the war, Galesburg was the birthplace of poet and historian Carl Sandburg and artist Dorothea Tanning, former Major League Baseball star Jim Sundberg. Sandburg's boyhood home is now operated by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency as the Carl Sandburg State Historic Site; the site contains the cottage he was born in, a modern museum, the rock under which he and his wife Lilian are buried, a performance venue. Throughout much of its history, Galesburg has been inextricably tied to the railroad industry. Local businessmen were major backers of the first railroad to connect Illinois' two biggest cities—Chicago and Quincy—as well as a third leg terminating across the Mississippi River from Burlington, Iowa connecting to it via bridge and thence onward to the Western frontier.
The Chicago and Quincy Railroad sited major rail sorting yards here, including the first to use hump sorting. The CB&Q built a major depot on South Seminary Street, controversially torn down and replaced by a much smaller station in 1983; the yard is still used by the BNSF Railway. In the late 19th century, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway connected its service through to Chicago, it laid track through Galesburg and built its own railroad depot, it was not until 1996 that Amtrak closed the old Santa Fe depot and consolidated all passenger operations at the site of the former Burlington Northern depot. A series of mergers united both lines under the ownership of BNSF Railway, carrying an average of seven trains per hour between them; as of the closing of the Maytag plant in fall of 2004, BNSF is once again the largest private employer in Galesburg. In addition, Galesburg was home to the pioneering brass era automobile company Western, which produced the Gale, named for the town. Lombard College was located in Galesburg until 1930, is now the site of Lombard Middle School.
The Carr Mansion at 560 North Prairie Street in Galesburg was the site of a presidential cabinet meeting held in 1899 by U. S. President William McKinley and U. S. Secretary of State John Hay. Galesburg is located in western Knox County at 40°57′8″N 90°22′7″W. Interstate 74 runs through the east side of the city, leading southeast 47 miles to Peoria and north 36 miles to Interstate 80 near the Quad Cities area. According to the 2010 census, Galesburg has a total area of 17.928 square miles, of which 17.75 square miles are land and 0.178 square miles are water. Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service from Chicago on four trains daily, it operates the California Zephyr, Carl Sandburg, Illinois Zephyr, Southwest Chief daily from Chicago Union Station to Galesburg station and points west. The Southwest Chief and the state-supported Carl Sandburg and Illinois Zephyr take passengers to Chicago or points west, but the Zephyr only discharges passengers on its eastbound run. Galesburg Transit provides bus service in the city.
There are four routes: Gold Express Loop, Green Central Loop, Red West Loop, Blue East Loop. BNSF operates a large hump yard 1.9 miles south of town. Galesburg is served by Interstate 74, whose route runs north to Moline in the Quad Cities region, to the southeast to Peoria and beyond; the Chicago–Kansas City Expressway known as Illinois Route 110, runs through Galesburg. To the southwest it passes through Macomb, the home of Western Illinois University, towards Quincy, before crossing into Missouri. Galesburg served is served by U. S. Routes 34 and 150. US 34 connects Galesburg with Burlington and Chicago, it is a freeway through its entire run in Galesburg, keeping its freeway status going west until Monmouth. It connects to Galesburg through three interchanges at West Main Street, North Henderson Street, North Seminary Street, along with an additional interchange at Interstate 74. US 150 runs through the heart of Galesburg, it enters the city as Grand Avenue from the southeast, runs through downtown as Main Street, exits the city as North Henderson Street.
Illinois General Assembly
The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the U. S. comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate. The General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the State Senate has 59 members while the House has 118 members, all elected from single-member districts. A Senate district is formed by combining two adjacent House districts; the current General Assembly is Illinois's 100th. The General Assembly meets in the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois, its session laws are adopted by majority vote in both houses, upon gaining the assent of the Governor of Illinois. They are published in the official Laws of Illinois; the Illinois General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818. The state did not have organized political parties, but the Democratic and Whig parties began to form in the 1830s. Future U. S. President Abraham Lincoln campaigned as a member of the Whig Party to serve in the General Assembly in 1834.
He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, supporting expanded suffrage and economic development. The Illinois Republican Party was organized at a conference held in Major's Hall in Bloomington, Illinois on May 29, 1856, its founding members came from the former Whig Party in Illinois after its members joined with several powerful local political factions including, the Independent Democrat movement of Chicago that helped elect James Hutchinson Woodworth as mayor in 1848. During the election of 1860 in which Lincoln was elected president, Illinois elected a Republican governor and legislature, but the trials of war helped return the state legislature to the Democrats in 1861; the Democratic-led legislature investigated the state's war expenditures and the treatment of Illinois troops, but with little political gain. They worked to frame a new state constitution that gave the southern portion of the state increased representation and included provisions to discourage banking and the circulation of paper currency.
Voters rejected each of the constitution's provisions, except the bans on black settlement and office holding. The Democratic Party came to represent skepticism in the war effort, until Illinois' Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas changed his stance and pledged his full support to Lincoln; the Democratic Party swept the 1862 election. They passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention in the Illinois House of Representatives, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, becoming the first woman to serve in the Illinois General Assembly. From 1870 to 1980, the state was divided into 59 legislative districts, each of which elected one senator and three representatives.
The representatives were elected by cumulative voting, in which a voter had three votes that could be distributed to either one, two, or three candidates. This system was abolished with the Cutback Amendment in 1980. Since the House has been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half; each senator is "associated" with two representatives. Barack Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, he served in the Senate until 2004. In 2002, a Democrat won a gubernatorial election for the first time since 1972. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits. Members of the Illinois Senate serve one two-year term each decade; this ensures that Senate elections reflect changes made when the General Assembly is redistricted following each United States Census. To prevent complete turnovers in membership, not all Senators are elected simultaneously; the term cycles for the Senate are staggered, with the placement of the two-year term varying from one district to another.
Each district's terms are defined as 2-4-4, 4-2-4, or 4-4-2. Like House members, Senators are elected without term limits; the officers of the General Assembly are elected at the beginning of each number year. Representatives of the House elect from its membership a Speaker and Speaker pro tempore, drawn from the majority party in the chamber; the Illinois Secretary of State convenes and supervises the opening House session and leadership vote. State senators elect from the chamber a President of the Senate and under the supervision of the governor. Since the adoption of the current Illinois Constitution in 1970, the Lieutenant Governor of Illinois does not serve in any legislative capacity as Senate President, has had its office's powers transferred to other capacities; the Illinois Auditor General is a legislative officer appointed by the General Assembly that reviews all state spending for legality. The General Assembly's first official working day is the second Monday of January each year, with the Secretary of State convening the House, the governor convening the Senate.
In order to serve as a member in either chamber of the General Assembly, a person must be a U. S. citizen, at least 21 years of age, for the two years preceding his election or appointment a resident of the district which they represent. In the general election following a redistricting, a candidate for any chamber of the General Assembly may be elected from any district which contains a part of the district in which he or she resided at the time of the redistrictin
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Rock Island, Illinois
Rock Island is a city in and the county seat of Rock Island County, United States. The original Rock Island, from which the city name is derived, is the largest island on the Mississippi River, it is now called Arsenal Island. The population was 39,018 at the 2010 census. Located on the Mississippi River, it is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring Moline, East Moline, the Iowa cities of Davenport and Bettendorf; the Quad Cities has a population of about 380,000. The city is home to Rock Island Arsenal, the largest government-owned weapons manufacturing arsenal in the US, which employs 6,000 people. There is a wide variety of housing available in Rock Island, including historic homes, new downtown condos, new construction in the heart of the city, wooded retreats; the Rock Island-Milan School District, Rockridge School District along with private schools, serve the city. The District has art galleries and theaters and coffee shops, restaurants of all flavors. Golf courses, parks, a casino, botanical center, historic tours, bike paths, festivals offer entertainment opportunities.
In 2015 Rock Island was ranked the 32nd "Best Small City" in the country based on economic health and quality of life. Rock Island made the list of the nation's "25 Most Affordable Housing Markets," a ranking released by 24/7 Wall Street. Various Native American tribes occupied this area for thousands of years before settlement. By the early nineteenth century, it was occupied chiefly by the historic Sauk tribe, their major village of Saukenuk was located along the Rock River. After the War of 1812, the United States built Fort Armstrong on the island for defensive reasons in 1816. Saukenuk was the birthplace of the Sauk war chief Black Hawk, for whom the Black Hawk War of 1831–1832 was named. Fort Armstrong served as the US military's headquarters for the war. Today the Black Hawk State Historic Site, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, includes much of the site of the original village of Saukenuk; the park includes a museum and a number of hiking trails along the Rock River and in surrounding woods.
The original City plat was filed on July 10, 1835, was named Stephenson. It was renamed Rock Island in 1841; this area has been a fortuitous place first for settlement and for steamboat traffic and railroads. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad was founded here in 1851, known informally as the Rock Island Line; as part of nineteenth-century development, two first-class hotels: the Harper House and the Rock Island House were built in town. Rock Island Arsenal manufactured military equipment and ordnance for the U. S. Army since the 1880s; the railroad's 1980 abandonment ranks as the longest and most unnecessarily complicated in U. S. railroad history. Due to its geography, Rock Island has a rich history of bridge building, including the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi, an unusual two-track railroad bridge, the largest roller dam in the world; the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River was built between Arsenal Island and Davenport in 1856. Many steamboat pilots felt that the bridge had been intentionally positioned to make it hard for them to navigate, this conflict reflected a larger rivalry: St. Louis and its steamboats against Chicago and its railroads.
Two weeks after the bridge opened, the steamboat Effie Afton collided with the bridge, caught fire, damaged the bridge. The owner of the Effie Afton sued the bridge company for damages, Abraham Lincoln was one of the lawyers who defended the railroad; this test case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of the railroad in 1872. Although the original bridge is long gone, a monument exists on Arsenal Island marking the Illinois side. On the Iowa side, the bridge was located near where 4th and Federal streets intersect with River Drive. Lock and Dam No. 15 and the Government Bridge are located just southwest of the site of the first bridge. The Government Bridge, completed in 1896, is notable for having two sets of railroad tracks above the car lanes. There are only two bridges in the world with this feature. Three other bridges span the river between Rock Davenport; the Crescent Rail Bridge is a railroad-only bridge, completed in 1899. The Centennial Bridge was completed in 1940 for autos only.
The newest bridge is the Interstate 280 bridge, completed in 1973. Lock and Dam No. 15, completed in 1934 as a federal Works Progress Administration project during the Great Depression, is the largest roller dam in the world. The dam is designed for navigation, not flood control. During flood season, the rollers are raised. On the south side of the city, overlooked by the Black Hawk State Historic Site, are auto and railroad crossings of the Rock River to Milan, Illinois; this set of bridges crosses the historic Hennepin Canal and Sears Dam In 2007 a new bridge was completed between 3rd Street Moline/southeast Rock Island and Milan. It expedites the trip to Milan, the airport, points south on U. S. Route 67. Rock Island is located at 41°29′21″N 90°34′23″W. According to the 2010 census, Rock Island has a total area of 17.872 square miles, of which 16.85 square miles is land and 1.022 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,684 people, 16,148 households, 9,543 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,492.0 people per square mile
Samuel Alexander Mendes is an English stage and film director best known for directing the drama film American Beauty, which earned him the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Director, the crime film Road to Perdition, the James Bond films Skyfall and Spectre. He is known for dark re-inventions of the stage musicals Cabaret, Oliver!, Gypsy. He directed an original West End stage musical for the first time with Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. In 2000 Mendes was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for "services to drama" and in the same year was awarded the Shakespeare Prize by the Alfred Toepfer Foundation in Hamburg, Germany. In 2005, he received a lifetime achievement award from the Directors Guild of Great Britain. In 2008 The Daily Telegraph ranked him number 15 in their list of the "100 most powerful people in British culture". Mendes was born in Berkshire, his father, from Trinidad, is a Roman Catholic of Portuguese Creole descent, his mother is an English Jew.
His grandfather was the Trinidadian writer Alfred Hubert Mendes. Mendes's parents divorced, he grew up in Oxfordshire and attended Magdalen College School and Peterhouse, where he graduated with a first in English. While at Cambridge, he was a member of the Marlowe Society and directed several plays, including a production of Cyrano de Bergerac with Tom Hollander among the cast members, he was a "brilliant" schoolboy cricketer, according to Wisden and played for Magdalen College School in 1983 and 1984. He played cricket for Cambridge University. Aged 24 Mendes directed a production of Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard in the West End that starred Judi Dench. Soon he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company, where his productions, many of them featuring Simon Russell Beale, included Troilus and Cressida, Richard III and The Tempest, he worked at the Chichester Festival Theatre in 1988 as assistant director on a number of productions, including Major Barbara, directing in "The Tent", the second venue. He directed at the Royal National Theatre, helming Edward Bond's The Sea, Jim Cartwright's The Rise and Fall of Little Voice, Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party, Othello with Simon Russell Beale as Iago.
In 1990 Mendes was appointed artistic director of the Donmar Warehouse, a studio space in London's Covent Garden which he helped transform into one of the city's more notable theatre venues. He spent his first two years overseeing the redesign of the theatre, his opening production was Stephen Sondheim's Assassins in 1992. Several successful productions followed. In 1993 Mendes staged an acclaimed revival of John Kander and Fred Ebb's Cabaret starring Jane Horrocks as Sally Bowles, Alan Cumming as Emcee, Adam Godley as Cliff Bradshaw and Sara Kestelman as Frau Schneider; the production was approached with a fresh concept, differing from both the original 1966 production directed by Harold Prince and the famed film version, directed by Bob Fosse. This production opened at the Donmar and received four Olivier Award nominations including Best Musical Revival, before transferring promptly to Broadway where it played for several years at the Kit Kat Club; the Broadway cast included Cumming once again as Emcee, with Natasha Richardson as Sally, Mary Louise Wilson as Frau Schneider and John Benjamin Hickey as Cliff.
Cumming and Richardson won Tony Awards for their performances. 1994 saw Mendes stage a new production of Lionel Bart's Oliver!, produced by Cameron Mackintosh. Mendes, a longtime fan of the work, worked in close collaboration with Bart and other production team members, William David Brohn, Martin Koch and Anthony Ward, to create a fresh staging of the well-known classic. Bart added new musical material and Mendes updated the book while the orchestrations were radically rewritten to suit the show's cinematic feel; the cast included Jonathan Pryce as Fagin, Sally Dexter as Nancy, Miles Anderson as Bill Sikes. Mendes and Dexter received Olivier Award nominations for their work on Oliver!. He has directed productions of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie, Stephen Sondheim's Company, Alan Bennett's Habeas Corpus and his farewell duo of Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and Twelfth Night, which transferred to the Brooklyn Academy of Music. In 2003 Mendes directed a revival of the musical Gypsy, he planned to stage this production in London's West End with an eventual Broadway transfer, but when negotiations fell through, he brought it to New York.
The cast included Tammy Blanchard as Louise and John Dossett as Herbie. Mendes directed the 2014 Olivier Award-nominated stage adaptation of Roald Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Mendes directed Jez Butterworth's The Ferryman for the Royal Court Theatre in London in 2017, for which he won an Olivier Award for best director. In 1999 Mendes made his film directorial debut with American Beauty; the film grossed $356.3 million worldwide. The film won the BAFTA Award and the Academy Award for Best Picture. Mendes won the Golden Globe Award, Directors Guild of America Award, the Academy Award for Best Director, becoming the sixth director to earn the Academy Award for his feature film debut. Mendes's second film, in 2002, was Road to Perdition; the aggregate review score on Rotten Tomatoes is 81%. The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Supporting Actor, won one for Best Cinematography. In 2003 Mendes established Neal S