A loyalty oath is an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state of which an individual is a member. In the United States, such an oath has indicated that the affiant has not been a member of a particular organization or organizations mentioned in the oath. During the American Civil War, political prisoners and Confederate prisoners of war were released upon taking an "oath of allegiance". Lincoln's Ten percent plan featured an oath to "faithfully support and defend the Constitution of the United States, the union of the States thereunder" as a condition for a Presidential pardon. During Reconstruction, retroactive loyalty oaths were proposed by Radical Republicans, which would have barred former Confederates and Confederate sympathizers from federal, state, or local offices. Beginning in 1862 all U. S. Naval shipyard employees were required to sign a loyalty oath as a condition of employment. Almira V. Brown nee Rudd, first went to work at the Washington Navy Yard in 1864 as a seamstress.
Brown continued to work at the navy yard until her retirement in 1922 Brown’s husband Francis Brown was killed in a tragic explosion at the laboratory in March 1861. The thumbnail image is of Virginia V. Brown's signed 21 March 1864 Loyalty Oath. In support of Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration, 100,000 school children marched to Boston Common and swore a loyalty oath administered by the mayor, "I promise as a good American citizen to do my part for the NRA. I will buy only where the Blue Eagle flies." Loyalty oaths were common during World War II. Another use of loyalty oaths in the United States was during the 1960s; the Red Scare during the 1950s and the Congressional hearings chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy helped to sustain a national mood of concern about communist agents and a fear such agents may injure the U. S. government through espionage or outright violence. On March 21, 1947, concerned with Soviet subversive penetration and infiltration into the United States government by American citizens who held oaths of allegiance to a foreign power during wartime, President Harry S Truman instituted a Loyalty Program by signing Executive Order 9835 known as the "Loyalty Order."
It required loyalty oaths and background investigations on persons deemed suspect of holding party membership in organizations that advocated violent and anti-democratic programs. The Levering Act was a law enacted by the U. S. state of California in 1950. It required state employees to subscribe to a loyalty oath that disavowed radical beliefs, it was aimed in particular at employees of the University of California. In January, 1950, 750 faculty members had approved a resolution to oppose the University's Regents and create a committee to coordinate legal action against the University should an oath be required. Several teachers resigned in protest or lost their positions when they refused to sign the loyalty oath. Among those who left were the psychologist Erik Erikson and the classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein, both of them Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany. In August, 1950, The Regents fired 31 faculty members; those who were terminated sued, by 1952 had been rehired when the University declined to pursue its case against them in court.
One of the fired faculty members, the physics professor David Saxon went on with his career and was appointed President of the entire University of California system in 1975, a job he held until 1983. A loyalty oath has wording similar to that mentioned in the U. S Supreme Court decision of Garner v. Board of Public Works: I further swear that I do not advise, advocate or teach, have not within the period beginning five years prior to the effective date of the ordinance requiring the making of this oath or affirmation, advocated or taught, the overthrow by force, violence or other unlawful means, of the Government of the United States of America or of the State of California and that I am not now and have not, within said period, been or become a member of or affiliated with any group, association, organization or party which advises, advocates or teaches, or has, within said period, advocated or taught, the overthrow by force, violence or other unlawful means of the Government of the United States of America, or of the State of California.
I further swear that I will not, while I am in the service of the City of Los Angeles, advocate or teach, or be or become a member of or affiliated with any group, society, organization or party which advises, advocates or teaches, or has within said period, advocated or taught, the overthrow by force, violence or other unlawful means, of the Government of the United States of America or of the State of California.... In Speiser v. Randall, the U. S. Supreme Court addressed the State of California's loyalty oath, as required by a California law enacted in 1954, as a condition of exemption from property tax. In applying for property tax exemption as a veteran of World War II, ACLU lawyer Lawrence Speiser had refused to sign the loyalty oath; the court ruled that because the state required the claimant to show they are not advocating state overthrow and hence are not criminals within the applicable laws, the loyalty oath requirement to obtain the tax exemption is unconstitutional. The burden of proof for a criminal action rests on the state and not on the individual private citizen.
The oaths were challenged on grounds that they violated the principles of freedom of speech and freedom of association. The United States Supreme Court avoided addressing these problems during the McCarthy Era. During the 1960s, it began striking down such oaths on the basis of undue breadth. October 16, 1961 Tobias Simon and Howard
Patriot (American Revolution)
Patriots were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776. Their decision was based on the political philosophy of republicanism as expressed by spokesmen such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Thomas Paine, they were opposed by the Loyalists. Patriots represented the spectrum of social and ethnic backgrounds, they included lawyers such as John Adams, students such as Alexander Hamilton, planters such as Thomas Jefferson and George Mason, merchants such as Alexander McDougall and John Hancock, farmers such as Daniel Shays and Joseph Plumb Martin. They included slaves and freemen such as Crispus Attucks, the first martyr of the American Revolution; the critics of British rule called themselves "Whigs" after 1768, identifying with members of the British Whig party who favored similar colonial policies. In Britain at the time, the word "patriot" had a negative connotation and was used as a negative epithet for "a factious disturber of the government", according to Samuel Johnson.
Prior to the Revolution, colonists who supported British authority called themselves Tories or royalists, identifying with the political philosophy of traditionalist conservatism dominant in Great Britain. During the Revolution, these persons became known as Loyalists. Afterward, many emigrated north to the remaining British territories in Canada. There they called themselves the United Empire Loyalists. Many Patriots were active before 1775 in groups such as the Sons of Liberty, the most prominent leaders are referred to today by Americans as the Founding Fathers, they represented a cross-section of the population of the Thirteen Colonies and came from many different backgrounds. According to Robert Calhoon, between 40 and 45 percent of the white population in the Thirteen Colonies supported the Patriots' cause, between 15 and 20 percent supported the Loyalists, the remainder were neutral or kept a low profile; the great majority of the Loyalists remained in America, while the minority went to Canada, Florida, or the West Indies.
Historians have explored the motivations that pulled men to the other. Yale historian Leonard Woods Labaree used the published and unpublished writings and letters of leading men on each side, searching for how personality shaped their choice, he finds eight characteristics. Loyalists were older, better established, more to resist innovation than the Patriots. Loyalists felt that the Crown was the legitimate government and resistance to it was morally wrong, while the Patriots felt that morality was on their side because the British government had violated the constitutional rights of Englishmen. Men who were alienated by physical attacks on Royal officials took the Loyalist position, while those who were offended by heavy-handed British rule became Patriots. Merchants in the port cities with long-standing financial attachments to the British Empire were to remain loyal to the system, while few Patriots were so enmeshed in the system; some Loyalists, according to Labaree, were "procrastinators" who believed that independence was bound to come some day, but wanted to "postpone the moment", while the Patriots wanted to "seize the moment".
Loyalists were afraid of anarchy or tyranny that might come from mob rule. Labaree argues that Loyalists were pessimists who lacked the Patriots' confidence that independence lay ahead; the Patriots rejected taxes imposed by legislatures. "No taxation without representation" was their slogan, referring to the lack of representation in the British Parliament. The British countered that there was "virtual representation" in the sense that all members of Parliament represented the interests of all the citizens of the British Empire; some Patriots declared that they were loyal to the king, but they insisted that they should be free to run their own affairs. In fact, they had been running their own affairs since the period of "salutary neglect" before the French and Indian War; some radical Patriots tarred and feathered tax collectors and customs officers, making those positions dangerous. Most of the individuals listed below served the American Revolution in multiple capacities. Thomas Jefferson John Adams John Hancock John Jay John Dickinson Benjamin Franklin Richard Henry Lee Jonathan Shipley William Paca James Madison Alexander Hamilton Samuel Adams Alexander Hamilton William Molineux Timothy Matlack Thomas Paine Paul Revere Patrick Henry Samuel Prescott Molly Pitcher Roger Sherman Philip Mazzei Elkanah Watson James Otis Jr. Nathanael Greene Nathan Hale Francis Marion Andrew Pickens Daniel Morgan James Mitchell Varnum Joseph Bradley Varnum George Washington John Paul Jones Thomas Sumter Francis Vigo Elijah Isaacs Charles Lee Daniel Shays Anthony Wayne Crispus Attucks Peter Salem Jack Sisson James Armistead Lafayette 1st Rhode Island Regiment William Flora Saul Matthews Prince Whipple Salem Poor Ellis, Joseph J..
Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation, Pulitzer Prize Kann, Mark E..
Union Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey
Union Township is a township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 5,908, reflecting a decline of 252 from the 6,160 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,082 from the 5,078 counted in the 1990 Census; the southwest half of the township lies on what is known as the Hunterdon Plateau, the northwest corner consists of the Musconetcong Ridge and the northeast section is part of the lower-lying Newark Basin around Spruce Run Reservoir. Union was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 17, 1853, from portions of Bethlehem Township. Clinton Town was formed on April 5, 1865, within portions of the township, became an independent municipality in 1895; the township was named for Union Furnace, producing iron from 1742 until the 1780s. The name "Union" was chosen over the alternative "Rockhill", a community at the southern end of the township. Union Furnace and its forge produced cannonballs for the Revolutionary War and shoes for horses and oxen, as well as farm implements.
Forests gave way to farm fields. A farm community developed, together with basket tanning industries. New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Union Township as its 21st best place to live in its 2008 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 20.609 square miles, including 18.737 square miles of land and 1.872 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Coles Mills, Hensfoot, Kingtown, Mechlings Corner, Mount Salem, Pattenburg, Perryville and Van Syckel. Pittstown is an unincorporated community, spread across Alexandria Township and Franklin Township; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,908 people, 1,752 households, 1,221.144 families residing in the township. The population density was 315.3 per square mile. There were 1,830 housing units at an average density of 97.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 83.21% White, 9.06% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 4.13% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.61% from other races, 1.79% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.08% of the population. There were 1,752 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.6% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.12. In the township, the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 37.6% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.7 years. For every 100 females there were 77.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 73.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $103,304 and the median family income was $126,157. Males had a median income of $97,548 versus $62,130 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $33,753.
About 0.0% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 6,160 people, 1,666 households, 1,162 families residing in the township; the population density was 324.8 people per square mile. There were 1,725 housing units at an average density of 90.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 81.83% White, 13.36% African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.59% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.59% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.13% of the population. There were 1,666 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.4% were married couples living together, 4.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the township the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 43.4% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 71.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.2 males. The median income for a household in the township was $81,089, the median income for a family was $102,146. Males had a median income of $64,375 versus $41,795 for females; the per capita income for the township was $29,535. About 0.4% of families and 1.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over. Union Township is governed under the Township form of government; the five-member Township Committee is elected directly by the voters at-large in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election in a three-year cycle.
At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects
James Hamilton (Pennsylvania)
James Hamilton, son of the well-known American lawyer Andrew Hamilton, was a prominent lawyer and governmental figure in colonial Philadelphia and Pennsylvania. He served as Deputy Governor of the Province from 1748 to 1754 and again from 1759 to 1763. Hamilton was educated in Philadelphia and England before becoming a practicing lawyer in 1731; when on 28 December 1733 his father resigned as prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, Hamilton was appointed to the office. In May 1734 James's father Andrew Hamilton sold him the town site of Lancaster, Pennsylvania for 5 shillings; that month, on 21 May, the younger Hamilton secured a patent from the Penn family for his grant on the Lancaster land. After the death of his father on 4 August 1741, James Hamilton inherited his 150-acre estate known as Bush Hill north of the city, he assisted his brother-in-law William Allen in the administration of lands purchased by his father to be used for the state house and surrounding public space. Elected to the provincial assembly in 1745, Hamilton was re-elected five times.
He served as mayor of Philadelphia for one year from October 1745. During his tenure as Mayor, Hamilton kept a record of servants and apprentices bound before him, which historians have used to gauge the nature and extent of indentured servitude in Philadelphia -- and Pennsylvania more because Philadelphia was the entry-point for indentured servants coming into the colony from Europe. Hamilton became a member of the provincial council in 1746, he was commissioned by the sons of William Penn as lieutenant-governor, as which he served until 1754 again from 1759 to 1763 briefly in 1771 and 1773. On 13 September 1761, Hamilton and William Allen conveyed Lot no. 1 and the other pieces of property obtained by Andrew Hamilton and Allen to Isaac Norris II and the other trustees in charge of purchasing property for the Philadelphia state house. The conveyance of this land completed the area of the Yard: property that contained the state house and the public spaces surrounding it. During the period that the federal capital was located in Philadelphia, William Hamilton was on an extended stay in England.
He rented Bush Hill to the government for the vice-president to use as his residence. Hamilton was visiting London in 1748 when he received the commission of Deputy Governor for the province from the Penns. Upon his return to Philadelphia, he was faced with some unrest from the Native American population, their territory north of the Blue Mountains was being encroached upon by settlers illegally. Hamilton authorized Richard Peters and Conrad Weiser to assist in removing these squatters after the provision in the Land Purchase of 1749, which authorized their removal by force if necessary. Other issues faced by Hamilton were: Encroachment of the French Military into forts in the land of the Pennsylvania Charter at Presque Isle, Venango, La Boeuf and Du Quesne. Organizing and funding a defense in opposition to the pacifist Quaker element in the Assembly Friction between the Assembly and Proprietors on taxing Proprietary land holdings Assembly discontent over the Proprietors’ refusal to hear appeals from them about the Deputy Governor's decisions Failure to disclose to the Assembly, the Proprietors’ directive concerning the financial interest of pecuniary bills which Hamilton would approve Albany Congress attended by John Penn and Benjamin Franklin, who proposed a colonial union for defense against the French and IndiansHamilton resigned due to his deteriorating relations with the Assembly in the attempt to follow the Proprietors’ instructions.
Hamilton’s second turn as Deputy Governor followed the recall of William Denny. The French and Indian War was coming to its conclusion. However, Pennsylvania was now facing Pontiac’s War. Delaware and Shawnee raided deep into frontier Pennsylvania, killing settlers. An uprising led by a vigilante group that came to be known as the Paxton Boys erupted in the colony. Hamilton was replaced by William Penn's grandson. Hamilton assumed the role of chief executive, when John Penn left Philadelphia to return to England when his father died; the Council was prohibited to approve any act of the Assembly so the role was ceremonial or administrative until October when Richard Penn, Jr. was appointed Deputy Governor of the province. Hamilton was active in founding several institutions in Philadelphia, serving as president of the board of trustees of the College of Philadelphia and as the head of the American Philosophical Society; as he did not have a surviving son, his nephew William Hamilton inherited his estate of Bush Hill.
During the period that the federal capital was located in Philadelphia, During the Yellow fever epidemic of 1793, outbuildings at the Bush Hill estate were adapted for use as a fever hospital for several months. List of colonial governors of Pennsylvania Biography at Temple University Biographical sketch and portrait at the University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Pennsylvania General Assembly
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the legislature of the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The legislature convenes in the State Capitol building in Harrisburg. In colonial times, the legislature was known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly and was unicameral. Since the Constitution of 1776, the legislature has been known as the General Assembly; the General Assembly became a bicameral legislature in 1791. The General Assembly has 253 members, consisting of a Senate with 50 members and a House of Representatives with 203 members, making it the second-largest state legislature in the nation and the largest full-time legislature. Senators are elected for a term of four years. Representatives are elected for a term of two years; the Pennsylvania general elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. A vacant seat must be filled by special election, the date of, set by the presiding officer of the respective house. Senators must be at least 25 years old, Representatives at least 21 years old.
They must be citizens and residents of the state for a minimum of four years and reside in their districts for at least one year. Individuals who have been convicted of felonies, including embezzlement and perjury, are ineligible for election. No one, expelled from the General Assembly may be elected. Legislative districts are drawn every ten years, following the U. S. Census. Districts are drawn by a five-member commission, of which four members are the majority and minority leaders of each house; the fifth member, who chairs the committee, is appointed by the other four and may not be an elected or appointed official. If the leadership can not decide on a fifth member, the State Supreme Court may appoint her. While in office, legislators may not hold civil office. If a member resigns, the Constitution states that he or she may not be appointed to civil office for the duration of the original term for which he or she was elected; the General Assembly is a continuing body within the term. It convenes at 12 o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January each year and meets throughout the year.
Both houses adjourn on November 30 in even-numbered years, when the terms of all members of the House and half the members of the Senate expire. Neither body can adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other; the governor may call a special session. As of 2017, only 35 special sessions have been called in the history of Pennsylvania; the Assembly meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol, completed in 1906. Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, the Assembly must meet in the City of Harrisburg and can move only if given the consent of both chambers. During the mid-19th century, the frustration of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the severe level of corruption in the General Assembly culminated in a constitutional amendment in 1864 which prevented the General Assembly from writing statutes covering more than one subject; the amendment was so poorly written that it prevented the General Assembly from undertaking a comprehensive codification of the Commonwealth's statutes until another amendment was pushed through in 1967 to provide the necessary exception.
This is why today, Pennsylvania is the only U. S. state. Pennsylvania is undertaking its first official codification process in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai President pro tem of the Senate: Joseph B. Scarnati 2005 Pennsylvania General Assembly pay raise controversy Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, for the General Assembly before 1776 Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus Pennsylvania General Assembly Legislative Process
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Canton of Geneva; the municipality has a population of 200,548, the canton has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world, it is where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich and Luxembourg. In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel; the city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018; the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis. After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy; the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva in English, French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra.
The city shares the origin of * genawa "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa. Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC, it became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva.
By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out, it is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of 15.93 km2, while the area of the canton is 282 km2, including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud.
The part of the lake, attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 and is sometimes referred to as petit lac. The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2, or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2, or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2, or 91.8%, is built up, 0.49 km2, or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2, or 0.1%, is wasteland. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is composed of lakes and 2.9 % streams. The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres, corresponds to the altitude of