A self-portrait is a representation of an artist, drawn, photographed, or sculpted by that artist. Although self-portraits have been made since the earliest times, it is not until the Early Renaissance in the mid-15th century that artists can be identified depicting themselves as either the main subject, or as important characters in their work. With better and cheaper mirrors, the advent of the panel portrait, many painters and printmakers tried some form of self-portraiture. Portrait of a Man in a Turban by Jan van Eyck of 1433 may well be the earliest known panel self-portrait, he painted a separate portrait of his wife, he belonged to the social group that had begun to commission portraits more common among wealthy Netherlanders than south of the Alps. The genre is venerable, but not until the Renaissance, with increased wealth and interest in the individual as a subject, did it become popular. A self-portrait may be a portrait of the artist, or a portrait included in a larger work, including a group portrait.
Many painters are said to have included depictions of specific individuals, including themselves, in painting figures in religious or other types of composition. Such paintings were not intended publicly to depict the actual persons as themselves, but the facts would have been known at the time to artist and patron, creating a talking point as well as a public test of the artist's skill. In the earliest surviving examples of medieval and Renaissance self-portraiture, historical or mythical scenes were depicted using a number of actual persons as models including the artist, giving the work a multiple function as portraiture, self-portraiture and history/myth painting. In these works, the artist appears as a face in the crowd or group towards the edges or corner of the work and behind the main participants. Rubens's The Four Philosophers is a good example; this culminated in the 17th century with the work of Jan de Bray. Many artistic media have been used. In the famous Arnolfini Portrait, Jan van Eyck is one of two figures glimpsed in a mirror – a modern conceit.
The Van Eyck painting may have inspired Diego Velázquez to depict himself in full view as the painter creating Las Meninas, as the Van Eyck hung in the palace in Madrid where he worked. This was another modern flourish, given that he appears as the painter and standing close to the King's family group who were the supposed main subjects of the painting. In what may be one of the earliest childhood self-portraits now surviving, Albrecht Dürer depicts himself as in naturalistic style as a 13-year-old boy in 1484. In years he appears variously as a merchant in the background of Biblical scenes and as Christ. Leonardo da Vinci may have drawn a picture of himself at the age of 60, in around 1512; the picture is straightforwardly reproduced as Da Vinci's appearance, although this is not certain. In the 17th century, Rembrandt painted a range of self-portraits. In The Prodigal Son in the Tavern, one of the earliest self-portraits with family, the painting includes Saskia, Rembrandt's wife, one of the earliest depictions of a family member by a famous artist.
Family and professional group paintings, including the artist's depiction, became common from the 17th century on. From the 20th century on, video plays an increasing part in self-portraiture, adds the dimension of audio as well, allowing the person to speak to us in their own voice. Women artists are notable producers of self-portraits. Vigée-Lebrun painted a total of 37 self-portraits, many of which were copies of earlier ones, painted for sale; until the 20th century women were unable to train in drawing the nude, which made it difficult for them to paint large figure compositions, leading many artists to specialize in portrait work. Women artists have embodied a number of roles within their self-portraiture. Most common is the artist at work, showing themselves in the act of painting, or at least holding a brush and palette; the viewer wonders if the clothes worn were those they painted in, as the elaborate nature of many ensembles was an artistic choice to show her skill at fine detail. Images of artists at work are encountered in Ancient Egyptian painting, sculpture and on Ancient Greek vases.
One of the first self-portraits was made by the Pharaoh Akhenaten's chief sculptor Bak in 1365 BC. Plutarch mentions that the Ancient Greek sculptor Phidias had included a likeness of himself in a number of characters in the "Battle of the Amazons" on the Parthenon, there are classical references to painted self-portraits, none of which have survived. Portraits and self-portraits have a longer continuous history in Asian art than in Europe. Many in the scholar gentleman tradition are quite small, depicting the artist in a large landscape, illustrating a poem in calligraphy on his experience of the scene. Another tradition, associated with Zen Buddhism, produced lively semi-caricatured self-portraits, whilst others remain closer to the conventions of the formal portrait. Illuminated manuscripts contain a number of apparent self-portraits, notably those of Saint Dunstan and Matthew Paris. Most of these either show the artist at work, or presenting the finished book to either a donor or a sacred figure, or venerating such a figure.
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Hospitalfield House is an arts centre and historic house in Arbroath, Scotland regarded as "one of the finest country houses in Scotland". It is believed to be the first art college in Britain, it is a registered charity under Scottish law. A range of prominent Scottish artists have worked there, including Joan Eardley, Peter Howson, Will Maclean, Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde, William Gear, Alasdair Gray, Wendy McMurdo, Callum Innes. Hospitalfield House was founded in the 13th century by Tironesian monks from nearby Arbroath Abbey as a leprosy and plague hospice called the "Hospital of St John the Baptist", it was purchased and extended by James Fraser in 1665. Walter Scott stayed in the house in 1803 and 1809 and used it as his model for "Monkbarns" in his novel The Antiquary. See Hospital of St John the Baptist, Arbroath for a detailed account of the early history of the House together with sources. In the mid 19th century, Hospitalfield House was expanded by Patrick Allan-Fraser, a patron of the arts.
Allan-Fraser, the son of an Arbroath weaving merchant, studied art in Edinburgh and was once president of the British Academy of Art in Rome. In Arbroath, he completed a series of paintings for an edition of Scott's The Antiquary. After acquiring the Hospitalfield estate through marriage he embarked on a substantial remodelling programme, his scheme used local craftsmen and converted an eighteenth-century barn into a gallery, added a five-storey bartizan and a large wing. He had a keen interest in the arts and set up the Patrick Allan-Fraser of Hospitalfield Trust to support young artists; the building was bequeathed "for the promotion of Education in the Arts" on the death of Allan-Fraser in 1890, having no heirs to his estate. The house is now a residential art centre and conference venue, it is open to the public for four open weekends a year and for other events, including afternoon tours on the first Wednesday of the month. In 2015 Hospitalfield curated and organised Graham Fagen's exhibition for Scotland + Venice, a Collateral Event of the 56th International Art Exhibition – La Biennale di Venezia.
In 2008, it was used as a film location for the docu-drama "Children of the Dead End" starring Stephen Rea. The red sandstone building draws on medieval domestic architecture. Allan-Fraser was indebted to the Arts and Crafts Movement; this is evident in the design of the building which features crenallated parapets, Crow-stepped gables, Oriel Windows. In 1901, a new studio block was added with north-west facing windows. A smaller room contains a skylight and there are yards for outdoor sculpture. Allan-Fraser wanted to create an inspiring space for young artists and the interior displays a large collection of Victorian sculpture and wood-carvings which are of "international importance"; the interior design features include a Hammerbeam roof. The main public rooms in the house are the dining room, picture gallery and adjoining cedar room and anteroom. Two 17th century tapestries were obtained in the 1870s for the first floor drawing room to reflect a passage in The Antiquary. Chandeliers inside the house were obtained from the Guildhall in Birmingham.
The gallery contains armorial references to the Fraser family who owned the estate from 1665 and the Parrott family, of Hawkesbury Hall who joined the Fraser estate in the 19th century. Allan-Fraser commissioned self-portraits from members of The Clique, an art group he had known as a young man; these included John Phillip, Augustus Egg, William Powell Frith, Henry O'Neil, Edward Matthew Ward. The Trial of Effie Deans by Robert Scott Lauder hangs on the main landing. A painting of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon by James Peter Quinn hung in Hospitalfield's gallery during the Second World War; the library contains books dating from 16th to 19th centuries. D. E. Easson, Medieval religious houses, Scotland: with an appendix on the houses in the Isle of Man, D. Miller and its abbey. T. Simpson and S. Stevenson, "Historic Arbroath: the archaeological implications of development", B. Walker and G. Ritchie, Exploring Scotland's heritage: Fife and Angus, Official website Hospitalfield Alumni Association Interior Photographs Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland History of the Parrott and Fraser Families
Scottish National Gallery
The Scottish National Gallery is the national art gallery of Scotland. It is located on The Mound in central Edinburgh, close to Princes Street; the building was designed in a neoclassical style by William Henry Playfair, first opened to the public in 1859. The gallery houses Scotland's national collection of fine art, spanning Scottish and international art from the beginning of the Renaissance up to the start of the 20th century; the Scottish National Gallery is run by National Galleries of Scotland, a public body that owns the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Because of its architectural similarity, the Scottish National Gallery is confused by visitors with the neighbouring Royal Scottish Academy Building, a separate institution which works with the Scottish National Gallery; the origins of Scotland's national collection lie with the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland, founded in 1819. It began to acquire paintings, in 1828 the Royal Institution building opened on The Mound.
In 1826, the Scottish Academy was founded by a group of artists as an offshoot of the Royal Institution, in 1838 it became the Royal Scottish Academy. A key aim of the RSA was the founding of a national collection, it began to build up a collection and from 1835 rented exhibition space within the Royal Institution building. In the 1840s, plans were put in place for a new building to house the RSA; the noted Scottish architect William Henry Playfair was commissioned to prepare designs, on 30 August 1850, Prince Albert laid the foundation stone. The building was divided along the middle, with the east half housing the exhibition galleries of the RSA, the western half containing the new National Gallery of Scotland, formed from the collection of the Royal Institution. In 1912 the RSA moved into the Royal Institution building, which remains known as the Royal Scottish Academy Building; when it re-opened, the gallery concentrated on building its permanent collection of Scottish and European art for the nation of Scotland.
In the early 21st century, the National Galleries launched the Playfair Project, a scheme to create a new basement entrance to the National Gallery in Princes Street Gardens and an underground connecting space, called the Weston Link, between the Gallery and the renovated Royal Scottish Academy building. The new underground space opened in 2004. In 2012, the gallery's umbrella organisation, National Galleries of Scotland, underwent a rebranding exercise, National Gallery of Scotland was renamed the Scottish National Gallery. William Playfair's building — like its neighbour, the Royal Scottish Academy — was designed in the form of an Ancient Greek temple atop a stylobate steps. While Playfair designed the RSA in the Doric order, the National Gallery building was surrounded by Ionic columns topped with tetrastyle porticoes; the pair of porticoes at the main entrance reflect the building's original dual purpose, to house the two collections of the NGS and the RSA, these served as two separate entrances.
Playfair worked to a much more limited budget than the RSA project, this is reflected in his comparatively austere architectural style. He may have drawn inspiration from an 1829 scheme for an arcade of shops by Archibald Elliot II, son of Archibald Elliot. Playfair's National Gallery was laid out in a cruciform plan; when the RSA moved into the former Royal Institution building in 1912, the English architect William Thomas Oldrieve was engaged to remodel the NGS interior to house the National Gallery collection exclusively. In the 1970s, when the gallery was under the direction of the Department of the Environment, the building was extended. An upper floor was added at the south end in 1972, creating five new small galleries, in 1978 a new gallery was opened in the basement to house the Gallery's Scottish Collection; the new Princes Street Gardens entrance and underground space opened in 2004 was designed by John Miller and Partners. Construction cost £ 32 million; the area contains a lecture theatre, education area, restaurant, an interactive gallery, a link to the RSA building.
In January 2019, construction work began on a project to alter the lower level areas and to create extended exhibition space. It is planned. Architectural features The research facilities at the Scottish National Gallery include the Prints and Drawings Collection of over 30,000 works on paper, from the early Renaissance to the late nineteenth century; the Research Library covers the period from 1300 to 1900 and holds 50,000 volumes of books, journals and microfiches, as well as some archival material relating to the collections and history of the National Gallery. The Print Room or Research Library can be accessed by appointment. At the heart of the National Gallery's collection is a group of paintings transferred from the Royal Scottish Academy Building; this includes masterpieces by Van Dyck and Giambattista Tiepolo. The National Gallery did not receive its own purchase grant until 1903. In the Gallery's main ground floor rooms are displayed a number of major large-scale canvases such as Benjamin West's Alexander III of Scotland Rescued from the Fury of a Stag, Rubens's The Feast of Herod
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form the seven-member "brotherhood", their principles were shared by other artists, including Ford Madox Brown, Arthur Hughes and Marie Spartali Stillman. A medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse; the group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called "Sir Sloshua".
To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting... and hence... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind". The brotherhood sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art; the group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background. The group continued to accept the concepts of history painting and mimesis, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art; the Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal; the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street, London in 1848. At the first meeting, the painters John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt were present.
Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts and had met in another loose association, the Cyclographic Club, a sketching society. At his own request Rossetti became a pupil of Ford Madox Brown in 1848. At that date and Hunt shared lodgings in Cleveland Street, Central London. Hunt had started painting The Eve of St. Agnes based on Keats's poem of the same name, but it was not completed until 1867; as an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between Romantic art. By autumn, four more members, painters James Collinson and Frederic George Stephens, Rossetti's brother and critic William Michael Rossetti, sculptor Thomas Woolner, had joined to form a seven-member-strong brotherhood. Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but the more senior artist remained independent but supported the group throughout the PRB period of Pre-Raphaelitism and contributed to The Germ. Other young painters and sculptors became close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Alexander Munro.
The PRB intended to keep the existence of the brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy. The brotherhood's early doctrines, as defined by William Michael Rossetti, were expressed in four declarations: to have genuine ideas to express; the principles were deliberately non-dogmatic, since the brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, the members thought responsibility were inseparable, they were fascinated by medieval culture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity, lost in eras. The emphasis on medieval culture clashed with principles of realism which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed its two interests were consistent with one another, but in years the movement divided and moved in two directions; the realists were led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalists were led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris.
The split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was spiritual in character, opposing their idealism to the materialist realism associated with Courbet and Impressionism. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was influenced by nature and its members used great detail to show the natural world using bright and sharp focus techniques on a white canvas. In attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento art and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground in the hope that the colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity, their emphasis on brilliance of colour was a reaction to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of an effect the Pre-Raphaelites despised. In 1848, Rossetti and Hunt made a list of "Immortals", artistic heroes whom they admired from literature, some of whose work would form subjects for PRB paintings, notably including Keats and Tennyson.
The first exhibitions of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's Isabella and Holman Hunt's Rienzi were exhibited at
Aberdeen is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 228,800 for the local council area. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe; the area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters. Aberdeen received Royal burgh status from David I of Scotland; the city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, Robert Gordon University, awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east of Scotland.
The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland. Aberdeen hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain. In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade. In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense; the Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don.
The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed by the massacring of the English garrison; the city was rebuilt and extended. The city was fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647 the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen and two years it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population.
In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century; the expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn after the Napoleonic Wars. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865; the city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer independent.
It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee. During the Second World War Aberdeen was bombed quite badly on the 21 April 1943 when around 20 Luftwaffe bombers circled around Aberdeen; because there were no planes at RAF leuchars they were all fighting in the Battle of Britain this meant that the bombers would fly back and forth around Aberdeen. 98 people died on that night and 20,000 homes were destroyed during the bombing which caused severe damage to many different homes around the city. Aberdeen became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of the first settlement of Aberdeen; the Celtic word aber means "river mouth", as in modern Welsh. The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain, in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval Latin has it as Aberdonia. Aberdeen is locally governed by Aber
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period. In addition to numerous renditions of scenes of historical and cultural significance, he painted scores of portraits of the Spanish royal family, other notable European figures, commoners, culminating in the production of his masterpiece Las Meninas. From the first quarter of the nineteenth century, Velázquez's artwork was a model for the realist and impressionist painters, in particular Édouard Manet. Since that time, famous modern artists, including Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Francis Bacon, have paid tribute to Velázquez by recreating several of his most famous works. Velázquez was born in Seville, the first child of João Rodrigues de Silva and Jerónima Velázquez, was baptized at the church of St. Peter in Seville on Sunday, June 6, 1599; the baptism most occurred a few days or weeks after his birth.
His paternal grandparents, Diogo da Silva and Maria Rodrigues, had moved to Seville from their native Portugal decades earlier. When Velázquez was offered knighthood in 1658, he claimed descent from the lesser nobility in order to qualify. Velázquez was educated by his parents to fear God and, intended for a learned profession, received good training in languages and philosophy. Influenced by many artists, he showed an early gift for art. Velázquez remained with him for one year, it was from Herrera that he learned to use brushes with long bristles. After leaving Herrera's studio when he was 12 years old, Velázquez began to serve as an apprentice under Francisco Pacheco, an artist and teacher in Seville. Though considered a dull, undistinguished painter, Pacheco sometimes expressed a simple, direct realism in contradiction to the style of Raphael that he was taught. Velázquez remained in Pacheco's school for five years, studying proportion and perspective and witnessing the trends in the literary and artistic circles of Seville.
By the early 1620s, his position and reputation were assured in Seville. On April 23, 1618, Velázquez married the daughter of his teacher, she bore him two daughters—his only known family. The elder, Francisca de Silva Velázquez y Pacheco, married painter Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo at the Church of Santiago in Madrid on August 21, 1633. Velázquez produced notable works during this time. Known for his compositions of amusing genre scenes called bodegones, such as Old Woman Frying Eggs. Christ in the House of Martha combines this bodegón type in a religious scene, his sacred subjects include Adoración de los Reyes and Jesús y los peregrinos de Emaús, both of which begin to express his more pointed and careful realism. Velázquez went to Madrid in the first half of April 1622, with letters of introduction to Don Juan de Fonseca, himself from Seville, chaplain to the King. At the request of Pacheco, Velázquez painted the portrait of the famous poet Luis de Góngora. Velázquez painted Góngora crowned with a laurel wreath, but painted over it at some unknown date.
It is possible that Velázquez stopped in Toledo on his way from Seville, on the advice of Pacheco, or back from Madrid on that of Góngora, a great admirer of El Greco, having composed a poem on the occasion of his death. In December 1622, Rodrigo de Villandrando, the king's favorite court painter, died. Don Juan de Fonseca conveyed to Velázquez the command to come to the court from the Count-Duke of Olivares, the powerful minister of Philip IV, he was offered 50 ducats to defray his expenses, he was accompanied by his father-in-law. Fonseca lodged the young painter in his own home and sat for a portrait himself, when completed, was conveyed to the royal palace. A portrait of the king was commissioned. On August 16, 1623, Philip IV sat for Velázquez. Completed in one day, the portrait was to have been no more than a head sketch, but both the king and Olivares were pleased. Olivares commanded Velázquez to move to Madrid, promising that no other painter would paint Philip's portrait and all other portraits of the king would be withdrawn from circulation.
In the following year, 1624, he received 300 ducats from the king to pay the cost of moving his family to Madrid, which became his home for the remainder of his life. Through the bust portrait of the king, painted in 1623, Velázquez secured admission to the royal service, with a salary of 20 ducats per month, besides medical attendance and payment for the pictures he might paint; the portrait was received with enthusiasm. It is now lost; the Museo del Prado, has two of Velázquez's portraits of the king in which the severity of the Seville period has disappeared and the tones are more delicate. The modeling is firm, recalling that of Antonio Mor, the Dutch portrait painter of Philip II, who exercised a considerable influence on the Spanish school. In the same year, the Prince of Wales arrived at the court of Spain. Records indicate that he sat for Velázquez. In September 1628, Peter Paul Rubens came to Madrid as an emissary from th