John Pollexfen Bastard
John Pollexfen Bastard was a British Tory politician and colonel of the East Devonshire Militia who lived at Kitley House, Devon. He married Sarah Bruton about 1780 who died in April 1808. On 2 July 1809 he married, at Portland Chapel, Judith Anne Martin, daughter of Sir Henry Martin, naval commissioner at Portsmouth and Comptroller of the Navy, he left no children of either marriage. When colonel of the East Devonshire Militia his father, William Bastard, saved the arsenal of Plymouth from the French Fleet in August 1779 and, to recognise that, was gazetted a baronet on 4 September but he declined to assume the title. Through his mother, born Bridget Poulett, William was a member of the Poulett, Bertie and other influential families. In 1801 when colonel of the same regiment John Pollexfen Bastard quelled a riot of workmen and prevented the destruction of the Plymouth docks and dockyards. In 1815 he was conveyed by the Royal Navy to Leghorn for his health where he died the next year and was buried in the Old English Cemetery in Livorno, where his monument still stands.
His body was returned to Devon in a man-of-war. He was elected Member of Parliament for Truro in 1783 and for the Devonshire Constituency from 1784, he stood down in 1812 and was succeeded by his nephew Edmund Pollexfen Bastard, who held the seat until 1830. According to the Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, Bastard indirectly inspired the familiar form of the children's rhyme "Old Mother Hubbard..." after instructing its author Sarah Catherine Martin, his sister-in-law, to "run away and write one of your stupid little rhymes." Bastard owned several houses and large tracts of land in western England including his main residence Kitley House. The National Portrait Gallery has a portrait of John Pollexfen Bastard standing beside his younger brother Edmund in a mezzotint of a painting by James Northcote, he can be spotted in Karl Anton Hickel's William Pitt addressing the House of Commons on the French Declaration of War, 1793 in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery. A detailed account of his last journey and subsequent death can be found in the letters of Miss Eliza Simcoe, daughter of John Graves Simcoe, who travelled with John Pollexfen Bastard and his wife to Leghorn as part of her Grand Tour.
She accompanied his wife on the rest of the journey and nursed her through several episodes of bad health. The letters are held at Devon Record Office as part of the Simcoe Family papers. John Pollexfen Bastard—Johnn Bastard RN and Edmund Pollexfen Bastard—Edmund Bastard Alastair W. Massie, ‘Bastard, John Pollexfen ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. London: Henry Colburn, 1834 Kitley Heritage John Pollexfen Bastard's memorial at Livorno Devon Record Office mainpage
Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of Pembroke
Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of Pembroke, 2nd Earl of Montgomery MP, was an English nobleman and politician. He was the son of Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, his first wife Susan de Vere, he succeeded his father in 1649. In 1639, he married Penelope Naunton, widow of Paul Bayning, 2nd Viscount Bayning, daughter of Sir Robert Naunton by his second wife, Penelope Perrot, widow of the astronomer Sir William Lower, daughter of Sir Thomas Perrot and Dorothy Devereux, they had one child, who succeeded his father as 6th Earl. In 1649, after the death of his first wife, he married Catherine Villiers, daughter of Sir William Villiers, 1st Baronet, they had one daughter and two sons and Thomas. Both sons succeeded to their father's titles, their daughter, married John Poulett, 3rd Baron Poulett. The younger Philip became notorious as "the infamous Earl", due to his frequent bouts of homicidal mania, during which he committed several murders, he was MP for Wiltshire in 1640 and Glamorgan in 1640–1649. Roche, J.
J.. "Lower, Sir William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/39195. Surveys of the Manors of Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 1631-2, ed. E. Kerridge
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, king of England and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.
After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance; the major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, Duke of York, was a Catholic.
The crisis saw the birth of anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685, he was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he was succeeded by his brother James. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630, his parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII.
Charles was their second child. Their first son died within a day. England and Ireland were predominantly Anglican and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, he was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.
By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly to Jersey, to France, where his mother was living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married, her son, James Crofts, was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.
Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, England became a republic. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland; when negotiations with the Scot
Saltram House is a grade I listed George II era mansion house located in the parish of Plympton, near Plymouth in Devon, England. It was deemed by the architectural critic Pevsner to be "the most impressive country house in Devon"; the house was designed by the architect Robert Adam, who altered and expanded the original Tudor house on two occasions. The drawing room is considered one of Adam's finest interiors. Saltram is one of Britain's best preserved examples of an early Georgian house and retains much of its original decor and furnishings, it contains the Parker family's large collection of paintings, including several by Sir Joshua Reynolds and educated at Plympton and a friend of the Parker family. The present building was commenced by John Parker of nearby Boringdon Hall, of Court House North Molton, both in Devon, together with his wife Catherine Poulett, a daughter of John Poulett, 1st Earl Poulett, it was completed by his son John Parker, 1st Baron Boringdon, whose son was John Parker, 1st Earl of Morley.
The Parker family had risen to prominence in the mid-16th century as the bailiff of the manor of North Molton, under Baron Zouche of Haryngworth. In 1957 Saltram House was donated by the Parker family to the National Trust in lieu of death duties, is open to the public. Saltram House was used as one of several local settings for Sensibility; the name Saltram derives itself from the salt, harvested on the nearby estuary and the fact that a "ham", or homestead, was on the site before the Tudor period. The first recorded family to have owned is that of Mayhew who were yeoman farmers in the 16th century; the family owned Saltram for about 50 years, their prosperity declining at the end of the century when they began to sell and lease parts of the estate. Their landholdings were considerable, for example a lease granted by them in 1588 granted the right to farm in Saltram Wood'and all houses and buildings adjoining or upon the same', to have fishing rights at Laira Bridge Rock and Culverhole; the next family to own Saltram were the Baggs, who were responsible for turning the farmhouse into a mansion.
Sir James I Bagg, MP for Plymouth and Mayor of Plymouth, purchased Saltram in about 1614. On his death the house passed to his son James II Bagg, Deputy Governor of Plymouth and a vice-admiral allied to the Duke of Buckingham, a favourite of King James I, he is believed twice to have embezzled funds from the Crown, the first occasion having contributed to the failure of Buckingham's attack on Cadiz in 1625. For reason unknown King Charles I twice defended him despite his obvious culpability. James II Bagg died in 1638 and was succeed by his son George Bagg, when Saltram was described as comprising "One great mansion house, one stable, three gardens, two acres of orchard, eight acres of meadows" and eight acres more. Despite inheriting his father's role as Deputy Governor of Plymouth, George Bagg did not share his father's luck, having chosen the Royalist side in the Civil War, Saltram suffered at the hands of the Parliamentarian forces. Following the defeat of the Royalist cause, shortly after 1643 he was forced to compound in the sum of £582 to secure his landholdings.
Despite having held on to Saltram through the Civil War, the Baggs lost Saltram in 1660, shortly before the Restoration of the Monarchy when the Commonwealth government transferred it to the former Parliamentarian captain Henry Hatsell in payment of a large debt owed by Bagg. However, after the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 Hatsell was stripped of the house and estate, which were granted to Sir George Carteret in settlement of a loan he had made to the King during the Civil War. In 1712 George Parker of Boringdon Hall, about 2 miles north of Saltram, purchased the manor of Saltram, created the Parker dynasty which reigned over Saltram until its days as a private estate were over. John Parker inherited the house in 1743 and along with his wealthy wife, Lady Catherine Parker, clothed the building with symmetrical Palladian facades which cover the Tudor origins of the house; the interiors of the house were given delicate touches including Rococo ceiling plasterwork in the Entrance Hall, Morning Room and Velvet Drawing Room.
John Parker the second, created Lord Boringdon, succeeded his father in 1768 and a year married Theresa Robinson. The Robinson family was of an artistic mind and advised on the embellishment of the house in the six years until Theresa's tragic early death; these six years are considered Saltram's golden age, epitomised by Joshua Reynolds' association with the house due to his close friendship with the family. The house owns ten portraits by Devon's greatest artist. Alongside Reynold's stands Robert Adam, approached by Lord Boringdon in 1768 to create a suite of neo-classical rooms along the east front which reaches its climax in the drawing room the most iconic of all of Saltram House's rooms. Adam, the most fashionable architect and interior designer of the day, created everything from the door handles to the huge plasterwork ceiling. Not to be confined to the inside of the property, Boringdon commissioned Nathaniel Richmond to lay out the present parkland which surrounds the house; the third John Parker known as Earl of Morley inherited the house just 20 years after his father and took longer again to make any major changes to the house.
However, in 1819 he employed the Regency architect John Foulston to add the Entrance Porch and create the present Library out of two s
Bridgwater (UK Parliament constituency)
Bridgwater was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, until 2010 when it was replaced by the Bridgwater and West Somerset constituency. It elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. Bridgwater was one of the original Parliamentary Constituencies in the House of Commons, having elected Members of Parliament since 1295, the Model Parliament; the original borough constituency was disenfranchised for corruption in 1870. From 4 July 1870 the town was incorporated within the county constituency of West Somerset. From Parliament's enactment of the major Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 which took effect at the 1885 general election, a new county division of Bridgwater was created, which lasted with modifications until 2010; the constituency expanded beyond Bridgwater town itself from 1885. Bridgwater compared to other seats had a radical or game-changing representative, though since 1950 this became less noticeable in its candidates elected.
The seat received particular fame in late 1938 when a by-election took place in the aftermath of the signing of the Munich Agreement. Opponents of the agreement persuaded the local Labour and Liberal parties to not field candidates of their own against the Conservative candidate, but to instead jointly back an independent standing on a platform of opposition to the Government's foreign policy, in the hope that this would be the precursor to the formation of a more general Popular Front of opposition to the government of Neville Chamberlain in anticipation of the General Election due in either 1939 or 1940; the noted journalist Vernon Bartlett stood as the independent Popular Front candidate and achieved a sensational victory in what was hitherto a Conservative seat. He represented the constituency for the next twelve years. In 1970 another by-election in the constituency achieved fame as it was the first occasion when 18-, 19- and 20-year-olds were able to vote in the UK Parliamentary election.
The first teenager to cast a vote was 18 on the day of the poll. The by-election was won by the future Conservative Cabinet Minister Tom King who held the seat for the next thirty-one years, followed by another Conservative until its abolition in 2010. 1885-1918: The Municipal Borough of Bridgwater, the Sessional Division of Bridgwater, parts of the Sessional Divisions of Taunton and Ilminster. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Bridgwater, the Urban Districts of Burnham-on-Sea, Highbridge and Watchet, the Rural Districts of Bridgwater and Williton. 1950-1983: The Municipal Borough of Bridgwater, the Urban Districts of Burnham-on-Sea and Watchet, the Rural Districts of Bridgwater and Williton. Highbridge Urban District had been absorbed by Burnham-on-Sea Urban District in 1933, but the constituency boundaries remained unchanged. 1983-2010: The District of Sedgemoor wards of Cannington and Combwich, Dowsborough, Eastern Quantocks, East Poldens, Huntspill, Newton Green, North Petherton, Parchey and Puriton, Sandford, Sydenham, Westonzoyland, West Poldens, Woolavington, the District of West Somerset wards of Alcombe, Aville Vale and Withycombe, Crowcombe and Stogumber, East Brendon, Minehead North, Minehead South, Old Cleeve and Oare, Quantock Vale, West Quantock, Williton.
Constituency created County division created Westropp's election was declared void on petition on 25 April 1866, causing a by-election. Patton was appointed requiring a by-election. A Royal Commission found extensive bribery in the seat and, from 4 July 1870, the writ was suspended, both MPs were unseated, the electorate was absorbed into West Somerset. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1914 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1885–1918, compiled and edited by F.
W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1918–1949, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig British Parliamentary Election Results 1950–1973, compiled and edited by F. W. S. Craig Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832–1885, edited by M. Stenton Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume II 1886–1918, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume III 1919–1945, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume IV 1945–1979, edited by M. Stenton and S. Lees Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: Ge
The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer; until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office carried Cabinet rank; the Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household, he presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him; these officials were peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, belong to the ministry.
The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household; the Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth, but he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England. In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner, Paymaster of the Household, the officers of the Royal Almonry.
Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The Lord Steward had three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, the Palace Court; the Lord Steward or his deputies administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament. Sir Thomas Rempston 1399–1401 Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1401–1402 William Heron, Lord Say 1402–1404 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1404 Sir John Stanley 1405–1412 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1413–1417 Sir Walter Hungerford 1413–1421 Robert Babthorp 1421–1424 Sir Walter Hungerford 1424–1426 Sir John Tiptoft 1426–1432 Robert Babthorp 1432–1433 William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk 1433–1446 Ralph Boteler, 1st Baron Sudeley 1447–1457 John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1457–1461 William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent 1461–1463 John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester 1463–1467 Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex 1467–1470 Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby 1471–?1485 The Lord FitzWalter 1485–aft.
1486 The Lord Willoughby de Broke 1488–1502 The Earl of Shrewsbury 1502–1538 The Earl of Sussex 1538–1540? The Duke of Suffolk 1541–1544 The Lord St John 1544–1551 The Duke of Northumberland 1551–1553 The Earl of Arundel 1553–1568 The Earl of Pembroke 1568–1570 no Lord Steward appointed 1570–1588 The Earl of Leicester 1587–1588 no Lord Steward appointed 1588–1603 The Earl of Nottingham 1603–1618 The Duke of Richmond 1618–1623 The Marquess of Hamilton 1623–1625 The Earl of Pembroke 1625–1630 none 1630–1640 The Earl of Arundel and Surrey 1640–1644 The Duke of Richmond 1644–1655 none 1655–1660 The Duke of Ormonde 1660–1688 The Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707 The Duke of Devonshire 1707–1710 The Duke of Buckingham and Normanby 1710–1711 The Earl Poulett 1711–1714 The Duke of Devonshire 1714–1716 The Duke of Kent 1716–1718 The Duke of Argyll 1718–1725 The Duke of Dorset 1725–1730 The Earl of Chesterfield 1730–1733 The Duke of Devonshire 1733–1737 The Duke of Dorset 1737–1744 The Duke of Devonshire 1744–1749 The Duke of Marlborough 1749–1755 The Duke of Rutland 1755–1761 The Earl Talbot 1761–1782 The Earl of Carlisle 1782–1783 The Duke of Rutland 1783 The Earl of Dartmouth 1783 The Duke of Chandos 1783–1789 The Duke of Dorset 1789–1799 The Earl of Leicester 1799–1802 The Earl of Dartmouth 1802–1804 The Earl of Aylesford 1804–1812 The Marquess of Cholmondeley 1812–1821 The Marquess Conyngham 1821–1830 The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 1830 The Marquess Wellesley 1830–1833 The Duke of Argyll 1833–1834 The Earl of Wilton 1835 The Duke of Argyll 1835–1839 The Earl of Erroll 1839–1841 The Earl of Liverpool 1841–1846 The Earl Fortescue 1846–1850 The Marquess of Westminster 1850–1852 The Duke of Montrose 1852–1853 The Duke of Norfolk 1853–1854 The Earl Spencer 1854–1857 The Earl of St Germans 1857–1858 The Marquess of Exeter 1858–1859 The Earl of St Germans 1859–1866 The Earl of Bessborough 1866 The Duke of Marlborough 1866–1867 The Earl of Tankerville 1867–1868 The Earl of Bessborough 1868–1874 The Earl Beauchamp 1874–1880 The Earl Sydney 1880–1885 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1885–1886 The Earl Sydney 1886 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1886–1892 The Marquess of Breadalbane 1892–1895 The Earl of Pembroke 1895–1905 The Earl of Liverpool 1905–1907 The Earl Beauchamp 1907–1910 The Earl