Edward Phelips (Royalist)
Edward Phelips was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1679. He fought for the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Phelips was the son of Sir Robert Phelips of Montacute and his wife Bridget Gorges, daughter of Sir Thomas Gorges of Longford Castle, Wiltshire, he matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford on 30 October 1629, aged 16. In 1640, Phelips was elected Member of Parliament for Ilchester in the Short Parliament, he was re-elected MP for Ilchester for the Long Parliament after a void election in 1640. He was a commissioner of array for the King in 1642 and became a colonel of horse in the Roylist army in 1643, he was governor of Ilchester from 1643 to 1645 and was disabled from sitting in parliament on 5 February 1644. In 1647 he compounded for £1,276, he was accused of taking part in the Penruddock uprising in 1655 and was tried at Chard but was acquitted by the grand jury. He was involved to some extent in Charles II's escape from England after the Battle of Worcester, at the point when his brother Robert was trying to arrange passage for Charles aboard a vessel from Southampton.
He traveled to Trent Manor to convey news of Robert's activities to Charles on or about 9/28/1651. He may have been with Robert during some of Robert's efforts around Southampton. At the Restoration Phelips was one of those proposed as a Knight of the Royal Oak, having an income of £1,500 p.a. He was appointed to the Western circuit and became Deputy Lieutenant of Somerset in July 1660, became commissioner for sewers and commissioner for assessment in August 1660. In 1661, he was elected Member of Parliament for Somerset in the Cavalier Parliament, he became high steward of Ilchester in the same year and commissioner for corporations in Somerset in 1663. He was defeated at Somerset and lost out in a double return at Ilchester in the general election in 1679, he was buried at Montacute. Phelips married Anne Pye, daughter of Sir Robert Pye of Faringdon, Berkshire on 21 February 1632, he had four sons of whom Edward was MP for Ilchester and two daughters. His brother Robert was an MP
Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of Pembroke
Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of Pembroke, 2nd Earl of Montgomery MP, was an English nobleman and politician. He was the son of Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, his first wife Susan de Vere, he succeeded his father in 1649. In 1639, he married Penelope Naunton, widow of Paul Bayning, 2nd Viscount Bayning, daughter of Sir Robert Naunton by his second wife, Penelope Perrot, widow of the astronomer Sir William Lower, daughter of Sir Thomas Perrot and Dorothy Devereux, they had one child, who succeeded his father as 6th Earl. In 1649, after the death of his first wife, he married Catherine Villiers, daughter of Sir William Villiers, 1st Baronet, they had one daughter and two sons and Thomas. Both sons succeeded to their father's titles, their daughter, married John Poulett, 3rd Baron Poulett. The younger Philip became notorious as "the infamous Earl", due to his frequent bouts of homicidal mania, during which he committed several murders, he was MP for Wiltshire in 1640 and Glamorgan in 1640–1649. Roche, J.
J.. "Lower, Sir William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/39195. Surveys of the Manors of Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 1631-2, ed. E. Kerridge
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury PC, known as Anthony Ashley Cooper from 1621 to 1630, as Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 2nd Baronet from 1630 to 1661, as The Lord Ashley from 1661 to 1672, was a prominent English politician during the Interregnum and during the reign of King Charles II. A founder of the Whig party, he is remembered as the patron of John Locke. Anthony Ashley Cooper was born in 1621 and had lost both of his parents by the age of eight, he was brought up by Edward Tooker and other guardians named in his father's will, before attending Exeter College and Lincoln's Inn. After he married the daughter of Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry, in 1639, Coventry's patronage secured Cooper a seat in the Short Parliament, although Cooper lost a disputed election to a seat in the Long Parliament. During the English Civil War, Cooper fought as a Royalist, before departing for the Parliamentary side in 1644. During the English Interregnum, he served on the English Council of State under Oliver Cromwell, although he opposed Cromwell's attempt to rule without parliament during the Rule of the Major-Generals.
He opposed the religious extremism of the Fifth Monarchists during Barebone's Parliament. As a member of Parliament, Cooper opposed the New Model Army's attempts to rule the country following the downfall of Richard Cromwell, he encouraged Sir George Monck's march on London. Cooper served as a member of the Convention Parliament of 1660, which determined to restore the English monarchy, Cooper was one of twelve members of parliament who travelled to the Dutch Republic to invite King Charles II to return to England. Shortly before his coronation, Charles created Cooper Lord Ashley, so when the Cavalier Parliament assembled in 1661 he moved from the House of Commons to the House of Lords, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1661–1672. During the ministry of the Earl of Clarendon, Shaftesbury opposed the imposition of the Clarendon Code and supported Charles II's Declaration of Indulgence, which the king was forced to withdraw. After the fall of Clarendon, Ashley was one of the members of the so-called Cabal Ministry, serving as Lord Chancellor 1672–1673.
He was created Earl of Shaftesbury in 1672. During this period, John Locke entered Ashley's household. Ashley took an interest in colonial ventures and was one of the Lords Proprietor of the Province of Carolina. By 1673, Ashley was worried that the heir to the throne, Duke of York, was secretly a Roman Catholic. After the Cabal Ministry ended, Shaftesbury became a leader of the opposition to the policies pursued by Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby. Danby favoured strict interpretation of the penal laws, enforcing mandatory membership of the Church of England. Shaftesbury, who sympathised with the Protestant Nonconformists agreed to work with the Duke of York, who opposed enforcing the penal laws against Roman Catholic recusants. By 1675, Shaftesbury was convinced that Danby, assisted by the bishops of the Church of England, was determined to transform England into an absolute monarchy, he soon came to see the Duke of York's own religion as linked to this issue. Opposed to the growth of "popery and arbitrary government", throughout the latter half of the 1670s Shaftesbury argued in favour of frequent parliaments and argued that the nation needed protection from a potential Roman Catholic successor to King Charles II.
During the Exclusion Crisis, Shaftesbury was an outspoken supporter of the Exclusion Bill, although he endorsed other proposals that would have prevented the Duke of York from becoming king, such as Charles II's remarrying a Protestant princess and producing a Protestant heir to the throne, or legitimising Charles II's illegitimate Protestant son the Duke of Monmouth. The Whig party was born during the Exclusion Crisis, Shaftesbury was one of the party's most prominent leaders. In 1681, during the Tory reaction following the failure of the Exclusion Bill, Shaftesbury was arrested for high treason, although the prosecution was dropped several months later. In 1682, after the Tories had gained the ability to pack London juries with their supporters, fearing a second prosecution, fled the country. Upon arriving in Amsterdam, he fell ill, soon died, in January 1683. Cooper was the eldest son and successor of Sir John Cooper, 1st Baronet, of Rockbourne in Hampshire, his mother was the former Anne Ashley and sole heiress of Sir Anthony Ashley, 1st Baronet.
He was born on 22 July 1621, at the home of his maternal grandfather Sir Anthony Ashley in Wimborne St Giles, Dorset. He was named Anthony Ashley Cooper because of a promise. Although Sir Anthony Ashley was of minor gentry stock, he had served as Secretary at War in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, in 1622, two years after the death of his first wife, Sir Anthony Ashley married the 19-year-old Philippa Sheldon, a relative of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, thus cementing relations with the most powerful man at court. Cooper's father was created a baronet in 1622, he represented Poole in the parliaments of 1625 and 1628, supporting the attack on Richard Neile, Bishop of Winchester for his Arminian tendencies. Sir Anthony Ashley insisted that a man with Puritan leanings, Aaron Guerdon, be chosen as Cooper's first tutor. Cooper's mother died in 1628. In 1629, his father remarried, this time to the widowed Mary Moryson, one of the daughters of wealthy London textile merchant Baptist Hicks and co-heir of his fortune.
Through his stepmother, Cooper t
Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced what, in centuries, became referred to as a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws. In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes, save with the consent of his royal council, which developed into a parliament. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649. After the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II, the subsequent Glorious Revolution of 1688, the supremacy of Parliament was a settled principle and all future English and British sovereigns were restricted to the role of constitutional monarchs with limited executive authority.
The Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs must consult and seek a measure of acceptance for their policies if they are to enjoy the broad cooperation of their subjects. Early kings of England had no standing army or police, so depended on the support of powerful subjects; the monarchy had agents in every part of the country. However, under the feudal system that evolved in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy; the former had economic and military power bases of their own through major ownership of land and the feudal obligations of their tenants. The Church was a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of religious law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the senior clergy on major decisions, post-Norman Conquest English monarchs called Great Councils. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, the pillars of the feudal system; when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of this before the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered after a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215. John's refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war; the Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England. The term came into use during the early 13th century, when it shifted from the more general meaning of "an occasion for speaking."
It first appears in official documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, it is believed that the early parliaments had a judicial as well as a legislative function. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings called Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance. Parliaments were summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. After Magna Carta, this became a convention; this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henry's behalf until he came of age, giving them a taste for power that they would prove unwilling to relinquish. Among other things, they made sure. Once the reign of John ended and Henry III took full control of the government, leading peers became concerned with his style of government his unwillingness to consult them on decisions he took, his seeming patronisation of his foreign relatives over his native subjects.
Henry's support of a disastrous papal invasion of Sicily was the last straw. In 1258, seven leading barons forced Henry to swear to uphold the Provisions of Oxford, the following year, by the Provisions of Westminster; this abolished the absolutist Anglo-Norman monarchy, giving power to a council of fifteen barons, providing for a thrice-yearly meeting of parliament to monitor their performance. Parliament assembled six times between June 1258 and April 1262, most notably at Oxford in 1258; the French-born nobleman Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, emerged as the leader of this characteristically English rebellion. In the years that followed, those supporting Montfort and those supporting the king grew more hostile to each other. Henry obtained a papal bull in 1263 exempting him from his oath and both sides began to raise armies. At the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, Henry was taken prisoner by Montfort's army. However, many of the peers who had supported Montfort began to suspect that he ha
John Poulett, 2nd Baron Poulett
John Poulett, 2nd Baron Poulett DL, of Hinton St George in Somerset, was an English peer and Member of Parliament who fought on the Royalist side during the English Civil War. The son of John Poulett, 1st Baron Poulett, he was knighted in 1635 and elected to the Long Parliament as Member for Somerset in 1640, but was ejected for his Royalist sympathies in 1642. In 1643 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine at Oxford. During the war he first commanded a regiment in Munster, but after peace was temporarily concluded in Ireland brought his troops to England, where they formed part of the garrison of Winchester Castle until it surrendered, his first marriage was to Catherine, daughter of Lord Vere and widow of Oliver St John, which proved fortunate as her sister was married to the Parliamentary leader Lord Fairfax: at the end of the war Poulett was fined £9,400 for his activities, but he was discharged having paid only £1,800 "out of respect to the Lord General". Sir John succeeded his father in the peerage in 1649.
He returned after the Restoration. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Dictionary of National Biography D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Burke's Peerage and Baronetage
John Digby, 3rd Earl of Bristol
John Digby, 3rd Earl of Bristol was an English landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1675 to 1677 when he inherited the peerage as Earl of Bristol. He was styled Lord Digby from 1653 to 1677. Digby was the eldest son of George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol and his wife Lady Anne Russell, daughter of Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford, he was baptised on 26 April 1634. He was educated privately. In July 1660 he became J. P. for Dorset and Somerset and commissioner for oyer and terminer on the Western circuit. He was commissioner for sewers for Somerset from December 1660 and commissioner for assessment for Dorset from 1661 to 1674, he was commissioner for assessment for Somerset from 1664 to 1674. From 1672 to 1674 he was Deputy Lieutenant for Dorset. In 1676 he was elected Member of Parliament for Dorset in a by-election to the Cavalier Parliament. In 1677, he inherited the Earldom of Bristol on the death of his father on 24 March and became a member of the House of Lords, he was Lord Lieutenant of Dorset from 1679 and Custos Rotulorum of Dorset from 1680.
In 1683 he became freeman of Lyme Regis. In June 1688 he was deprived of his positions as JP, Lord Lieutenant and Custos, but was re-instated a few months later. Digby died at the age of about 64, was buried at Sherborne Abbey. Digby married firstly on 26 March 1656, Alice Bourne daughter of Robert Bourne of Blake Hall, Essex, she died in 1658 and he married secondly by licence dated 13 July 1663, Rachel Wyndham, daughter of Sir Hugh Wyndham of Silton, Dorset, a Judge of the Common Pleas and Baron of the Exchequer. He had no issue by either wife and the title became extinct on his death
House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S