Kean University is a public university in Union and Hillside, New Jersey. Kean University serves its students in the liberal arts, the sciences, the professions and is best known for its programs in the humanities and social sciences and in education, graduating the most teachers in the state of New Jersey annually. Kean is noted for the physical therapy program which it holds in conjunction with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Kean University was founded in 1855 in New Jersey, as the Newark Normal School. Established for the exclusive purpose of being a teacher-education college it became New Jersey State Teachers College in 1937. In 1958, following a post-war boom of students and increasing demands for a more comprehensive curriculum, the college was relocated from Newark to Union Township, site of the Kean family's ancestral home at Liberty Hall. After its move to the historic Livingston-Kean Estate, which includes the entire Liberty Hall acreage, the historic James Townley House, Kean Hall, which housed the library of United States Senator Hamilton Fish Kean and served as a political meeting place, the school became Newark State College, a comprehensive institution providing a full range of academic programs and majors.
Renamed Kean College of New Jersey in 1973, the institution earned university status on September 26, 1997, becoming Kean University of New Jersey. Kean University has subsequently grown to become the third largest institution of higher education in New Jersey and comprises five undergraduate colleges and the Nathan Weiss Graduate College. Kean University hosts numerous research institutions most prominently the New Jersey Center for Science and Mathematics, the Kean University Human Rights Institute, the Holocaust Resource Center, the Wynona Moore Lipman Ethnic Studies Center, Liberty Hall. In recent years Kean has expanded to a satellite campus in Toms River, New Jersey and has a foreign campus in Wenzhou, China; the building of the estate on which Kean University is situated was begun in 1760, when lawyer William Livingston, who would become New Jersey's first elected governor and a Revolutionary War patriot and signer of the United States Constitution, bought 120 acres in then-Connecticut Farms and Elizabethtown, New Jersey, across the river from his New York home, in hopes of establishing a country residence.
By 1772 extensive grounds and orchards had been developed and a 14-room Georgian-style house had been built under the supervision of Livingston. In its first year of occupancy the new house, christened Liberty Hall, was resided in by Livingston and Alexander Hamilton. In 1773 Livingston moved to the home with his wife, Susannah French of New Brunswick, their children, full-time. Liberty Hall suffered damage from the Revolutionary War by both British and American troops, the property having been central to the major Revolutionary development, the Battle of Connecticut Farms; the property was restored and Livingston continued to maintain the gardens and grounds as governor until his 1790 death. The estate passed to Livingston's son, future Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Henry Brockholst Livingston. In 1798 the house was sold to Lord Bolingbroke and his wife Isabella; the new owners established an English boxwood maze that still stands today and made extensive additions to the principal outbuildings of the property, established or improved a large hot house, developed the gardens, introducing rare shrubs and trees to the grounds, laying out the grounds west of the mansion.
In 1811, the Kean family acquired the Livingston estate when Peter Kean purchased Liberty Hall in trust for his mother Susan Livingston Kean Niemcewicz. Susan Livingston Kean, a niece of Governor Livingston, was the widow of John Kean, a Continental Congress delegate and advocate for the ratification of the Constitution in South Carolina who served as the first cashier of the Bank of the United States. Having died from a respiratory disease that developed as a result of being held prisoner of war at sea during the Revolution, Kean died at 39 and Susan Livingston Kean remarried to Count Julian Niemcewicz, a Polish nobleman who fled Poland after fighting unsuccessfully for Polish independence from Russia but returned in the wake of Napoleon's successful campaigns. To honor her second husband Susan Kean changed the name of Liberty Hall to Ursino, the name of Niemcewicz's Polish estate. Peter Kean, the only son of Susan and John Kean, who married Sarah Sabina Morris, a granddaughter of Lewis Morris, the first royal governor of New Jersey, served as colonel of the Fourth Regiment of New Jersey and an escort of Lafayette on his tour of New Jersey predeceased his mother.
His son, John Kean II, inherited Liberty Hall. John Kean II, who served on the staff of Governor Pennington with the rank of colonel, was an original stockholder of the Camden and Amboy Railroad, served as the first president of the Elizabeth and Somerville Railroad, as a vice president of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, as president of the National Bank of New Jersey, as president of the Elizabethtown Gaslight Company and Elizabethtown Water Company lived at Liberty Hall for 60 years and made the most significant changes to the house and property in its history, transforming the house into a 50-room Victorian Italianate structure. Another John Kean, son of John Kean II and Lucinetta Halsted Kean, inherited the estate after their deaths. John Kean served in the United States House of Representatives from 1883 to 1885, again from 1887–1889, in the United States Senate from
Center for American Progress
The Center for American Progress is a public policy research and advocacy organization which presents a liberal viewpoint on economic and social issues. It has its headquarters in Washington, D. C; the president and chief executive officer of CAP is Neera Tanden, who worked for the Obama and Clinton administrations and for Hillary Clinton's campaigns. The first president and CEO was John Podesta, who has served as White House Chief of Staff to U. S. President Bill Clinton and as the chairman of the 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton. Podesta remained with the organization as chairman of the board until he joined the Obama White House staff in December 2013. Tom Daschle is the current chairman; the Center for American Progress has a youth-engagement organization, Generation Progress, a sister advocacy organization, the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Citing Podesta's influence in the formation of the Obama Administration, a November 2008 article in Time stated that "not since the Heritage Foundation helped guide Ronald Reagan's transition in 1981 has a single outside group held so much sway".
The Center for American Progress was created in 2003 as a left-leaning alternative to think tanks such as the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute. Since its inception, the center has assembled a group of high-profile senior fellows, including Lawrence Korb, Assistant Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards. Sarah Rosen Wartell, a co-founder and executive vice-president of the center, has been named President of the Urban InstituteThe center helped Congressman John Murtha develop "strategic redeployment", a comprehensive plan for the Iraq War that included a timetable and troop withdrawals. ThinkProgress is a blog edited by Judd Legum that "provide a forum that advances progressive ideas and policies." It is an outlet of the Center for American Progress. Generation Progress is CAP's youth outreach arm. According to the organization, Generation Progress partners with over a million millennials. Known as the American Progress Action Fund, the Center for American Progress Action Fund is a "sister advocacy organization" and is organizationally and financially separate from CAP, although they share many staff and a physical address.
Politico wrote in April 2011 that it "openly runs political advocacy campaigns, plays a central role in the Democratic Party’s infrastructure, the new reporting staff down the hall isn’t walled off from that message machine, nor does it keep its distance from liberal groups organizing advocacy campaigns targeting conservatives". Whereas CAP is a 501 nonprofit, CAP Action is a 501. In 2003, George Soros promised to financially support the organization by donating up to $3 million. CAP Action is headed by Neera Tanden. "The Moscow Project" is one of its initiatives. The Washington Center for Equitable Growth known as Equitable Growth, is a research and grantmaking organization founded in 2013 and "housed at the Center for American Progress". Equitable Growth funds academic research in economics and other social sciences, with a particular interest in government's role in the distribution of economic growth and the role of public perceptions of fairness in shaping government policy. Science Progress was an internet publication about progressive technology policy.
Science Progress was a project of the Center for American Progress. Its mission was "to improve the understanding of science among policymakers and other thought leaders and to develop exciting, progressive ideas about innovation in science and technology for the United States in the 21st Century." It began publication on 4 October 2007, the fiftieth anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1. Content on the web site included news, in-depth essays, text- and audio-based interviews; the Science Progress staff included Editor-In-Chief Jonathan D. Moreno. In 2017, the Center opposed Bernie Sanders' single-payer health plan. Critics said that this was because of funding from the health care industry, such as The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, the Health Care Service Corporation and America's Health Insurance Plans, who would be eliminated under Sanders' plan. In 2018, the Center proposed an alternative to single payer that would offer patients and employers a choice between government coverage and private insurance.
In October 2016, the Intercept reported that United Arab Emirates Ambassador to the U. S. Yousef Al Otaiba praised "a CAP report released that advocates for continued cooperation with Gulf states like Saudi Arabia and the UAE."In January 2019, two CAP staffers were fired for leaking an email exchange that suggested improper influence by the United Arab Emirates over the CAP. Some open government groups, such as the Sunlight Foundation and the Campaign Legal Center, criticized the Center's failure to disclose its contributors since it was so influential in appointments to the Obama administration. CAP was criticized by several Jewish organizations after some employees "publicly used language that could be construed as anti-Israel or anti-Semitic". Bloggers associated with CAP published several posts using phrases such as "apartheid" and "Israel-firsters", causing NGO Monitor, the American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League to label them anti-Israel
Uganda the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken including Runyoro, Rukiga and Lusoga. The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential term limits and the presidential age limit, becoming president for life. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms.
Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.
Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.
The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that had roots in the Catholic Church. The bitterness between these two parties was intense especiall
Ryan Thomas Gosling is a Canadian actor and musician. He began his career as a child star on the Disney Channel's The Mickey Mouse Club, went on to appear in other family entertainment programs, including Are You Afraid of the Dark? and Goosebumps. His first starring film role was as a Jewish neo-Nazi in The Believer, he went on to star in several independent films, including Murder by Numbers, The Slaughter Rule, The United States of Leland. Gosling gained wider recognition in 2004 with a leading role in the commercially successful romance The Notebook. For playing a drug-addicted teacher in Half Nelson, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor, he next played a inept loner in Lars and the Real Girl. After a three-year acting hiatus, Gosling starred in the marital drama Blue Valentine. Gosling co-starred in three mainstream films in 2011, the romantic comedy Crazy, Love, the political drama The Ides of March, the crime thriller Drive, his directorial debut, Lost River, was released to poor reviews in 2014.
Greater success came to Gosling when he starred in several critically acclaimed films, including the financial satire The Big Short, the romantic musical La La Land, for which he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, received a second Oscar nomination. Further acclaim followed with the science fiction the biopic First Man. Gosling's band, Dead Man's Bones, released their self-titled debut album and toured North America in 2009, he is a co-owner of a Moroccan restaurant in Beverly Hills, California. Gosling is a supporter of PETA, Invisible Children, the Enough Project and has traveled to Chad and eastern Congo to raise awareness about conflicts in the regions. Gosling has been involved in peace promotion efforts in Africa for over a decade, he has been in a relationship with actress Eva Mendes since 2011, they have two daughters. Ryan Thomas Gosling was born in London, the son of Thomas Ray Gosling, a travelling salesman for a paper mill, Donna, a secretary.
Both of his parents are of part French-Canadian descent, along with some German, English and Irish. Gosling's parents were Mormons, Gosling has said that the religion influenced every aspect of their lives. However, he said he "never could identify with." Because of his father's work, they "moved around a lot" and Gosling lived in both Cornwall and Burlington, Ontario. His parents divorced when he was 13, he and his older sister Mandi lived with their mother, an experience Gosling has credited with programming him "to think like a girl". Gosling was educated at Gladstone Public School, Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School and Lester B. Pearson High School; as a child, he was inspired to become an actor. He "hated" being a child, was bullied in elementary school and had no friends until he was "14 or 15". In grade one, having been influenced by the action film First Blood, he took steak knives to school and threw them at other children during recess; this incident led to a suspension. He was unable to read and was evaluated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but was not diagnosed with it and, contrary to false reports, never took medication.
His mother homeschooled him for a year. Gosling has said that homeschooling gave him "a sense of autonomy that I've never lost". Gosling performed in front of audiences from an early age, encouraged by his sister being a performer, he and his sister sang together at weddings. Performing boosted his self-confidence, he developed an idiosyncratic accent because, as a child, he thought having a Canadian accent did not sound "tough". He began to model his accent on that of Marlon Brando, he dropped out of high school at the age of 17 to focus on his acting career. In 1993, at the age of 12, Gosling attended an open audition in Montreal for a revival of Disney Channel's The Mickey Mouse Club, he was moved to Orlando, Florida. He appeared on-screen infrequently. Nonetheless, he has described the job as the greatest two years of his life. Fellow cast members included Justin Timberlake, Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera. Gosling has credited the experience with instilling in them "this great sense of focus."
He became close friends with Timberlake and they lived together for six months during the second year of the show. Timberlake's mother became Gosling's legal guardian after his mother returned to Canada for work reasons. Gosling has said that though he and Timberlake are no longer in touch, they are still supportive of each other. Following the show's cancellation in 1995, Gosling returned to Canada, where he continued to appear in family entertainment television series, including Are You Afraid of the Dark? and Goosebumps, starred in Breaker High as Sean Hanlon. At the age of 18, he moved to New Zealand to film the Fox Kids adventure series Young Hercules as the title character. In 2002, he told the Vancouver Sun that he enjoyed working on the show, but began to care too much about the series, so it was no longer fun for him, he wanted to spend more time sitting with and devising a character as well as play a variety of roles, so he chose to enter film and not accept any more television work.
At the age of nineteen, Gosling decided to move into "serious acting". He
Sand and Sorrow
Sand And Sorrow: A New Documentary about Darfur is a 2007 American documentary film about the Darfur crisis, narrated and co-executive produced by George Clooney. The film is directed by Paul Freedman and uses interviews and footage of human rights activist John Prendergast, Harvard professor Samantha Power and New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof to depict the origins and the aftermath of the conflict between the Arab and non-Arab tribes in the Darfur region. Timeline of the War in Darfur History of Darfur, for a broader view of the events that have caused the current conflict Bibliography of the Darfur conflict, for all external links to news coverage, advocacy initiatives, other research on the conflict International response to the Darfur conflict, for the response of individuals and governments to the conflict since 2003 The official site of the documentary Sand And Sorrow on IMDb
James Charles "Jim" Lehrer is an American journalist and a novelist. Lehrer is the former Executive Editor and a former News Anchor for the PBS NewsHour on PBS, is known for his role as a Debate Moderator in U. S. Presidential Election campaigns, he is an author of numerous fiction and non-fiction books that draw upon his experience as a newsman, along with his interests in history and politics. Lehrer was born in Kansas -- the son of Lois Catherine, a bank clerk, he attended middle school in Beaumont and graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School where he was a sports editor for the Jefferson Declaration. He graduated with an A. A. from Victoria College in Texas, a B. J. from the Missouri School of Journalism at the University of Missouri in 1956. After graduation from college, Lehrer joined the United States Marine Corps and attributes his service and travels with helping him to look past himself and feel a connection to the world that he would not have otherwise experienced. In 1959, Lehrer began his career in journalism at The Dallas Morning News in Texas.
He worked as a Reporter for the Dallas Times-Herald, where he covered the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. There, he was a Political Columnist for several years, in 1968 he became the City Editor. Lehrer began his television career at KERA-TV in Dallas, Texas, as the Executive Director of Public Affairs, an On-air Host, Editor of a nightly news program, he moved to PBS in Washington, D. C. to become the Public Affairs Coordinator, a member of Journalism Advisory Board, a Fellow at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. He worked as a Correspondent for the National Public Affairs Center for Television where he met Robert MacNeil. In 1973, they covered the Senate Watergate hearings and the revelation of the Watergate Tapes broadcast, live on PBS. Lehrer covered the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment inquiry of President Richard Nixon. In October 1975, Lehrer became the Washington Correspondent for the "Robert MacNeil Report" on Thirteen/WNET New York. Two months on December 1, 1975, he was promoted to co-anchor, the program was accordingly renamed "The MacNeil/Lehrer Report".
In September 1983, Lehrer and MacNeil relaunched their show as The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour which, after MacNeil's departure in 1995, was renamed The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, in 2009 became the PBS NewsHour. Lehrer underwent a heart valve surgery in April 2008, while he recuperated, Ray Suarez anchored in his stead until his return on June 26, 2008. On June 6, 2011, Lehrer stepped down as anchor of the PBS NewsHour. Lehrer's has received several awards and honors throughout his career in journalism, including several Emmys. In 2004, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Journalism degree by McDaniel College. Lehrer has been involved in several U. S. Presidential Debate-related projects, including the Debating Our Destiny Documentaries in 2000 and 2008, that feature excerpts of exclusive interviews with many of the Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates since 1976. Nicknamed The Dean of Moderators by Bernard Shaw of CNN, Lehrer has moderated 12 Presidential Debates. Lehrer hosted the first U.
S. Presidential Debate for the 2012 U. S. Presidential general election, he had sworn off moderating any debates after 2008. The debate was held at the University of Denver, Denver and covered domestic policy issues. Coming out of semi-retirement to moderate his 12th Presidential Debate, while he was criticized on social media and in the press for his lack of control and open-ended questions, he was praised for letting the candidates have some control in the debate on their own terms. Lehrer is married to a novelist, they have six grandchildren. His father was a bus driver, who operated a bus company. Lehrer is an avid bus enthusiast, a hobbyist, a collector of bus memorabilia—including depot signs, driver caps, antique toy buses; as a college student in the 1950s, he worked as a Trailways Ticket Agent in Texas. He is a supporter of the Pacific Bus Museum in Williams and the Museum of Bus Transportation in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Lehrer is a prolific writer and has authored numerous novels, as well as having penned several plays and three personal memoirs.
His book, Top Down, is a novel based on the events surrounding the Kennedy assassination. His most recent play, was produced by the National Geographic Society as part of their 125th anniversary celebration. 1990: Paul White Award, Radio Television Digital News Association American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellow University of Missouri School of Journalism's Medal of Honor William Allen White Foundation Award for Journalistic Merit George Foster Peabody Award Fred Friendly First Amendment Award, Emmy Award National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Silver Circle Television Hall of Fame National Humanities Medal Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism. Novels Lehrer, Jim. Kick the Can. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-13350-X. Lehrer, Jim. Crown Oklahoma. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-13434-4. Lehrer, Jim; the Sooner Spy. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-13536-7. Lehrer, Jim (
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th