A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Convent and Academy of the Visitation
This article is about an establishment in Alabama. For the location in Washington, D. C. see Georgetown Visitation Monastery. The Convent and Academy of the Visitation, properly known today as the Visitation Monastery, is a historic complex of Roman Catholic religious buildings and a small cemetery in Mobile, United States; the buildings and grounds were documented by the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1937. They were added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 24, 1992 as a part of Historic Roman Catholic Properties in Mobile Multiple Property Submission. It, along with the Convent of Mercy, is one of two surviving historic convent complexes in Mobile; the Convent of the Visitation was founded by the first bishop of Mobile. Portier wished to found a convent for the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary so that they could provide education to girls in his diocese, due to a lack of schools, he obtained permission from Pope Gregory XVI for that purpose and in 1832 the first five sisters arrived from Georgetown.
The academy taught 40 students the first year and enrollment continued to increase up until a fire in May 1854 destroyed the buildings. Rebuilding of the convent commenced one month after the fire with a new quadrangle of buildings that form the core of the convent to the present day. Architect James Henry Hutchisson designed these buildings in a French Renaissance style, they were completed in 1855. The academy had grown to include a high grammar school by the early 1900s, they were housed in a three-story school building on the west side of the quadrangle, built in 1900. Both had closed by 1952 and the former school building was demolished in 1953; the sisters began a retreat house. The retreat continues into the present, hosting retreat groups for men and adolescents, as well as a variety of other events. Numerous major restoration efforts were undertaken from 1985 to 1991; the interiors of Sacred Heart Chapel were restored beginning in 1998 with rededication late in 1999. The major buildings include the quadrangle of French Renaissance Revival style buildings completed in 1855, in addition to several structures.
The Romanesque Revival Sacred Heart Chapel was completed on the grounds in 1895. A priest's house for visiting clerics was completed in 1899, in a stylistic blending of the Romanesque Revival and Gothic Revival styles; the grounds of the convent are enclosed with high brick walls. In addition to the outer wall, inner walls separate the public and private areas of the main complex and enclose a private cemetery for the Order of the Visitation; the graves are marked by simple white crosses
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
John Quinlan (wrestler)
John Joseph Quinlan is an American actor. He is a former bodybuilder, professional wrestler, fitness model, fashion model, art model and romance cover model. In 2012 he was an official image brand ambassador for the supplement company Nutrabolics. In December 2015, Quinlan was signed on as the lead male actor for the 2017 film, A Sense of Purpose: Fighting For Our Lives by producer Jillian Bullock. Quinlan began weight training and fitness. In 1998, Quinlan competed in the North American Bodybuilding Association. In October he placed first in the Junior Class and fourth in the Men's Open Light Heavyweight division at the NABF Tri-State Pro-Am, he won the Junior Class and earned a third-place finish in the Men's Open Light Heavyweight Division two weeks at the NABF USA Junior Nationals. During this time Quinlan was coached by Jeff Walsh, Billy Conserva and Lawrence Cuzzi, with the assistance of Jim Cinelli, Manuel "Manny" Catalano Jr. and John Georgopolous. He was sponsored by Scott and Eric Kenworthy, owners of World Gym, Lynnfield and Pumphouse Nutrition.
On November 7, 1998, at the NABF Pro-Am America Nationals and Fitness Expo held in the Veterans Memorial Auditorium in Providence, Rhode Island, Quinlan finished second overall in the Junior Class. In February 1999, Quinlan entered the Killer Kowalski professional wrestling school in Malden, Massachusetts. During this time, Quinlan trained with April Hunter, Aaron Stevens, Wagner Brown, Christopher Nowinski and "The Boston Brawler" Jerry Bowser under the stage names John Bagwell, Joseph Bagwell, Alex Bagwell. On November 26, 1999, in his first professional wrestling match for the World Wrestling Alliance, Quinlan teamed up with Aaron Stevens and Tre "The Smooth Operatin' Gangsta" under the name John Bagwell in a six-man tag team match in Farmington, New Hampshire. In February 2000, Quinlan tag-teamed with bodybuilder Jerry Ward for Yankee Pro Wrestling, which became known as Top Rope Promotions. In the summer of 2000, Quinlan was managed by Rocky Raymond while participating in hardcore wrestling throughout New England.
On July 2, 2000, while wrestling at the Thompson International Speedway in Connecticut, Quinlan received a Powerbomb from his opponent through a table on concrete outside the ring, fracturing one of the vertebrae in his lower back. The injury took months to heal. During this time Quinlan participated in photo shoots for New England-based photographers and artists and worked as a fitness model and on one occasion modeled for the "Energy Bomb" sports drink. Quinlan felt he was exploited by promoters who forced him to use the Alex Bagwell professional wrestling gimmick because of his physical likeness to Buff Bagwell, he would receive less than half of his expected income, which would force him to drop that gimmick and wrestle under the names Shane O' Kane and John Quinlan. In the fall of 2000, Quinlan was in contact with Joey Styles of Extreme Championship Wrestling for a scheduled professional tryout, which never materialized. Quinlan began training at World Gym in Lynnfield, with his manager, Peter Karalekas, that December.
Early in 2001, while wrestling for the National Wrestling Alliance of New England, he had a brief feud with Rick Fuller over a title shot against Fuller that ended in a loss. Shortly after, Quinlan went to Atlanta with Peter Karalekas and met with Ernest Miller, accompanied by Carmel Macklin and Michael Jai White about entering the World Championship Wrestling's Power Plant. Quinlan began using the Shane O'Kane gimmick, developed by Karalekas, at this time; the character was portrayed as an Irish thug from Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, as a "heel" wearing black tights with knee-high engineer boots, but was transitioned to a masked wrestler as a "face". He began training with Edward Leslie in the summer of 2001. Quinlan and Leslie trained at World Gym in Somerville and traveled together wrestling for multiple professional wrestling organizations throughout the Northeastern United States. In late August 2001 Quinlan and Leslie joined Jimmy Hart's newly founded Xcitement Wrestling Federation. Quinlan's last professional wrestling match was with an affiliation of Empire Pro Wrestling on the independent circuit in March 2002.
He left the business as the result of accumulated sports related injuries. Quinlan competed as a muscle model at the 2010 FAME World Championships "WNSO Muscle & FAME Model" and BodyProud Wellness Convention held at Bally's Las Vegas, he was sponsored by LMR Sports and Max Muscle Sports Nutrition of Saugus, Massachusetts for this event in cooperation with owner Michael Fauci, professional bodybuilder Craig Torres and Jim Castrucci. He modeled Ed Hardy and MMA Muay Thai brand apparel by Raja Boxing and Kombat Gear during this event, he was coached by Musclemania New England Bodybuilding Judge and BBPics Photography owner John Mitchell. In June 2011, he competed as a sports model at the Musclemania Model Universe Championships as part of Musclemania's Universe Weekend in Miami, he modeled clubwear by Sean John. His themewear consisted of black and gold Gladiator style Muay Thai trunks by Siamtops with Twins Special 12 oz. boxing gloves. He was one of the most tattooed models in the competition. Quinlan suffered a torn grade three hamstring tear one month prior to this event.
In May 2012, Quinlan competed in two NPC Men's Physique contests. The first was the Jay Cutler Classic Men's Physique presented by GNC at John Hancock Hall in Boston. NPC coordinators measured his height as 5'9 ½", which meant he competed in the under six feet tall class, he wore Nike board shorts for this event
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the third most populous city in Alabama, the most populous in Mobile County, the largest municipality on the Gulf Coast between New Orleans, St. Petersburg, Florida. Alabama's only saltwater port, Mobile is located on the Mobile River at the head of the Mobile Bay and the north-central Gulf Coast; the Port of Mobile has always played a key role in the economic health of the city, beginning with the settlement as an important trading center between the French colonists and Native Americans, down to its current role as the 12th-largest port in the United States. Mobile is the principal municipality of the Mobile metropolitan area; this region of 412,992 residents is composed of Mobile County. Mobile is the largest city in the Mobile-Daphne−Fairhope CSA, with a total population of 604,726, the second largest in the state; as of 2011, the population within a 60-mile radius of Mobile is 1,262,907.
Mobile was established in 1702 by the French as the first capital of colonial La Louisiane. During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France Britain, lastly Spain. Mobile first became a part of the United States of America in 1813, with the annexation by President James Madison of West Florida from Spain. In 1861, Alabama joined the Confederate States of America, which surrendered in 1865. Considered one of the Gulf Coast's cultural centers, Mobile has several art museums, a symphony orchestra, professional opera, professional ballet company, a large concentration of historic architecture. Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Carnival or Mardi Gras celebrations in the United States, its French Catholic colonial settlers celebrated this festival from the first decade of the 18th century. Beginning in 1830, Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society to celebrate with a parade in the United States; the city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay.
Although debated by Alabama historians, they may have been descendants of the Native American tribe whose small fortress town, was used to conceal several thousand native warriors before an attack in 1540 on the expedition of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. About seven years after the founding of the French Mobile settlement, the Mobile tribe, along with the Tohomé, gained permission from the colonists to settle near the fort; the European settlement of Mobile began with French colonists, who in 1702 constructed Fort Louis de la Louisiane, at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff on the Mobile River, as the first capital of the French colony of La Louisiane. It was founded by French Canadian brothers Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, to establish control over France's claims to La Louisiane. Bienville was appointed as royal governor of French Louisiana in 1701. Mobile's Roman Catholic parish was established on July 20, 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Bishop of Quebec.
The parish was the first French Catholic parish established on the Gulf Coast of the United States. In 1704 the ship Pélican delivered 23 French women to the colony. Though most of the "Pélican girls" recovered, numerous colonists and neighboring Native Americans contracted the disease in turn and many died; this early period was the occasion of the importation of the first African slaves, transported aboard a French supply ship from the French colony of Saint-Domingue in the Caribbean, where they had first been held. The population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708, yet descending to 178 persons two years due to disease; these additional outbreaks of disease and a series of floods resulted in Bienville ordering that the settlement be relocated in 1711 several miles downriver to its present location at the confluence of the Mobile River and Mobile Bay. A new earth-and-palisade Fort Louis was constructed at the new site during this time. By 1712, when Antoine Crozat was appointed to take over administration of the colony, its population had reached 400 persons.
The capital of La Louisiane was moved in 1720 to Biloxi, leaving Mobile to serve as a regional military and trading center. In 1723 the construction of a new brick fort with a stone foundation began and it was renamed Fort Condé in honor of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon and prince of Condé. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, which Britain won, defeating France. By this treaty, France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain; this area was made a part of the expanded British West Florida colony. The British changed the name of Fort Condé to Fort Charlotte, after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and queen with King George III; the British were eager not to lose any useful inhabitants and promised religious tolerance to the French colonists. The first permanent Jewish settlers came to Mobile in 1763 as a result of the new British rule and religious tolerance. Jews had not been allowed to reside in colonial French Louisiana due to the Code Noir, a decree passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685 that forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, ordered all Jews out of France's colonies.
Most of these colonial-era Jews in Mobile were merchants and traders from Sephardic Jewish communities in Savannah, Georgia and Ch
St. Louis Cathedral (New Orleans)
The Cathedral-Basilica of Saint Louis, King of France called St. Louis Cathedral, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans and is the oldest cathedral in what would become the United States, dedicated to Saint Louis know as the King Louis IX of France; the first church on the site was built in 1718. The cathedral was expanded and rebuilt in 1850, with little of the 1789 structure remaining. Saint Louis Cathedral is in the French Quarter of New Orleans, United States, on the Place John Paul II, a promenaded section of Chartres Street that runs for one block between St. Peter Street on the upriver boundary and St. Ann Street on the downriver boundary, it is located next to Jackson Square and facing the Mississippi River in the heart of New Orleans, situated between the historic buildings of the Cabildo and the Presbytère. Three Roman Catholic churches have stood on the site since 1718; the first was a crude wooden structure in the early days of the French colony. As the French were Catholic, their church was prominently located on the town square.
Construction of a larger brick and timber church was begun in 1725 and was completed in 1727. Along with numerous other buildings, the church was destroyed in the Great New Orleans Fire on Good Friday, March 21, 1788; the cornerstone of a new church was laid in 1789 and the building was completed in 1794. In 1793 Saint Louis Church was elevated to cathedral rank as the See of the Diocese of New Orleans, making it one of the oldest cathedrals in the United States. In 1819, a central tower with the clock and bell was added. Enlarging the building to meet the needs of the growing congregation had been pondered since 1834, J. N. B. de Pouilly was consulted to design plans for a new building. De Pouilly designed St. Augustine Church in Tremé, the first church building dedicated as a parish church outside the French Quarter. On March 12, 1849, the diocese contracted with John Patrick Kirwan to enlarge and restore the cathedral, using De Pouilly's plans; these specified that everything be demolished except the lateral walls and the lower portions of the existing towers on the front facade.
During the reconstruction, it was determined. During construction in 1850, the central tower collapsed. De Pouilly and Kirwan were replaced; as a consequence of these problems and reconstruction little of the Spanish Colonial structure survived. The present structure dates to 1850; the bell from the 1819 tower is still there today. During the renovation, St. Patrick's Church served as the pro-cathedral for the city. On April 25, 1909, a dynamite bomb was set off in the cathedral, blowing out windows and damaging galleries; the following year a portion of the foundation collapsed, necessitating the building's closure while repairs were made, from Easter 1916 to Easter 1917. The cathedral was designated as a minor basilica by Pope Paul VI in 1964. Pope John Paul II visited the cathedral in September 1987. Today the parish has over 6000 members; the high winds of Hurricane Katrina displaced two large oak trees in St. Anthony's Garden behind the cathedral, dislodging 30 feet of ornamental gate; the nearby marble statue of Jesus Christ was damaged, losing a thumb.
More the winds tore a hole in the roof, allowing water to enter the building and damage the Holtkamp pipe organ. Shortly after the storm, the organ was sent back to Holtkamp to be rebuilt. An electronic substitute was used until June 2008. Installed during the cathedral's extensive renovation in 2004, the organ was donated by longtime choir master and organist Elise Cambon. Saint Louis Cemetery is known as the burial place of Voodoo priestess Marie Laveau; the cemetery is the burial place of various prominent New Orleans residents, including Étienne de Boré, Homer Plessy, Bernard de Marigny, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Barthelemy Lafon, Paul Morphy, Ernest Nathan Morial. There is a copper name plate for Madame Marie Delphine LaLaurie in Alley 4, although she is not buried in the cemetery; the American actor Nicolas Cage purchased an empty tomb here. The cathedral is said to be haunted by Fr. Antonio de Sedella, more known as Père Antoine, he was a priest at the cathedral and his body is buried within the church.
He is said to walk the alley named after him next to the cathedral in the early mornings. Accounts of his apparitions by parishioners and tourists claim that he appears during Christmas Midnight Mass near the left side of the altar, holding a candle; the cathedral is said to be haunted by Père Dagobert, a monk who resided in the church. It is said. List of Catholic cathedrals in the United States List of cathedrals in the United States Oldest churches in the United States Official website Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans Official Site John Kendall, "St. Louis Cathedral", History of New Orleans
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.