Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington is a university in Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of Parliament, was a constituent college of the University of New Zealand; the university is well known for its programmes in law, the humanities, some scientific disciplines, offers a broad range of other courses. Entry to all courses at first year is open, entry to second year in some programmes is restricted. Victoria had the highest average research grade in the New Zealand Government's Performance-Based Research Fund exercise in 2012, having been ranked 4th in 2006 and 3rd in 2003. Victoria has been ranked 221st in the World's Top 500 universities by the QS World University Rankings. Victoria is named after Queen Victoria. There was a dispute as to where to site it, it opened in temporary facilities in Thorndon, it was decided to place it in Kelburn, where it still has its primary campus. This decision was influenced by the Cable Car company's offer of a donation of £1,000 if it were located in Kelburn so that students would patronise the Cable Car from the city.
Several of the Company investors like Martin Kennedy were supporters of Seddon, who stalled on releasing land on the alternative Mount Cook Gaol site for the university, although this site was supported in Wellington. The foundation stone of the historic Hunter Building was laid in 1904; the original name was Victoria University College, but on the dissolution of the University of New Zealand in 1961 Victoria or "Vic" became the Victoria University of Wellington, conferring its own degrees. An extramural branch was founded at Palmerston North in 1960, it merged with Massey College on 1 January 1963. Having become a branch of Victoria upon the University of New Zealand's 1961 demise, the merged college became Massey University on 1 January 1964. In 2004, Victoria celebrated the 100th birthday of the Hunter Building. Victoria has expanded beyond its original campus in Kelburn, with campuses in Te Aro, Pipitea. Victoria hosts the Ferrier Research Institute and the Robinson Research Institute in Lower Hutt, the Coastal Ecology Laboratory in Island Bay and the Miramar Creative Centre, in Park Rd, Miramar.
In 2015, Victoria opened a new campus in Auckland to service the growing demand for its courses and expertise. In May 2018, it was reported that Victoria was exploring options to simplify its name to University of Wellington. Vice-Chancellor Grant Guillford said that the university was pursuing a name change in order to reduce confusion overseas, as several other universities carried the "Victoria" name. On the 27th July, 2018, the Victoria University of Wellington Council agreed in principle to the name change, as well as replacing the Māori name with Te Herenga Waka. Of the 2,000 public submissions on the name change proposal were opposed, 75% were opposed to it. Alumni and students were opposed to the name change, staff gave mixed feedback, while university stakeholders favoured the name change. On 24 September 2018, Victoria University's Council voted by a majority of nine to two to change the university's name to the University of Wellington; the Council voted to adopt the new Māori name of Te Herenga Waka.
The University's Vice-Chancellor Grant Guilford abstained from the vote, citing a conflict of interest. Critics such as Victoria University law professor Geoff McLay criticized the name change for erasing 120 years of history. By contrast, Chancellor Neil Pavious-Smith defended the outcome of the vote as "one decision in a much broader strategy to try and help the university achieve its potential"; the Council will submit its recommendation to the Minister of Education who will make the final decision. On 18 December 2018, Minister for Education Chris Hipkins announced that he had rejected the University Council's recommendation, citing the proposed change did not have sufficient support from Victoria's staff, students or alumni, that such a change would not in keeping with institution accountability or be in the national interest, its main campus is in Kelburn, a suburb on a hill overlooking the Wellington central business district, where its administration and humanities & social science and science faculties are based.
The law and commerce and administration faculties are in the Pipitea Campus, near Parliament Buildings, which consists of Rutherford House, the restored Old Government Buildings, the West Wing of the Wellington railway station. A smaller campus in Te Aro is the base for the design schools; the newest facility, the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory supports research programmes in marine biology and coastal ecology on Wellington's rugged south coast. Day-to-day governance is in the hands of the University Council, which consists of 20 people: four elected by the Court of Convocation, three elected by the academic staff, one elected by the general staff, two appointed by the student union executive, four appointed by the Minister of Education, four selected by the Council itself, the Vice-Chancellor; the Court of Convocation is composed of all graduates. Charles Wilson, at the time the chief librarian of the parliamentary library, was a member of the original council and its chairman for two years.
For New Zealand residents entry to most courses is open, with a few exceptions. Performance Music requires an audition. There is selection for entry into the second year in degrees such as BArch and BDes. BA in criminology a
Wesley College, Auckland
Wesley College is a secondary school in Paerata, at the northern edge of Pukekohe, Auckland Region, New Zealand. The school provides education from year 9 to 13; the school was founded by members of the Methodist Church in 1844, making it one of the country's oldest schools. Located in Grafton and the Three Kings area of Auckland, it closed in 1868 before reopening in 1876 in Three Kings again. From the beginning there was an emphasis on educating Maori boys, played a prominent role in educating students from countries of the South Pacific. In 1924 the school was moved to its current location near Pukekohe. In 1985 it was one of the first boys schools in New Zealand to admit girls at the senior level. Wesley College was located in Upper Queen Street when it closed in 1868. In 1895, a new school with Methodist links started in that building, known as Prince Albert College; the school closed on 31 December 1906 due to financial pressures. The building was used by Auckland Girls' Grammar School; the following have been principals of the school: Rev.
J H Simmonds 1895–1923 R. C. Clark, MA, Dip Ed 1924–1944 Rev. E. M. Marshall, BA, Dip Ed 1944–1964 C. A. Neate, MA, Dip Tchg 1965–1967 E. Te R. Tauroa, B AgricSc, Dip Ed, Dip Tchg 1968–1973 Believed to be the first Māori principal of a secondary school Race Relations Conciliator. J. B. McDougall, E. D. B Agric Sc, Dip Tchg 1974–1988 G. V. Cowley, MSc, Dip Tchg, JP 1989–2002 I. F. Faulkner, JP, MA, Dip Tchg 2003–present Temuera Morrison – Actor Ian Mune – Actor and Film Director Richard Taylor – Multiple Academy Award Winner Arnold Manaaki Wilson – Artist and Sculptor, Father of Contemporary Maori Art, First Maori to gain a Diploma in Fine Arts Koro Dewes – Ngāti Porou kaumatua and Māori language advocate Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō – Prime Minister of Tonga Jim Peters – Politician Sir Peter Kenilorea – First Prime Minister and Current Speaker of Solomon Islands Roger McClay – Politician and Children's Commissioner Todd McClay – Member of Parliament for Rotorua, former Cook Islands diplomat Rob Storey – Politician Malietoa Tanumafili II – Former Head of State of Samoa George Tupou II – King of Tonga Baron Vaea – former Prime Minister of Tonga Walter Buller – lawyer and ornithologist Rugby UnionUini Atonio - Counties Manukau, La Rochelle, France Stephen Donald – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Waikato, Bath, New Zealand All Black Rhys Duggan – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s Waikato, New Zealand All Black Epalahame Faiva - Wakato, New Zealand u20s Malakai Fekitoa – Auckland, New Zealand All Black Frank Halai – Waikato, NZ Sevens, Counties Manukau, New Zealand All Black Sekope Kepu – New Zealand U17's, New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Counties, NSW Waratahs, Australia – Wallabies Casey Laulala – New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Caterbury, Cardiff Blues, New Zealand All Black Nepo Laulala – Canterbury, New Zealand All Blacks Jonah Lomu – New Zealand U16's, New Zealand U17's, New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Wellington, North Harbour, Chiefs, Cardiff Blues, NZ Sevens, New Zealand All Black Tevita Mailau – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Auckland, Tonga Ikale Tahi Seilala Mapusua – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Highlanders, London Irish, Kubota Spears, Manu Samoa Charles Piutau – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u20s, Auckland, NZ Sevens, New Zealand All Black Siale Piutau – Counties, Tonga Ikale Tahi Augustine Pulu – Counties, New Zealand All Black, NZ Sevens David Raikuna – Counties, North Harbour, Blues, NZ Sevens Doug Rollerson – Manawatu, New Zealand All Black Sitiveni Sivivatu – Counties, Chiefs, ASM Clermont Auvergne, Pacific Islanders, New Zealand All Black George Stowers – New Zealand Secondary Schools, NZ u21s, Chiefs, Pacific Islanders, Manu Samoa Niva Ta'auso – Counties, New Zealand Divisional XV, Junior All Blacks Michael Tagicakibau – Taranaki, London Welsh, Fiji Sailosi Tagicakibau – Chiefs, London Irish, Pacific Islanders, Manu Samoa Jonathan Taumateine - Counties Manukau, Manu Samoa u20s, New Zealand u20s, Chiefs Ezra Taylor – Otago, Reds, Manu Samoa Hale T-Pole – New Zealand Secondary Schools, New Zealand u19s, New Zealand u21s, Highlanders, Pacific Islanders, Tonga Ikale Tahi Viliame Veikoso – Otago, FijiRugby LeagueGlen Fisiiahi – New Zealand Warriors player Fetuli Talanoa – Tonga Rugby League International/South Sydney Rabbitohs Tame Tupou – Kiwis/Brisbane Broncos/Bradford Bulls Arthur, Aylesbeare.
A Tale of Two Colleges. Auckland. Retrieved 10 August 2015. Lists of schools in New Zealand Wesley College website Old Friends NZ — Wesley College Schools, Auckland
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Ngāi Tūhoe known as Tūhoe, is a Māori iwi of New Zealand. It takes its name from Tūhoe-pōtiki. Tūhoe is a Māori-language word meaning "steep" or "high noon". Tūhoe people bear the sobriquet Nga Tamariki o te Kohu. Tūhoe traditional land is at Te Urewera in the eastern North Island, a steep forested area which includes Lake Waikaremoana. Tūhoe traditionally relied on the forest for their needs; the tribe had its main centres of population in the small mountain valleys of Ahikereru and Ruatahuna, with Maungapohatu, the inner sanctum of the Urewera, as their sacred mountain. The Tūhoe country had a great reputation among the neighbouring tribes as a graveyard for invading forces. Tūhoe people have a reputation for their continued strong adherence to Māori identity and for their unbroken use of the Māori language, which 60% of them still speak. Of the Tūhoe people, estimated to number between 33,000 and 45,000, about 30 per cent still live on their tribal lands. At least 5,000 live in Australia. Subtribes of Tūhoe include Ngāti Koura.
The Tūhoe continue to maintain camps in Te Urewera and help run conservation programmes for endangered birds, such as the North Island brown kiwi and the North Island kōkako. Many Tūhoe return to their homelands every two years for the Te Hui Ahurei ā Tūhoe, which features kapa haka, sports competitions, fashion shows; the event provides an important opportunity to maintain ties with relatives. Tūhoe had little direct contact with the early European settlers; the first major contact occurred when the iwi fought against the settler government in the battle of Ōrākau in 1864. Rewi Maniapoto, who had some tribal links to Tūhoe, visited the Urewera in 1862 and persuaded them to take part in the rebellion against the government. Reluctant, the Tūhoe gave Rewi ammunition to back the rebellion. During a cease-fire in the Battle of Orakau, under a flag of truce, Gilbert Mair, a translator, was shot in the shoulder by a Tūhoe warrior. Nearly all the Tūhoe at the battle were killed; the following year authorities accused the Tūhoe of sheltering Kereopa Te Rau, a Hau Hau wanted for killing and beheading Karl Volkner, a missionary of the Church Missionary Society, in what was called the Volkner Incident.
The Tūhoe had cooperated in tracking down the Hau hau leader and had taken him prisoner. The Tūhoe tried to use him as a bargaining chip but the government demanded Te Rau be handed over for trial. After the Tūhoe released him, Te Rau hid in the Ureweras; as punishment, in 1866 the government confiscated 5700ha or about 7% of Tūhoe land on its northern coastal border. The confiscated Tūhoe land adjoined the land confiscated from Bay of Plenty rebels after the battle of Gate Pā; the Crown took the Tūhoe's only substantial flat, fertile land, which provided their only access to the coast for kai moana. The Tūhoe people retained only interior, more difficult land, setting the scene for famines. In 1868, Tūhoe sheltered the Māori leader Te Kooti, a fugitive who had escaped from imprisonment on the Chatham Islands. Te Kooti arrived in the area with a large group of escaped convicts armed with modern weapons he had stolen from the ship he had hijacked, it is doubtful. Some Tūhoe joined his armed Ringatū band, but other Tūhoe told government forces of Te Kooti's whereabouts.
Some joined the armed forces to hunt him down. Government forces punished those Tūhoe. Te Ara, the Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand, notes: "Old enemies of Tūhoe fought on the side of the government. In a policy aimed at turning the tribe away from Te Kooti, a scorched earth campaign was unleashed against Tūhoe. Through starvation and atrocities at the hands of the government’s Māori forces, Tūhoe submitted to the Crown." Te Kooti himself escaped to the King Country, after the events surrounding the hunt for him, Tūhoe isolated themselves, closing off access to their lands by refusing to sell, lease or survey them, blocking the building of roads. Twenty years Te Urewera leaders, Premier Seddon, Native Affairs Minister Timi Carroll negotiated the 1896 "Urewera District Native Reserve Act", it provided for Tūhoe self-government through a General Committee and local committees, with the Native Land Court excluded and titles determined instead by a commission comprising two Pākehā and five Tūhoe commissioners.
In practice however, the Crown through a mixture of ineptitude and bad-faith "...totally failed to give effect to its promises in the UDNR Act. Historian Jamie Belich describes the Urewera as one of the last zones of Māori autonomy, the scene of the last case of armed Māori resistance: the 1916 New Zealand Police raid to arrest the Tūhoe prophet Rua Kenana. On 2 April 1916 a 70-strong, armed, police party arrived at Maungapohatu to arrest him for sedition; because Rua's village was so remote, the police had to take a lot of equipment and camped on the way. They moved like a small army with wagons and pack-horses, included New Zealand Herald photographer Arthur Breckon. So as not to alert the Maungapo
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home; the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the principality of Lippe, Germany.
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work, his system was successful in producing obedient children with basic numeracy. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, went on to establish hundreds more, he published many works on the subject, his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published based on the school, he began working for the Infant School Society the next year. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Countess Theresa Brunszvik, who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.
In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school, he renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden". Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens around the world; the first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz. Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860; the first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who established the Poppenhusen Institute.
The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in cities. In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens. Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan.
The number of preschools grew during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country; these facilities were an urban phenomenon in Kabul, were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare; the vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control.
In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government c
University of Waikato
The University of Waikato, informally Waikato University, is a comprehensive university in Hamilton, New Zealand. The university was established in 1964, has a satellite campus located in Tauranga; the University of Waikato began in 1956 after Hamilton locals launched a petition for a university to serve the needs of the South Auckland region. The group was led by Douglas Seymour, a barrister, subsequently Anthony "Rufus" Rogers, a Hamilton GP and brother to long-time Mayor of Hamilton, Denis Rogers, their campaign coincided with a shortage of teachers in the 1950s that prompted the New Zealand government to consider plans for a teachers’ college in the region. In 1960, the newly established Hamilton Teachers’ College opened its doors, combined with the fledgling university, began a joint campus on farmland at Hillcrest, on the city's outskirts. In 1964, the two institutions moved to their new home, the following year the University of Waikato was opened by Governor-General Sir Bernard Fergusson.
At this time the university comprised a School of Social Sciences. In 1969 a School of Science.was established. This was followed by the creation of Waikato Management School in 1972, Computer Science and Computing Services in 1973, the establishment of the School, now Faculty, of Law in 1990. From the beginning, it was envisaged that Māori studies should be a key feature of the new university, the Centre for Māori Studies and Research was set up in the School of Social Sciences in 1972. A separate School of Māori and Pacific Development was formally established in 1996. In 1999, the original Schools of Humanities and Social Sciences were merged to form the School of Arts and Social Sciences. In 2010, the tertiary partnership was widened to include Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi in the Eastern Bay of Plenty. In 2014, the university became smoke-free, disallowing smoking on campus and in university-owned vehicles; the Faculty of Law is one of seven faculties that make up the University. The Faculty is located on the southeast side of the Hillcrest Campus in Hamilton, accessible from Hillcrest Road.
The Law Faculty is located at the Tauranga campus. The Law Faculty adopted the principles of professionalism and the study of law in context. One of the key founders of the Waikato Faculty of Law was the 27th Speaker of the House Margaret Wilson who returned to the faculty as a professor in January 2009; the chief executive of the University of Waikato is the vice-chancellor Professor Neil Quigley. The University is governed by a council, headed by the University's Chancellor, former New Zealand prime minister Rt Hon James B Bolger ONZ; the University Council works with Te Rōpū Manukura, made up of representatives of the 16 iwi authorities in the University's catchment area. Te Rōpū Manukura is the Kaitiaki of the Treaty of Waitangi for the University of Waikato, acts to ensure that the University works in partnership with iwi to meet tertiary needs and aspirations of Māori communities; the following list shows the university's chancellors: Denis Rogers J. Bruce McKenzie Henry R. Bennett C. Douglas Arcus The Hon Sir David Lance Tompkins QC Henry R. Bennett Dame Joy Drayton Gerald D.
G. Bailey Caroline Bennett John A. Gallagher John B. Jackman Rt Hon James Bolger ONZ The University of Waikato operates from two campuses and Tauranga. Undergraduate degrees are offered through a satellite location on the campus of Zhejiang University City College in Hangzhou; the main Hamilton campus is spread over 64 hectares of landscaped gardens and lakes, includes extensive sporting and recreational areas. Farmland, the campus was designed by architect John Blake-Kelly in 1964; the open space landscaping contains extensive native plantings, including a fernery, centred around three artificial lakes, created by draining marshy paddocks. The University of Waikato shared two campuses with Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology in Tauranga: Windmere and the Bongard Centre. In 2018, it was announced that the University would be moving all of their Tauranga operations to the Bongard Centre, with Toi Ohomai conversely moving their Bongard students to the Windmere campus. In 2019, construction on a new campus on Durham Street is expected to be completed.
The Student Centre opened in 2011 by Waikato alumnus Governor-General Jerry Mateparae. In the latest 2019 QS rankings, The University of Waikato leapt more than 100 places in five years to 274th place – in the top 1.1 percent of the world's 26,000 universities. Graduate Nathan Cohen is a two-time world champion and Olympic champion in rowing; the university has current prime minister of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern as a notable alumna. The Waikato Students' Union represents all students on campus, publishes the student magazine Nexus. Law students are represented by the University of Waikato Law Students' Association, Te Whakahiapo, the Pacific Law Students' Association. Management students are represented by the Waikato Management School Students' Association, Management Communication Students' Association, Pacific Islands Management Students Association, Te Ranga Ngaku. Waikato University's website