1993 Australian federal election
The 1993 Australian federal election was held to determine the members of the 37th Parliament of Australia. It was held on 13 March 1993. All 147 seats of the House of Representatives and 40 seats of the 76-seat Senate were up for election; the incumbent centre-left Australian Labor Party government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating was re-elected to a fifth term, defeating the centre-right Liberal/National Coalition led by Opposition Leader John Hewson of the Liberal Party, coalition partner Tim Fischer of the National Party. The Labor Party under Paul Keating prevailed, against general expectations, with an increase in its majority; this was the first election after the full totality of the late 80s/early 90s recession. The opposition Liberal Party was led by John Hewson, a Professor of Economics who succeeded Liberal leader Andrew Peacock in 1990. In November 1991 the opposition launched the 650-page Fightback! policy document − a radical collection of "dry", economic liberal measures including the introduction of a Goods and Services Tax, various changes to Medicare including the abolition of bulk billing for non-concession holders, the introduction of a nine-month limit on unemployment benefits, various changes to industrial relations including the abolition of awards, a $13 billion personal income tax cut directed at middle and upper income earners, $10 billion in government spending cuts, the abolition of state payroll taxes and the privatisation of a large number of government owned enterprises − representing the start of a different future direction to the keynesian economic conservatism practiced by previous Liberal/National Coalition governments.
The 15 percent GST was the centrepiece of the policy document. Through 1992, Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating mounted a campaign against the Fightback package, against the GST, which he described as an attack on the working class in that it shifted the tax burden from direct taxation of the wealthy to indirect taxation as a broad-based consumption tax. Pressure group activity and public opinion was relentless, which led Hewson to exempt food from the proposed GST − leading to questions surrounding the complexity of what food was and wasn't to be exempt from the GST. Hewson's difficulty in explaining this to the electorate was exemplified in the infamous birthday cake interview, considered by some as a turning point in the election campaign. Keating won a record fifth consecutive Labor term and a record 13 years in government at the 1993 election, a level of political success not seen by federal Labor. A number of the proposals were adopted in to law in some form, to a small extent during the Keating Labor government, to a larger extent during the Howard Liberal government, while unemployment benefits and bulk billing were re-targeted for a time by the Abbott Liberal government.
The election-eve Newspoll reported the Liberal/National Coalition on a 50.5 percent two-party-preferred vote, with Paul Keating's personal ratings being negative. For the first time since the 1966 election, an incumbent government had increased their two-party preferred vote. There was an unusual circumstance in the seat of Dickson. One of the candidates, an independent, died shortly before the election, making it necessary to hold a supplementary election on 17 April. Following the return of the Labor Party to government, Keating announced the makeup of his new ministry to be sworn in on 24 March, but kept the portfolio of Attorney-General open for Michael Lavarch subject to him winning Dickson on 17 April, he won the seat, was appointed to the ministry on 27 April. Note: the federal Australian Greens were founded in 1992, but not all state and territory organisations affiliated to the new federal party; the Greens total includes: Greens New South Wales, Victorian Greens, Queensland Greens, Greens Western Australia, Greens South Australia, Tasmanian Greens, ACT Green Democratic Alliance.
Independents: Ted Mack, Phil Cleary Notes Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1993 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1993–1996 Members of the Australian Senate, 1993–1996 University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote AustralianPolitics.com election details
Electoral district of Enfield
Enfield is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Named after the suburb of the same name, it is a 16.48 km2 suburban electorate in Adelaide's inner north, taking in the suburbs of Blair Athol, Clearview, Kilburn, Lightsview and Sefton Park. The seat is vacant pending a by-election in February 2019—Labor MP John Rau resigned from parliament in December 2018, following Labor's defeat at the 2018 South Australian state election in March. Enfield was first created to replace the abolished electoral district of Prospect for the 1956 election, it was abolished for the 1970 election replaced by the new electorate of Ross Smith. Enfield was recreated for the 2002 election as a safe Labor electorate, replacing the abolished electorate of Ross Smith, was won by Labor candidate John Rau. Rau had defeated Ralph Clarke, the former member for Ross Smith, in a Labor preselection ballot. Clarke subsequently contested the election as an independent, but came third, falling 800 votes short of the Liberal candidate.
At the 2006 election, Clarke decided to contest a South Australian Legislative Council seat, for which he had little chance of success. Without competition from Clarke, Rau extended his margin retaining the electorate for Labor. In the 2016 redistribution by the electoral districts boundaries commission, the districts southern suburbs of Collinswood and Manningham were reassigned to the neighbouring districts of Adelaide and Torrens; the districts western suburbs of Regency Park, Ferryden Park, Angle Park and Mansfield Park were reassigned to the adjacent district of Croydon. The northeastern boundary was extended to include the suburbs of Northgate and part of Northfield within Enfield district, the southwestern boundary was shifted south to include part of Prospect. In both of its incarnations, Enfield has been a comfortably-safe Labor seat; the seat is held by Andrea Michaels, elected in the 2019 Enfield state by-election on 9 February, following the resignation of John Rau. ECSA profile for Enfield: 2018 ABC profile for Enfield: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Enfield: 2018
Michael John Atkinson, a former Australian politician in the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party, was a member of the Parliament of South Australia from 1989 to 2018. Atkinson was the 34th Speaker of the South Australian House of Assembly in the Jay Weatherill government from 2013 to 2018. Before this post, he was the 46th Attorney-General of South Australia, Minister for Justice, Minister for Veterans' Affairs, Minister for Multicultural Affairs in the Mike Rann Labor Government. A day after the 2010 election, he resigned from the Cabinet. Atkinson represented the South Australian House of Assembly seat of Croydon from the seat's creation in 2002 until 2018, Spence from 1989 until the seat was abolished and replaced by Croydon in 2002, he was a member of the Australian Journalists Association whilst working for the Adelaide Advertiser. He is a member of the Shop Distributive and Allied Employees Association. Atkinson attended Unley High School, he studied at the Australian National University and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and a Bachelor of Laws degree.
He worked as a sub-editor and journalist for the Adelaide Advertiser from 1982 to 1985, an adviser and press secretary to federal minister Chris Hurford from 1985 to 1987, before becoming an advocate for the Shop and Allied Employees Association in 1989. A founding member of the Labor Right faction, Atkinson was first elected to Parliament at the 1989 election. Following the 1993 election, he was shadow minister in a range of portfolios until Labor won government at the 2002 election, he subsequently became Attorney-General, Minister for Justice, Minister for Consumer Affairs and Minister for Multicultural Affairs in the Rann cabinet. In a minor cabinet reshuffle in 2004, Atkinson lost his portfolio of Consumer Affairs, he became Minister for Correctional Services in 2006. He was re-elected at the 2006 election landslide in his seat of Croydon with a 76 percent two-party vote from a 6.9 percent two-party swing toward him. At the 2010 election Atkinson was again re-elected, but with a 12 percent two-party swing against him higher than the statewide 8.4 percent two-party swing.
Following his re-election, he announced he would resign from the Rann ministry but remain on the backbench. Atkinson was re-elected at the 2014 election where he picked up a 3.5 percent two-party swing toward him. On 5 February 2013 Atkinson replaced Lyn Breuer as Speaker of the South Australian House of Assembly. In September 2016, Peter Malinauskas into Atkinson's electorate of Croydon, he said of Atkinson: "Mick knows the movements of every single one of his constituents – I suspect I’m no exception.”Atkinson announced in February 2017 that he would be retiring from parliament as of the 2018 election. Atkinson has blocked attempts to introduce a R18+ for video games in Australia. In a letter on the subject, Atkinson stated, "I don't support the introduction of an R18+ rating for electronic games, chiefly because it will increase the risk of children and vulnerable adults being exposed to damaging images and messages."He withdrew his support for a discussion paper released for public consultation on the subject of an "R18+" rating.
Unanimity from Atkinson and his fellow state and federal Attorneys-General is required for the introduction of the rating. Australia's rating system lacked a classification for games above MA15+ at the time, it therefore lacked not only an equivalent rating to the ESRB's AO rating but an equivalent to its Mature rating. In 2009, Atkinson, in his role as attorney-general of South Australia, introduced laws into parliament that made internet commentary on the upcoming 2010 election illegal unless the commenter provided their real name and postcode; the laws were passed, came into effect on 6 January 2010. Following public criticism, Atkinson promised to repeal the section following the 2010 South Australian election and indicated it would not be enforced during the electoral period. In 2008, Atkinson introduced legislation aimed at increasing the rights of victims of crime; the legislation purported to allow victims to suggest a suitable sentence for the offender and made it compulsory for judges to consider imposing a restraining order on convicted sex offenders.
Since accepting his role as speaker, Atkinson has used his casting vote in Parliament to oppose several bills presented during the Weatherill government. These include a bill which would have allowed transgender people to have their gender changed on their birth certificates and another bill intended to enable voluntary euthanasia. Atkinson is separated from his wife, with whom he has three sons and a daughter. Atkinson's long-term and current de facto partner is fellow state Labor MP Jennifer Rankine. Atkinson is a member of the Traditional Anglican Communion, was its chancellor. Parliamentary Profile: SA Parliament website Parliamentary Profile: SA Labor website
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Kevin Foley (South Australian politician)
Kevin Owen Foley is a former South Australian politician who served as 11th Deputy Premier of South Australia and additionally Treasurer of South Australia in the Rann Government from 2002 to 2011 for the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party. He is the longest-serving deputy premier and the third longest-serving treasurer in South Australian history. Foley was educated at Royal Park High School, he began working for Cadbury-Schweppes. He worked variously for the Australian Trade Commission, Boral Limited and steel distribution company Australian National Industries. Before entering Parliament, Foley worked as a senior advisor and chief of staff to former South Australian Premier Lynn Arnold. Foley unsuccessfully contested seat of Semaphore at the 1989 election against Independent Labor MP Norm Peterson. However, he won the seat of Hart at the 1993 election before moving to the seat of Port Adelaide due to Hart's abolition at the 2002 election. Prior to the 2002 election, Foley did not serve in the position of Deputy Opposition Leader.
However, as a result of previous Deputy Leader Annette Hurley failing to win a seat in Parliament at the 2002 election Foley was elected deputy leader and treasurer by the Labor Caucus. As treasurer, Foley was responsible for rebuilding the state’s finances, culminating in the attainment of a AAA credit rating, he played a leading role in securing a series of significant defence contracts, negotiating the Olympic Dam mine expansion and supporting many of the state’s largest infrastructure projects, such as the Adelaide Oval redevelopment and the new Royal Adelaide Hospital. Whilst in Government, Foley served in a range of other cabinet positions, including Minister for Industry and Trade. Foley was a member of the Defence SA Advisory Board from its establishment in 2007 until 2011. In 2011, Foley said. Foley announced his resignation from the roles of deputy premier and treasurer in February 2011, although he continued as a member of cabinet with the Defence, Emergency Services and Motor Sports portfolios.
In October 2011 he resigned from the cabinet. Foley's parliamentary resignation took effect on 12 December 2011, creating a 2012 Port Adelaide by-election. In February 2012, Foley established his own corporate advisory firm Foley Advisory, has a "strategic alignment" with the lobbyists Bespoke Approach. Foley has since worked with Bespoke Approach's partners Alexander Downer, Nick Bolkus and Ian Smith. Parliament Profile
Parliament of South Australia
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat House of the 22-seat Legislative Council. All of the lower house and half of the upper house is filled at each election, it follows a Westminster system of parliamentary government. The Queen is represented in the State by the Governor of South Australia. According to the South Australian Constitution, unlike the Federal Parliament, the parliaments of the other states and territories of Australia, neither the Sovereign or the Governor is considered to be a part of the South Australian Parliament. However, the same role and powers are granted to them; the Parliament of South Australia began in 1857. Women gained the right to stand for election in 1895, taking effect at the 1896 election. South Australia became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 following a vote to Federate with the other British colonies of Australia. Elections were held every 3 years until 1985, when the parliament switched to 4 year terms, meaning 8 year terms for the upper house.
Beginning in 2006, election dates have been fixed at the third Saturday in March of every fourth year. The House of Assembly is made up of 47 members who are each elected by the full-preference instant-runoff voting system in single-member electorates; each of the 47 electoral districts contains the same number of voters. Since 1975, the distribution of electoral boundaries has been set by the South Australian Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission. Since 1991, boundaries have been redistributed after each election by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body, they were redistributed after every third election. Government is formed in the House of Assembly by the leader of the party or coalition who can demonstrate they have the support of the majority of the House, is called upon by the Governor to form government; the leader of the government becomes the Premier. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, Adelaide's population is 1.3 million − uniquely, over 75 percent of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area and has 72 percent of seats alongside a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, therefore the metropolitan area tends to decide election outcomes.
At the 2014 election for example, although the statewide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. The Legislative Council is made up of 22 councillors who are elected for the entire state by the Proportional Representation single transferable voting system to serve for a term of 8 years. Elections for the Legislative Council are staggered so that 11 seats are up for re-election every 4 years, at the same time as House of Assembly elections; the primary function of the Legislative Council is to review legislation, passed by the House of Assembly. This can cause tensions between the government and the Legislative Council, which may be viewed by the former as obstructionist if it rejects key legislation, as can happen at times when the electoral makeup of the two houses are different; the seat of the Parliament of South Australia is Parliament House in the state capital of Adelaide. Parliament House sits on the North-Western corner of the intersection of King William Street and North Terrace.
South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Official openings by the monarch in Australia Parliament of South Australia Homepage
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information