1975 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1975 was held on September 18, 1975, to elect the 125 members of the 30th Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by Bill Davis and campaigning under the slogan, "Your Future. Your choice.", won a tenth consecutive term in office. It lost its majority in the legislature, for the first time since the 1945 election; the PC Party lost 27 seats from its result in the previous election. The social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party, led by Stephen Lewis with the slogan "Tomorrow starts today", doubled its representation in the legislature, became the Official Opposition on the strength of a campaign which called for rent control in Ontario and highlighted horror stories of individuals and bad landlords who imposed exorbitant rent increases; the campaign forced the Davis' Tories to promise to implement rent controls shortly before the election. The Ontario Liberal Party, led by Robert Nixon, won 15 additional seats, but lost the role of Official Opposition to the NDP.
One member of its caucus was elected as a Liberal-Labour candidate. There were 12 Social Credit League of Ontario candidates but they were not recognized as such as the party did not run enough candidates or otherwise qualify for official party status under the newly passed Election Finances Reform Act, 1975. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario candidates, 1975 Ontario provincial election Independent candidates, 1975 Ontario provincial election
1985 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1985 was held on May 2, 1985, to elect members of the 33rd Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Progressive Conservatives won the most seats, but not a majority. Shortly after, the Progressive Conservatives' 42 years of governance in Ontario came to an end via a confidence vote defeating Premier Frank Miller's minority government. David Peterson's Liberals formed a minority government with the support of Bob Rae's NDP. Near Thanksgiving of 1984, longstanding Premier Bill Davis announced that he would be stepping down as Premier and leader of the Ontario PCs in early 1985. Davis, in office since 1971, had rung up a string of electoral victories by pursuing a moderate agenda and relying on the skill of the Big Blue Machine team of advisors. Davis, who remained popular throughout his term in office, would unveil a surprise legacy project: Full funding for Ontario's separate Catholic school system, which would become known as Bill 30; this decision was supported by both other parties, but was unpopular amongst the Tory base.
The subsequent leadership race saw. The moderate and urban wing was represented by second-place finisher Larry Grossman; the more conservative rural faction backed eventual victor Frank Miller. After Miller's victory at the convention the party factions failed to reconcile. Despite these problems, the PCs remained far ahead in the polls, when Miller called an election just six weeks after becoming premier, he was some twenty percentage points ahead of the Liberals. Over the campaign the Tory lead began to shrink as the Liberals waged a effective campaign. Part way into the campaign, the separate schools question re-emerged when the Anglican prelate of Toronto, Archbishop Lewis Garnsworthy, held a news conference on the issue where he compared Bill Davis' methods in pushing through the reform to Adolf Hitler: "This is how Hitler changed education in Germany, by the same process, by decree. I won't take that back.". Garnsworthy was much criticized for his remarks, but the issue was revived, alienating the conservative base, some of whom chose to stay home on election day.
The election held May 2, 1985 ended in a stalemate. The PCs emerged with a much-reduced caucus of 52 seats; the Liberals won 48 seats, but won more of the popular vote. The NDP held the balance of power with 25 seats. Despite taking 14 seats from the PCs, the result was something of a disappointment for the Liberals, as they felt they had their first realistic chance of winning government in recent memory; the NDP was disappointed by the election result. It had been nearly tied with the Liberals for popular support for several years, had hoped to surpass them; the PCs intended to remain in power with a minority government, as they had done on two occasions under Davis' leadership. Rae and the NDP had little interest in supporting a continuation of PC rule, began negotiations on May 13 to reach an agreement with the Liberals. Rae and Peterson signed an Accord May 29 that would see a number of NDP priorities put into law in exchange for an NDP motion of non-confidence in Miller's government, the NDP's support of the Liberals.
The NDP agreed to support a Liberal minority government for two years, the Liberals agreed not to call an election during that time. Miller, apprised of negotiations, considered a plan to address the province on television two days before the throne speech, disown funding for Catholic schools, announce he was meeting with the Lieutenant Governor to request an election before a confidence vote could take place. While believing that the Lieutenant Governor would have to call an election if requested before the confidence vote, Miller refused, believing the party's finances to be too fragile for a second campaign, that repudiating a key Davis policy would tear the party apart. On June 18, 1985, the PCs were defeated by the passage of a motion of no confidence introduced by Rae. Lieutenant-Governor John Black Aird asked Peterson to form a government. Miller resigned eight days and Peterson's minority government was sworn in the same day; the Revolutionary Workers League fielded one candidate. Algoma: Bud Wildman 7575 Jim Thibert 3694 Bryan McDougall 2995Algoma—Manitoulin: John Lane 7174 Tom Farquhar 4704 Len Hembruf 3309Armourdale: Bruce McCaffrey 13394 Gino Matrundola 13182 Bob Hebdon 5429 Simon Srdarev 456Beaches—Woodbine: Marion Bryden 12672 Paul Christie 7301 Sally Kelly 5065 Steve Thistle 396Bellwoods: Ross McClellan 8088 Walter Bardyn 6655 Bento de Sao Jose 1964 Ronald Rodgers 324Brampton: Bob Callahan 25656 Jeff Rice 21239 Terry Gorman 8313 Jim Bridgewood 531 Dave Duqette 500Brantford: Phil Gillies 13444 Jack Tubman 12303 Herb German 6533Brant—Oxford—Haldimand: Robert Nixon 15317 Ian Birnie 5817 Irene Heltner 3487Brock: Peter Partington 9741 Bill Andres 9081 Robert Woolston 3867 Brian Dolby 755Burlington South: Cam Jackson 16479 Doug Redfearn 11822 Walter Mukewich 10820Cambridge: Bill Barlow 12888 Alec Dufresne 11985 Bob Jeffrey 7083Carleton: Bob Mitchell 17732 Hans Daigeler 15093 Bea Murray 7165Carleton East: Gilles Morin 23221 Bob MacQuarrie 16188 Joan Gullen 8829Carleton-Grenville: Norm Sterling 15524 Dan Maxwell 8019 Alan White 3468Chatham—Kent: Maurice Bossy 10340 Andy Watson 9206 Ron Franko 5535Cochrane North: René Fontaine 8793 René
The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was an upper tier level of municipal government in Ontario, Canada from 1954 to 1998. It was made up of the old city of Toronto and numerous townships and villages that surrounded Toronto, which were starting to urbanise after World War II, it was referred to as "Metro Toronto" or "Metro". Passage of the 1997 City of Toronto Act caused the 1998 amalgamation of Metropolitan Toronto and its constituents into the current City of Toronto; the boundaries of present-day Toronto are the same as those of Metropolitan Toronto upon its dissolution: Lake Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, the Rouge River to the east. Prior to the formation of Metropolitan Toronto, the municipalities surrounding the central city of Toronto were all independent townships and villages within York County. After 1912, the city no longer annexed suburbs from York Township. At times, the suburbs asked to be annexed into Toronto.
In 1924, Ontario cabinet minister George S. Henry was the first to propose a'metropolitan district' with its own council, separate from the city and the county, to administer shared services, he wrote a draft bill. The Great Depression saw all of the towns and villages of the county become insolvent; when that happened, they were, taken over by the province. In 1933, now the premier, appointed a formal inquiry into forming a metropolitan district. A proposal was made for Toronto to provide several of its services to the suburbs as well; the inquiry died with the defeat of Henry in 1934. In the 1930s, a Liberal Ontario government named the first minister of municipal affairs, David A. Croll, introduced a draft bill to amalgamate Toronto and the built-up suburbs; the draft bill was withdrawn. The government started its own inquiry into issues of the suburbs surrounding Toronto. Through consensus, it came to the conclusion; the inquiry reported in September 1939, its conclusions were put aside for the duration of World War II.
Two factors changed in the 1940s. A Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario government was elected in 1943, with a changed policy, intending to promote economic growth through government action. In 1943, the first Master Plan was adopted in Toronto, it recognized. Planning would have to take into account the whole metropolitan area. Forest Hill reeve Fred Gardiner, politically well-connected to newly elected PC premier George Drew, now promoted the idea of ambitious new programs to lay the capital infrastructure for growth. In 1946, the province passed the Planning Act, which required each urban municipality to have its own Planning Board. A Toronto and Suburban Planning Board was founded, under the chairmanship of James P. Maher, the vice-chairmanship of Fred Gardiner; the Board promoted specific projects, promoted a suburban'green belt', a unified system of arterial roads and the creation of a single public transit network. The Board was ineffective. Projects such as a bridge across the Don River Valley and the Spadina Road Extension were rejected by the local municipalities.
Gardiner, elected as chairman of the board in 1949, wrote to Premier Leslie Frost that only a unified municipality could measure up to the problems. In 1950, the City of Toronto Council voted to adopt an amalgamated city, while nearly all of the suburbs rejected the amalgamation. From 1950 until 1951, the Ontario Municipal Board held hearings on the proposal, under the chairmanship of Lorne Cumming; the Board worked until 1953, releasing its report on January 20, 1953. Cumming's report proposed a compromise solution: a two-tiered government, with the formation of a Metropolitan government, governed by a Metropolitan Council, to provide strategic functions, while existing municipalities would retain all other services, he rejected full amalgamation, citing a need to preserve'a government, close to the local residents.' The Frost government moved and on February 25, 1953, introduced the bill to create the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. The new municipality would have the power to borrow funds on its own.
It would be responsible for arterial roads, major sewage and water facilities, regional planning, public transportation, administration of justice, metropolitan parks and housing issues as needed. The municipalities retained their individual fire and police departments, business licensing, public health and libraries; the Council would have its own chairman, selected by the province then to be elected by the Council itself after 1955. Premier Frost convinced Fred Gardiner, who still preferred amalgamation, over the metro scheme, to take the job. Gardiner was well known to Frost through the Conservative Party, was well-off, was felt to be beyond personal corruption. Gardiner accepted the position due to his friendship with Frost, he demanded that he retain his corporate connections, he felt that the job would be "bigger than anything he had tried before." The bill to form Metro was passed on April 2, 1953. The Gardiner appointment was announced on April 7. In Canada, the creation of municipalities falls under provincial jurisdiction.
Thus it was provincial legislation, the Metropolitan Toronto Act, that created this level of government in 1953. When it took effect in 1954, the portion of York Township not yet annexed by Toronto, as well as all of Scarborough and Etobicoke Townships were incorporated as part of the Municipality of Metropolitan
Henekh "Henry" Morgentaler, was a Jewish Polish-born Canadian physician and pro-choice advocate who fought numerous legal battles aimed at expanding abortion rights in Canada. As a youth during World War II, Morgentaler was imprisoned at the Łódź Ghetto and at the Dachau concentration camp. After the war, Morgentaler migrated to Canada and entered medical practice, becoming one of the first Canadian doctors to perform vasectomies, to insert intrauterine devices, to provide birth control pills to unmarried women, he opened his first abortion clinic in 1969 in Montreal, challenging what he saw as an unjust law placing burdensome restrictions on women seeking abortions. He was the first doctor in North America to use vacuum aspiration and went on to open twenty clinics and train more than one hundred doctors. Morgentaler twice challenged the constitutionality of the federal abortion law, losing the first time, in Morgentaler v R in 1975, but winning the second time, in R v Morgentaler in 1988.
In 2008, Morgentaler was awarded the Order of Canada "for his commitment to increased health care options for women, his determined efforts to influence Canadian public policy and his leadership in humanist and civil liberties organizations." Morgentaler died at the age of 90 of a heart attack. Morgentaler was born in Łódź, about 120 kilometres southwest of Warsaw, to Josef and Golda Morgentaler. Before World War II, Morgentaler's father was active in the General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland. During the German occupation of Poland, a Jewish ghetto in Łódź was created and Jews were not allowed to leave it. Morgentaler's father was killed by the Gestapo, while Henry lived with his mother and younger brother in the Ghetto Litzmannstadt with 164,000 others, his sister had left for Warsaw with her husband before the start of the war. She was incarcerated there at the Warsaw Ghetto, took part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, she was killed at the Treblinka extermination camp. When the Germans raided the Ghetto in Łódź with the help of the Jewish Ghetto Police, the Rosenfarbs and the Morgentalers along with two other families hid in a room with the door concealed by a wardrobe.
After two days in hiding, on August 23, 1942 they were found and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp. The boys never saw their mother again: Golda died at Auschwitz. On August 27, Henry and Abraham were shipped to KL Landsberg, Dachau concentration camp, where they both remained until the end of the war. In February, 1943, Henry was sent to KL Kaufering. By the end of the war he was in sick bay, whence he was liberated by U. S. Army on April 29, 1945. After his release at age 22 Henry weighed just 32 kg, he entered. After a few months there he was moved to a DP Hospital in St. Ottilien, thence with Abraham to Feldafing, a Displaced Persons Camp, in Bavaria. In 1946, Abraham emigrated to the United States. In 1947 Henry made his way to Brussels in Belgium; because they were not in Belgium he and his fiancée, Chava Rosenfarb, were required to emigrate. Chava's sister, Henia Reinhartz, in her Memoir, "Bits and Pieces," described the harsh economic conditions while the family, Henry, lived in Brussels.
One picture shows Henia and their mother wearing coats made from blankets donated by UNRRA. In 1949 Henry and Chava were married, they left Europe in February, 1950, on the S. S. Samaria, sailing to Canada; the couple settled in Montréal. Several months their first child, was born, their second child was Abraham. Henry was, by his own admission, a proud womanizer, their marriage ended in divorce in the mid-1970s. Chava died January 30, 2011. In 1972, Morgentaler ran in the Federal Election in the riding of Saint-Denis as an independent, finishing fourth with 1,509 votes. Morgentaler received his medical education from the Université de Montréal, graduating in 1953. After receiving his Canadian citizenship, he practiced medicine in the east end of Montreal, he started as a general practitioner in 1955 but specialized in family planning, becoming one of the first Canadian doctors to perform vasectomies, to insert intra-uterine devices, to provide birth control pills to unmarried women. On October 19, 1967, he presented a brief on behalf of the Humanist Association of Canada before a House of Commons Health and Welfare Committee, investigating the issue of illegal abortion.
Morgentaler stated. The reaction to his public testimony surprised him: he began to receive calls from women who wanted abortions. Robert Malcolm Campbell and Leslie Alexander Pal wrote, "Henry Morgentaler experienced the law's limitations directly in the supplications of desperate women who visited his Montreal office." Morgentaler's initial response was to refuse: "I hadn't expected the avalanche of requests and didn't realize the magnitude of the problem in immediate, human terms. I answered,'I sympathize with you. I know your problem. If I do help you, I'll go to jail, I lose my practice—I have a wife and two children. I'm sorry, but I just can't!'" For a time he was able to refer the women to two other doctors who did abortions, but they became unavailable. There was no one to whom he could send them, some of them were ending up in the emergency department after amateur abortions, he has said that he felt like a coward for sending them away and that he was shirking his responsibility. In spite of the risks to himself—loss of career, prison for years or for life—h
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Osgoode Hall Law School
Osgoode Hall Law School shortened to Osgoode, is the law school of York University in Toronto, Canada. The school was founded by the Law Society of Upper Canada, named for William Osgoode, an Oxford University graduate and barrister of Lincoln's Inn, the first to serve as the Chief Justice of Upper Canada; the school signed an agreement of affiliation with York University in 1965 following a decision by the provincial government requiring all law schools to be affiliated with a university. It was located at Osgoode Hall in downtown Toronto, which houses the headquarters of the Law Society, relocated to York University's Keele Campus in 1969; the law school is home to the Law Commission of the Osgoode Hall Law Journal. Osgoode hosts Professional Development Programs which are located in downtown Toronto at 1 Dundas St. near the original Osgoode Hall building. A variety of LL. M. and Ph. D. degrees in law are available. Its alumni include three Canadian Prime Ministers and ten Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, four of whom were Chief Justices.
The current dean of the law school is Mary Condon. QS world university rankings 2018 places Osgoode Hall Law School in the bracket of 51st to 100th top law schools in the world. Maclean's magazine has ranked Osgoode second amongst Canadian law schools in 2011, 2012 and 2013. In the 2008 rankings published by Canadian Lawyer Magazine, Osgoode was ranked first in Canada, was awarded high marks for the quality of its professors, flexible curriculum, the diversity and relevance of course offerings. For its first eight decades, Osgoode Hall Law School was located at Osgoode Hall at the corner of Queen Street and University Avenue; the structures at Queen and University are still known as Osgoode Hall. They remain the headquarters of the Law Society of Upper Canada and house the Court of Appeal for Ontario; the law school is located on the Keele Campus of York University, in the Toronto suburb of North York. In May 2007, Dean Monahan announced plans for an extensive renovation and extension of Osgoode Hall Law School involving a renovation of the existing building, the addition of an additional wing.
The building was designed by architect Jack Diamond with the construction of the renovated building beginning in the summer of 2009. The project had been majorly funded by a $2.5 million gift by Ignat Kaneff, the building has been renamed in his honor. The law school is referred to by York as its faculty of law. Osgoode's Professional Development offices and classrooms are based at 1 Dundas Street West in Downtown Toronto, overlooking Yonge-Dundas Square; the Legal & Literary Society, Osgoode Hall Law School's official student society, coordinates student activities both on and off campus. The organization funds over fifty student clubs, as well as the student newspaper, Obiter Dicta. John Robert Cartwright, former Chief Justice Peter Cory, former Puisne Judge and former Chancellor of York University Sir Lyman Duff, former Chief Justice Frank Joseph Hughes, former Puisne Judge Wilfred Judson, former Puisne Judge Andromache Karakatsanis, current Puisne Judge Patrick Kerwin, former Chief Justice Bora Laskin, former Chief Justice Malcolm Rowe, current Puisne Judge Wishart Spence, former Puisne Judge John Arnup, Moderator for United Church of Canada, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal George Ethelbert Carter Kim Carter, Chief Military Judge of the Canadian Forces Marcel Crête, jurist and Chief Justice of Quebec Bud Cullen, Judge at Federal Court of Canada Charles Dubin, former Chief Justice of Ontario Daniel Dumais, Emeritus Lawyer distinction from Barreau du Quebec, Puisne Judge of Superior Court of Quebec Asher Grunis, President of the Supreme Court of Israel Sydney Harris, activist lawyer and judge, President of the Canadian Jewish Congress Bill Hastings, Chief Censor of New Zealand, District Court Judge of New Zealand Russell G. Juriansz, first South Asian appointed to Ontario Court of Appeal Harry S. Laforme, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Patrick LeSage, Chief Justice of Ontario Superior Court of Justice Malcolm Archibald Macdonald, Chief Justice of British Columbia Mark MacGuigan, Attorney General of Canada, Justice of the Federal Court of Appeal Goldwyn Arthur Martin, QC, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Roy McMurtry, Chief Justice of Ontario, Attorney General of Ontario, Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom James Chalmers McRuer, Ontario Court of Appeal, Chief Justice at High Court of Justice of Ontario Charles Terrence Murphy, Judge at Ontario Superior Court, President of North Atlantic Assembly Dennis O'Connor, Associate Chief Justice of Ontario James O'Reilly, Federal Court Judge Coulter Osborne, Associate Chief Justice of Ontario John Richard, NAFTA Adjudicator, Chief Justice of the Federal Court of Appeal Charles Stuart, Justice of the Supreme Court of Alberta Michael Tulloch, Justice at the Ontario Court of Appeal Karen M. Weiler, past Judge Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Sharon A. Williams, Judge ad litem at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Warren Winkler, Chief Justice of Ontario Willy Mutunga, former Chief Justice of Kenya Sir John A. Macdonald William Lyon Mackenzie King Arthur Meighen Bill Davis, 18th Premier of Ontario George Drew, 14th Premier of Ontario Ernie Eves, 23rd Premier of Ontario Howard Ferguson, 9th Premier of Ontario Leslie Frost, 16th Premier of Ontario William Howard Hearst, 7th Premier of Ontario Rachel Notley, 17th Premier of Alberta John Robarts, 17th Premier of Ontario John Black Aird, former Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, Canadian Senator and founding partner of Aird & Berlis LLP Lincoln Alexander, 24
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am