National Register of Historic Places listings in Wisconsin
This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Wisconsin. There are over 2,400 listed sites in Wisconsin; each of the state's 72 counties has at least one listing on the National Register. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. There are 2,300 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Wisconsin; the numbers of properties and districts in the state or in any of its 72 counties are not directly reported by the National Register. Following are approximate tallies of current listings from lists of the specific properties and districts. National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 List of National Historic Landmarks in Wisconsin United States National Register of Historic Places listings List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Wisconsin
The Stick style was a late-19th-century American architectural style, transitional between the Carpenter Gothic style of the mid-19th century, the Queen Anne style that it had evolved into by the 1890s. It is named after its use of linear "stickwork" on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame; the style sought to bring a translation of the balloon framing that had risen in popularity during the middle of the century, by alluding to it through plain trim boards, soffits and other decorative features. Stick-style architecture is recognizable by the plain layout accented with trusses on the gables or decorative shingles; the stickwork decoration is not structurally significant, being just narrow planks or thin projections applied over the wall's clapboards. The planks intersect at right angles, sometimes diagonally as well, resembling the half-timbering of medieval – Tudor – buildings; the style was used in houses, train stations, life-saving stations, other buildings from the era.
The Stick style did have several characteristics in common with the Queen Anne style: interpenetrating roof planes with bold panelled brick chimneys, the wrap-around porch, spindle detailing, the "panelled" sectioning of blank wall, radiating spindle details at the gable peaks. Stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are referred to as Eastlake. Stick-Eastlake is a style term that uses details from the Eastlake Movement, started by Charles Eastlake, of decorative arts on Stick-style buildings, it is sometimes referred to as Victorian Stick, a variation of Eastlake styles. Stick-Eastlake enjoyed modest popularity in the late 19th century, but there are few surviving examples of the style when compared to other more popular styles of Victorian architecture. Chatham Train Station in Chatham, Massachusetts Delaware and Hudson Railroad Passenger Station in Altamont, New York John N. A. Griswold House in Newport, Rhode Island Hinds House in Santa Cruz, California Orfordville Depot in Orfordville, Wisconsin Emlen Physick Estate in Cape May, New Jersey John Reichert Farmhouse in Mequon, Wisconsin Swampscott Railroad Depot in Swampscott, Massachusetts Herman C.
Timm House in New Holstein, Wisconsin Robert Dollar Mansion in San Rafael, California Hereford Inlet lighthouse in North Wildwood, New Jersey Point Fermin Lighthouse in San Pedro, CA Ladd Carriage House in Portland, OR Stick-Eastlake architecture Category:Stick-Eastlake architecture in the United States Category:Stick-Eastlake architecture Queen Anne style architecture Category:Queen Anne architecture in the United States Category:Queen Anne architecture Category: Victorian architecture in the United States Category: Victorian architectural styles Foster, Gerald L. American houses: a field guide to the architecture of the home, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004. Cf. p. 387 and various
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Trompe-l'œil is an art technique that uses realistic imagery to create the optical illusion that the depicted objects exist in three dimensions. Forced perspective is a comparable illusion in architecture. Though the phrase, which can be spelled without the hyphen and ligature in English as trompe l'oeil, originates in the Baroque period, when it refers to perspectival illusionism, trompe-l'œil dates much further back, it was employed in murals. Instances from Greek and Roman times are known, for instance in Pompeii. A typical trompe-l'œil mural might depict a window, door, or hallway, intended to suggest a larger room. A version of an oft-told ancient Greek story concerns a contest between two renowned painters. Zeuxis produced a still life painting so convincing that birds flew down to peck at the painted grapes. A rival, asked Zeuxis to judge one of his paintings, behind a pair of tattered curtains in his study. Parrhasius asked Zeuxis to pull back the curtains, but when Zeuxis tried, he could not, as the curtains were included in Parrhasius's painting—making Parrhasius the winner.
With widespread fascination with perspective drawing in the Renaissance, Italian painters of the late Quattrocento such as Andrea Mantegna and Melozzo da Forlì, began painting illusionistic ceiling paintings in fresco, that employed perspective and techniques such as foreshortening to create the impression of greater space for the viewer below. This type of trompe l'œil illusionism as applied to ceiling paintings is known as di sotto in sù, meaning "from below, upward" in Italian; the elements above the viewer are rendered as if viewed from true vanishing point perspective. Well-known examples are the Camera degli Sposi in Mantua and Antonio da Correggio's Assumption of the Virgin in the Duomo of Parma. Vittorio Carpaccio and Jacopo de' Barbari added small trompe-l'œil features to their paintings, playfully exploring the boundary between image and reality. For example, a fly might appear to be sitting on the painting's frame, or a curtain might appear to conceal the painting, a piece of paper might appear to be attached to a board, or a person might appear to be climbing out of the painting altogether—all in reference to the contest of Zeuxis and Parrhasius.
In a 1964 seminar, the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan observed that the myth of the two painters reveals an interesting aspect of human cognition. While animals are attracted to superficial appearances, humans are enticed by the idea of things that are hidden. Perspective theories in the 17th century allowed a more integrated approach to architectural illusion, which when used by painters to "open up" the space of a wall or ceiling is known as quadratura. Examples include Pietro da Cortona's Allegory of Divine Providence in the Palazzo Barberini and Andrea Pozzo's Apotheosis of St Ignatius on the ceiling of the Roman church of Sant'Ignazio; the Mannerist and Baroque style interiors of Jesuit churches in the 16th and 17th century included such trompe-l'œil ceiling paintings, which optically "open" the ceiling or dome to the heavens with a depiction of Jesus', Mary's, or a saint's ascension or assumption. An example of a perfect architectural trompe-l'œil is the illusionistic dome in the Jesuit church, Vienna, by Andrea Pozzo, only curved but gives the impression of true architecture.
Trompe-l'œil paintings became popular in Flemish and in Dutch painting in the 17th century arising from the development of still life painting. The Flemish painter Cornelis Norbertus Gysbrechts created a chantourné painting showing an easel holding a painting. Chantourné means'cutout' and refers to a trompe l'œil representation designed to stand away from a wall; the Dutch painter Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten was a master of the trompe-l'œil and theorized on the role of art as the lifelike imitation of nature in his 1678 book, the Introduction to the Academy of Painting, or the Visible World. A fanciful form of architectural trompe-l'œil, features realistically rendered paintings of such items as paper knives, playing cards and scissors accidentally left lying around. Trompe-l'œil can be found painted on tables and other items of furniture, on which, for example, a deck of playing cards might appear to be sitting on the table. A impressive example can be seen at Chatsworth House in Derbyshire, where one of the internal doors appears to have a violin and bow suspended from it, in a trompe l'œil painted around 1723 by Jan van der Vaardt.
Another example can be found in the Painted Hall at the Old Royal Naval College, London. This Wren building was painted by Sir James Thornhill, the first British born painter to be knighted and is a classic example of the baroque style popular in the early 18th century; the American 19th-century still-life painter William Harnett specialized in trompe-l'œil. In the 20th century, from the 1960s on, the American Richard Haas and many others painted large trompe-l'œil murals on the sides of city buildings, from beginning of the 1980s when German Artist Rainer Maria Latzke began to combine classical fresco art with contemporary content trompe-l'œil became popular for interior murals; the Spanish painter Salvador Dalí utilized the technique for a number of his paintings. Trompe-l'œil, in the form of "forced perspective", has long been used in stage-theater set design, so as to create the illusion of a much deeper space than the actual stage. A famous early example is t
Mequon is a city in Ozaukee County, United States. The population was 23,132 at the 2010 census; the area was inhabited by Native Americans. European trappers and traders used the Milwaukee River through the middle of what is now Mequon as a means of transportation; the name "Mequon" is thought to have come from a Native-American word "Emikwaan" or "Miguan," meaning ladle, referring to the shape of the river in the area. The spelling was influenced by the French in the area at the time. Alternatively, the name may come from an Algonquin word meaning "feather", as suggested by the current Menominee name of the town, Mēkon. In 1833, poverty forced the Potawotami to sell this land along with all their other land holdings in southeastern Wisconsin, they had hoped that allying themselves with the United States in the Black Hawk War would help them maintain their land, but these hopes proved futile. Following the treaty, the Potawotami were illegally forced out of the territory before the eight year grace period guaranteed in the treaty had ended.
The expulsion of the Potawotami opened up the land for white settlement, so between 1834 and 1836, a surveyor named Brink, along with his assistant Mr. Follett, surveyed the land to create the Town of Mequon; the Menominee sold their land in the area in the Treaty of the Cedars in 1836. Around this time, settlers came from New York and England, soon followed by German and Irish immigrants. In 1839, a group of immigrants from Saxony settled near the Milwaukee River. In the same year, twenty families from Pomerania founded Freistadt in the western part of the Town of Mequon; the first Lutheran church in Wisconsin was built by these families in 1840. John Weston served as the first postmaster of the Town of Mequon, having settled in present-day Thiensville in 1837, he sold his holdings to John Henry Thien. Thien, a wealthy immigrant from Saxony, had traveled north from Milwaukee and settled along the Milwaukee River, where his family built a dam and grist mill. Thien hosted the first town meeting for the Town of Mequon in 1846.
The area around his estate, one square mile in the middle of the Town of Mequon, was incorporated as the village of Thiensville in 1910. The Town of Mequon was incorporated as a city in 1957. Mequon is located at 43°13′27″N 87°57′36″W, about 15 miles north of Milwaukee, lying along the western shore of Lake Michigan, it is part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area. Though much of the population lives in residential areas half of the land within the city's boundaries is undeveloped or farmed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 48.77 square miles, of which, 46.28 square miles is land and 2.49 square miles is water. As of 2005, Mequon was the third-largest city in terms of land area in the state of Wisconsin. Freistadt is a neighborhood of the city of Mequon; the community's name means "free city" in German. In the Town of Mequon, the area was added to the City of Mequon through annexation. In early October 1839 20 families settled here to found the colony of Freistadt.
Prompted by religious persecution in their homeland of Pomerania, the group sought and found a religious haven in Wisconsin. The community was home to the first Lutheran church in Wisconsin. In 1845, the synod known as the Lutheran Synod of Buffalo, was organized here.. The church in Freistadt became a part of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in 1848; the first log cabin was located southwest of the present church building. The congregation purchased 40 acres of land and in the spring of 1840 built the first Lutheran church in the state of Wisconsin; the log building, 30 by 20 feet, was used as a school. The first pastor of the congregation was L. F. E. Krause; the Lutheran Buffalo Synod was organized at Trinity in June 1845. Since 1848, the congregation has been a member of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Mequon experiences four distinct seasons, with variation in precipitation and temperature being wide; the overall climate of the city is moderated by nearby Lake Michigan, which causes temperatures to be cooler in summer and spring, which keeps overnight temperatures warmer in winter.
In March and April, the temperature in Mequon can be 10 to 15 degrees Fahrenheit cooler than temperatures in towns just 15 miles further from the lake. In December and January, the effect is reversed, with temperatures in inland towns falling much lower. In Mequon, the warmest month of the year is July, when the high temperature averages 81 °F, with low temperatures of 59 °F. June and July are the wettest months of the year, with the majority of rain falling in short-lived thunderstorms. January is the coldest month in Mequon, with average high temperatures averaging only 27 °F, lows averaging 11 °F. February is the driest month, with all precipitation falling in the form of snow. In an average winter, 47.0 in of snow falls. The city's proximity to Lake Michigan increases the snow received by the city. Most of the city's snowfall comes from systems such as Panhandle hooks; the highest temperature recorded in Mequon was 105 °F on July 24, 1935, again on July 17, 1995. The coldest temperature recorded in the city was -40 °F, on January 17, 1982
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
A bay window is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room. Bay window is a generic term for all protruding window constructions, regardless of whether they run over one or multiple storeys. In plan, the most used shapes are isosceles trapezoid and rectangle, but other polygonal shapes with more than two corners are common as are curved shapes. If a bay window is curved it may alternatively be called bow window. Bay windows in a triangular shape with just one corner exist but are rare. A bay window supported by a corbel, bracket or similar is called an oriel window. Most medieval bay windows and up to the baroque era are oriel windows, they appear as a ornamented addition to the building rather than an organic part of it. During the Gothic period they serve as small house chapels, with the oriel window containing an altar and resembling an apse of a church. In Nuremberg these are called Chörlein with the most famous example being the one from the parsonage of St. Sebaldus Church.
Oriental oriel windows such as the Arab Mashrabiya are made of wood and allow viewing out while restricting visibility from the outside. In warmer climates a bay window may be identical to a balcony with a privacy shield or screen. Bay windows can make a room appear larger, provide views of the outside which would be unavailable with an ordinary flat window, they are found in terraced houses and detached houses as well as in blocks of flats. Based on British models, their use spread to other English speaking countries like the US, Canada and Australia. Following the pioneering model of pre-modern commercial architecture at the Oriel Chambers in Liverpool, they feature on early Chicago School skyscrapers where they run the whole height of the building's upper storeys. Bay windows were identified as a defining characteristic of San Francisco architecture in a 2012 study that had a machine learning algorithm examine a random sample of 25,000 photos of cities from Google Street View. Bay window caboose Bow window Bretèche Oriel window Gagnon, Jerome.
"Gaining bonus space and light with bay windows". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 21 October 2012