Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies and other forms of expression, visual art, dance and film. It is characterised by anti-establishment views and the promotion of individual freedom, is centred on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock, its adherents are referred to as "punks" spelled "punx" in the modern day. Punk politics cover the entire political spectrum. Common punk ethos includes non-conformity, anti-authoritarianism, anti-corporatism, a do-it-yourself ethic, anti-consumerist, anti-conservative, anti-corporate greed, direct action and not "selling out". There is a wide range of punk fashion, including deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, Dr. Martens boots, etc. hairstyles such as brightly coloured hair and spiked mohawks, etc. cosmetics, tattoos and body modification. Women in the hardcore scene wore masculine clothing. An important aspect of punk was creating explicitly outward identities of sexuality. Everything, supposed to be hidden was brought to the front.
Punk aesthetics determine the type of art punks enjoy, which has underground, minimalist and satirical sensibilities. Punk has generated a considerable amount of poetry and prose, has its own underground press in the form of zines. Many punk-themed films and videos have been made; the punk subculture emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States in the mid-1970s. Which region originated punk has long been a matter of controversy within the movement. Early punk had an abundance of antecedents and influences, Jon Savage describes the subculture as a "bricolage" of every previous youth culture in the Western world since World War II, "stuck together with safety pins". Various musical, political and artistic movements influenced the subculture. In the late 1970s, the subculture began to diversify, which led to the proliferation of factions such as new wave, post-punk, 2 Tone, pop punk, hardcore punk, no wave, street punk and Oi!. Hardcore punk, street punk and Oi! Sought to do away with the frivolities introduced in the years of the original punk movement.
The punk subculture influenced other underground music scenes such as alternative rock, indie music, crossover thrash and the extreme subgenres of heavy metal. A new movement in the United States became visible in the early and mid-1990s that sought to revive the punk movement, doing away with some of the trappings of hardcore; the punk subculture is centered on a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock played by bands consisting of a vocalist, one or two electric guitarists, an electric bassist and a drummer. In some bands, the musicians contribute backup vocals, which consist of shouted slogans, choruses or football-style chants. While most punk rock uses the distorted guitars and noisy drumming sounds derived from 1960s garage rock and 1970s pub rock, some punk bands incorporate elements from other subgenres, such as surf rock, rockabilly or reggae. Most punk rock songs are short, have simple and somewhat basic arrangements using few chords, they have lyrics that express punk ideologies and values, although some punk lyrics are about lighter topics such as partying or romantic relationships.
Different punk subcultures distinguish themselves by having a unique style of punk rock, although not every style of punk rock has its own associated subculture. The earliest form of music to be called "punk rock" was 1960s garage rock, the term was applied to the genre retroactively by influential rock critics in the early 1970s. In the late 1960s, music now referred to as protopunk originated as a garage rock revival in the northeastern United States; the first distinct music scene to claim the punk label appeared in New York City between 1974 and 1976. Around the same time or soon afterward, a punk scene developed in London. Los Angeles subsequently became home to the third major punk scene; these three cities formed the backbone of the burgeoning movement, but there were other punk scenes in cities such as Brisbane and Sydney in Australia and Montreal in Canada, Boston and San Francisco in the United States. The punk subculture advocates a do-it-yourself ethic. During the subculture's infancy members were all from a lower economic class, had become tired of the affluence, associated with popular rock music at the time.
Punks would publish their own music or sign with small independent labels, in hopes to combat what they saw as a money hungry music industry. The DIY ethic is still popular with punks; the New York City punk rock scene arose from a subcultural underground promoted by artists, musicians and a wide variety of non-mainstream enthusiasts. The Velvet Underground's harsh and experimental yet melodic sound in the mid to late-1960s, much of it relating to transgressive media work by visual artist Andy Warhol, is credited for influencing 1970s bands such as the New York Dolls, The Stooges and the Ramones. Early New York City punk bands were short-lived, in part due to widespread use of recreational drugs, promiscuous sex, sometimes violent power struggles, but the relative popularity of the music led to the evolution of punk into a movement and lifestyle. Although punks are categorised as having left-wing, anarchist or progressive views, punk political ideology covers the entire political spectrum. Punk-related ideologies are concerned with individual freedom and anti-establishment views.
Common punk viewpoints include individual liberty, anti-authoritarianism, a DIY ethic, non-conformity, anti-collectivis
Exene Cervenka is an American singer and poet. She is best known for her work as a singer in the California punk rock band X, her surname pronounced as "czer-vehn-kuh". In 2005, Cervenka's journals and mixed media collages were exhibited in a one-person exhibition titled America the Beautiful at the Santa Monica Museum of Art; the exhibit was curated by Michael Duncan. An expanded version of the exhibition traveled to DCKT Contemporary in New York in January 2006. Cervenka was married to John Doe from 1980 to 1985, she met her second husband Viggo Mortensen in 1986 on the set of the comedy Salvation!, a parody of televangelism. Mortensen played her husband Jerome, they married on July 8, 1987. On January 28, 1988, Cervenka gave birth to Henry Blake Mortensen. Mortensen and Cervenka lived in Idaho for three years, they separated in 1992, were divorced in 1997. Cervenka married musician Jason Edge, who went on to play in Original Sinners. Edge and Cervenka are now divorced. Cervenka moved from Los Angeles to Jefferson City, Missouri for four years, returned to Southern California.
She now lives in Orange County. On June 2, 2009, Cervenka released a statement revealing that she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Well before this diagnosis, she and X have supported Sweet Relief, a charity that aids uninsured artists. Sweet Relief was begun by musician Victoria Williams when she herself was diagnosed with MS. In 2011, Cervenka said. However, Cervenka had to cancel a Spring 2011 tour due to problems associated with her MS. During a July 2015 interview, John Doe said that the multiple sclerosis diagnosis was a misdiagnosis, that Cervenka, after consulting with various doctors who were not able to diagnose her, is healthy. Cervenka, as a self-styled "conspiracy therapist," has provoked controversy on social media and on YouTube, under the name "Christine Notmyrealname," by advancing conspiracy theories including the view that the Isla Vista shootings were a hoax designed to bring about stricter gun control laws. After the backlash, she has issued an apology on her Facebook and Twitter accounts and her conspiracy related YouTube videos are no longer available for viewing.
1978: Adult Books/We're Desperate 7" 1979: Yes L. A. compilation 1980: The Decline of Western Civilization soundtrack: "Beyond and Back," "Johnny Hit and Run Paulene," "Nausea," "Unheard Music," "We're Desperate" 1980: No Questions Asked by Flesh Eaters 1982: Urgh! A Music War soundtrack 1980: Los Angeles 1981: Wild Gift 1982: Under the Big Black Sun 1983: More Fun in the New World 1985: Ain't Love Grand! 1987: See How We Are 1988: Live at the Whisky a Go-Go 1993: Hey Zeus! 1995: Unclogged 1997: Beyond and Back: The X Anthology 2004: The Best: Make the Music Go Bang! 2005: X – Live in Los Angeles 1985: Poor Little Critter on the Road 2005: The Modern Sounds of the Knitters 1989: Old Wives' Tales 1990: Running Sacred 1994: Exene Cervenka 7" 1995: Surface To Air Serpents 2009: Somewhere Gone 2011: The Excitement of Maybe 1997: Life Could Be A Dream as Auntie Christ 2002: Original Sinners as Original Sinners 2006: Sev7en as Exene Cervenka and the Original Sinners 1985: Wanda Coleman, Exene Cervenka: Twin Sisters LP.
Poetry performance recorded at McCabe's Guitar Shop, Santa Monica, CA on February 1, 1985. 1995: Lydia Lunch & Exene Cervenka: Rude Hieroglyphics. Recorded live at the Sapphire Supper Club, Orlando, FL on March 20, 1995. 1999: Decoupage 2000: Return of the Goddess. Read appeared in an interview skit. 2012: John Doe & Exene Cervenka: Singing and Playing. Recorded at Way Station April 2–3, 2010. 1994: Applegate and Elizabeth Pena. Across the Moon. Los Angeles, CA: Hemdale Home Video, 1994. ISBN 978-1-569-20068-1 Music composed by Christopher Tyng & Exene Cervenka 1996: Honor: A Benefit for the Honor the Earth Campaign. "The Future is a War" by Exene Cervenka 1997: G. I. Jane original soundtrack. "The Future is a War" by Auntie Christ 1999: One Man's Meat by Viggo Mortensen. Features Exene Cervenka on vocals, guitar 2000: Stoned Immaculate: The Music of The Doors. "Children of Night" by Perry Farrell and Exene 2001: Punk-o-rama 2001, Vol. 6. "We're Desperate" by Pennywise with Exene 2002: Rise Above: 24 Black Flag Songs to Benefit the West Memphis Three.
"Wasted" by Exene Cervenka 2009: The People Speak original soundtrack. "See How We Are" by Exene Cervenka & John Doe 2011: Kings and Queens by Blackie and the Rodeo Kings. "Made of Love" featuring Exene Cervenka The Decline of Western Civilization Urgh! A Music War X: The Unheard Music X - Live in Los Angeles – Shout! Factory: Concert by X in Los Angeles recorded live on November 26 and 27, 2004 ISBN 978-0-738-93185-2 Lunch and Exene Cervenka. Adulterers Anonymous. New York: Grove Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-394-62412-9 The 1984 Calendar of Olympic Games, Music & Orwellian Dates. 1984, n
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Patricia Campbell Hearst is the granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst. She became internationally known for events following her 1974 kidnapping and physical violation by a domestic American terrorist group calling itself the Symbionese Liberation Army. Hearst was found 19 months after being abducted, by which time she was a fugitive wanted for serious crimes, she was held in custody, despite speculation that her family's resources would prevent her from spending time in jail. At her trial, the prosecution suggested that she had joined the Symbionese Liberation Army of her own volition, a claim that conflicted with Hearst's own account that she had been raped and threatened with death. In 1976, she was convicted for the crime of bank robbery and sentenced to 35 years in prison reduced to 7 years, her sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter and she was pardoned by President Bill Clinton. Hearst's grandfather, William Randolph Hearst, created the largest newspaper, magazine and movie business in the world.
Her great-grandmother was philanthropist Phoebe Hearst. The family was associated with immense political influence and anti-Communism going back to before World War II. Hearst was born in San Francisco, the third of five daughters of Randolph Apperson Hearst and Catherine Wood Campbell, she grew up in Hillsborough. She attended Crystal Springs School for Girls in Hillsborough and the Santa Catalina School in Monterey. Patty attended Menlo College in Atherton, before transferring to the University of California, Berkeley. Despite her wealthy grandfather, Patty Hearst's father was only one of a number of heirs, did not have control of the Hearst interests, her parents did not consider it necessary to take any measures for her personal security. At the time of her abduction, she was a sophomore at the University of California, studying art history, living with her fiancé, Steven Weed. On February 4, 1974, 19-year-old Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley, apartment, she was lost consciousness during the abduction.
Shots were fired from a machine gun during the incident. An urban guerrilla group called the Symbionese Liberation Army claimed responsibility for the abduction; the SLA was formed through contacts made by a study group, coordinated by a University of California, Berkeley professor. Its purpose was the tutelage of black inmates, over time the ethos became radicalized. Black convicts came to be viewed as heroic political prisoners, victimized by a racist American society. On March 5, 1973, Donald DeFreeze escaped from prison. Radical penal activists and future SLA members Russell Little and William Wolfe took DeFreeze to Patricia Soltysik's house; the SLA was led by DeFreeze, after a prison acquaintance named Wheeler left, was the only African American in the group. By the time the group became active, most of the members of the tiny group were women, some of whom have, like Soltysik and her roommate Nancy Ling Perry, been described as in lesbian relationships; the members included Angela Atwood.
DeFreeze was suspected by many of being a government provocateur, but his race and prison time gave him unquestioned authority in the SLA. He had sexual dominion over women in the group, they acquired resources by robbing homes in the Bay Area. The first proposed operation, assassinating the head of the state penitentiaries, was cancelled because of possible repercussions for inmates. DeFreeze's estimation of the military strength of the dozen-strong SLA group was hyperbolic, he gave himself a concomitantly grandiose title of'field marshal'. Soltysik is believed to have created much of the SLA ideological material, which stated the organization was opposed to "racism, agism, individualism, competitiveness and all other institutions that have made or sustained capitalism". Hearst's kidnapping was opportunistic as she lived close to the SLA hideout. According to testimony, the main intention was to leverage the Hearst family's political influence to free two SLA members arrested for the killing of Foster.
Faced with the failure to free the imprisoned men, the SLA demanded that the captive's family distribute $70 worth of food to every needy Californian – an operation that would cost an estimated $400 million. In response, Hearst's father took out a loan and arranged the immediate donation of $2 million worth of food to the poor of the Bay Area in an operation called "People in Need." The distribution descended into chaos and the SLA refused to release Hearst. According to Hearst's testimony, she was in a closet blindfolded with her hands tied for a week, during which time DeFreeze threatened her with death, she was let out for meals and, began to join in the political discussions. Hearst was confined in the closet for weeks, after which she says, "DeFreeze told me that the war council had decided or was thinking about killing me or me staying with them, that I better start thinking about that as a possibility." Hearst said, "I accommodated my thoughts to coincide with theirs." Upon being asked for her decision, Hearst said she wanted to stay and fight with the SLA, the blindfold was removed, allowing her to see her captors for the first time.
After this she was given lessons on her duties weapons drills, every day. Angela Atwood told Hearst that the others thought she should know what sexual freedom was like in the unit.
Live Freaky! Die Freaky!
Live Freaky Die Freaky is a stop motion-animated, musical independent film directed by John Roecker. It is a black comedy based on the Charles Manson murders, it premiered on DVD in the United States on January 17, 2006 and played in a few theatres on January 20, 27 and 28. The film starts out with a futuristic Nomad from the year 3069 who accidentally discovers the book "Helter Skelter" while searching for food in a desert on the former site of Los Angeles, he mistakes the book as the Bible, reads it as if Charles Hanson is the messiah. As he reads, we flash back to 1969. Charlie renames her Hadie and she is accepted into his family where they plan things to change the world, make music. After finding out that the snobby, nature hating actress Sharon Hate is supposed to be filming a movie in the desert where they are living and the family plot to kill her. Charlie claims to get messages through songs, such as "I Want to Hold Your Hand" by The Beatles, which tell him to kill Sharon Hate. Soon after brutally murdering Sharon Hate and her friends and Abigail, the family goes after the Ha Biancas, after Mr. Ha Bianca decided to build a parking lot, which would cover the entire desert, in Sharon Hate's honor.
They kill him and his wife, are found by the police in the desert, after which they have a trial and are sentenced to death by gassing, electric chair, hanging til dead. We go back to the Nomad in 3069 who carves an X in his forehead and uses Charlie Manson as a sort of Messiah; this movie contains performances by many well known rock artists such as: Billie Joe Armstrong Mike Dirnt Tré Cool Tim Armstrong Davey Havok Kelly Osbourne Jane Wiedlin Jen Johnson Travis Barker Nick 13 Lars Frederiksen Sean Yseult Asia Argento Benji Madden Joel Madden Theo KoganAnd many extras such as: Rob Aston Josh Wilburn Jason White Ryan Williams Craig Roose Overture No Sense Makes Sense... It Was A Big And Beautiful Dream... Charlie? Bad Vibrations These Three Holes! Mechanical Man Cafe 666 This Upside Down River Strangle A Tree The Pass Where The Devil Can See Creepy Crawl Healter Skelter August 9 Buzzsaw Twist Folie A' Famille All The Good Things I Am Just A Reflection Of You We Watch You As You Sleep Light Fires In Your Cities Live Freaky Die Freaky Adult animation List of stop-motion films List of animated feature films Live Freaky Die Freaky on IMDb Interview with director John Roecker about the film Washington Post Austin Chronicle The Advocate LA Weekly MTV.com
A concert film or concert movie, is a type of documentary film, the subject of, an extended live performance or concert by either a musician or a stand-up comedian. The earliest known concert film is Concert Magic; this concert features virtuoso violinist Yehudi Menuhin at the Charlie Chaplin Studios in 1947. Together with various artists he performed classical and romantic works of famous composers such as Beethoven, Bach and others; the earliest known jazz concert film is the 1960 documentary Jazz on a Summer's Day. The film was recorded during the fifth annual Newport Jazz Festival; the earliest known rock concert film was the T. A. M. I. Show, which featured acts such as The Beach Boys, James Brown, Marvin Gaye, the Rolling Stones. One of popular music's most ground-breaking concert films is Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii, directed by Adrian Maben, in which Pink Floyd perform a short set of songs inside the amphitheatre of Pompeii without an audience. Although filmed in 1971 the film is still regarded as one of the most important concert films made.
The term was first used by Bill Drake in the 1969 History of Rock & Roll radio broadcast and is a portmanteau of "rock" and "documentary". The term was subsequently used to describe concert films containing appearances by multiple artists. In 1976, the term was used by the promoters of the live musical production Beatlemania which documented the evolving career of The Beatles; the 1984 mockumentary film, This Is Spinal Tap, notably parodied the rockumentary genre