House of Lords
The House of Lords known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, though the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall control of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, S
Chief Whip of the Liberal Democrats
The Chief Whip of the Liberal Democrats is responsible for administering the whipping system in the party which ensures that members attend and vote in parliament when the party leadership requires a majority vote. Whips, of which two are appointed in the party, a member of the House of Commons and a member of the House of Lords help to organise their party’s contribution to parliamentary business. On some occasions, the party leadership may allow MP's to have a free vote based on their own conscience rather than party policy, of which the chief whip is not required to direct votes; this is a list of people who have served as Chief Whip of the Liberal Democrats in the Parliament of the United Kingdom and of its predecessor parties. The Liberal Party was formed in 1859, but through its roots in the Whig Party dates back to the late 1670s. In 1988, the Liberals merged with the Social Democratic Party, formed by dissident Labour Party members in 1981, to create the Liberal Democrats. 1 Wallace continued as Liberal Democrat Chief Whip following the merger 1 Falkland was absent serving as Governor of Nova Scotia 2 Colebrooke continued as Liberal Chief Whip in the Lloyd George coalition of 1916 to 1922.
Denman was Chief Whip of the Opposition Asquith Liberals from 1919 to 1924 3 Tordoff continued as Liberal Democrat Chief Whip following the merger Chief Whip of the Labour Party Chief Whip of the Conservative Party Chris Cook and Brendan Keith, British Historical Facts 1830–1900, Macmillan, 1975 David Butler and Gareth Butler, Twentieth-Century British Historical Facts 1900–2000, Macmillan, 2000
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Charles Peter Kennedy was a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician, Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 1999 to 2006, a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, latterly for the Ross and Lochaber constituency. Kennedy became at different times a member of three political parties. At the age of 15 he joined the Labour Party, followed in 1981 by the newly formed SDP, in 1988, the Liberal Democrats, when the SDP merged with the Liberal Party. At the 1983 general election, Kennedy was elected for the SDP aged 23, he emerged as a potential party leader. In 1999, after the resignation of Paddy Ashdown, Kennedy was elected as party leader at the age of 39, he led the party through two general elections, increasing its number of seats in the House of Commons to 62, the highest level since the Liberal Party won 158 seats in 1923, led his party's opposition to the Iraq War. A charismatic and affable speaker in public, he appeared extensively on television during his leadership. During the latter stages of Kennedy's leadership, there was concern about both his leadership and his health.
From December 2005, some within the party were questioning his position and calling for a leadership election. On 5 January 2006, he was informed that ITN would be reporting that he had received treatment for a drinking problem; this admission damaged his standing. After resigning as party leader, Kennedy remained in office as a backbench MP. After the 2010 general election he voted against Nick Clegg's decision to form a coalition with the Conservative Party. On the issue of constitutional reform, he was a long-term supporter of full home rule for Scotland within a federal United Kingdom within a federal Europe, he lost his seat at the 2015 general election to Ian Blackford of the SNP, died less than a month from a haemorrhage linked to his alcoholism. Kennedy was born in the son of Mary and Ian Kennedy, he had a Roman Catholic upbringing, was educated at Lochaber High School in Fort William. He went on to study for a Master of Arts degree in Politics and Philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
Kennedy first became politically active at university, where he joined the SDP as well as the Dialectic Society. Between 1980 and 1981, Kennedy was President of the Glasgow University Union, he won the Observer Mace debating competition in 1982. Upon graduation in 1982, Kennedy went to work for BBC Scotland as a journalist, he received a Fulbright Fellowship which allowed him to carry out research at Indiana University in the United States. While studying in America, Kennedy received the SDP nomination to stand for the Scottish seat of Ross and Skye—then held by the Conservative Hamish Gray—at the 1983 general election. In a shock result, Kennedy won the seat, becoming the youngest sitting Member of Parliament, aged 23, he served on the Social Services select committee from 1985 to 1987, retained his seat at the 1987 general election, served on the Televising of Proceedings of the House select committee from 1987 to 1989. He was the first of the five SDP MPs to support its merger with the Liberal Party because of pressure from Liberal activists in his constituency.
The parties merged in 1988, forming the Social and Liberal Democratic Party renamed the Liberal Democrats. Kennedy moved into frontbench politics in 1989. After retaining his seat in the 1992 general election he served as the spokesperson for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs during the 1992–97 parliament, he retained his seat in the 1997 general election and served on the Standards and Privileges select committee from 1997 to 1999. He was Liberal Democrat Party President from 1990 to 1994, Liberal Democrat spokesperson for the office of the Leader of the House of Commons from 1997 to 1999. Kennedy was elected leader of the Liberal Democrats on 9 August 1999, after the retirement of Paddy Ashdown, he won 57% of the transferred vote under the Alternative Vote system, beating the runner-up Simon Hughes, Malcolm Bruce, Jackie Ballard and David Rendel. In the same year he was sworn in as a Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. Kennedy's style of leadership differed from Ashdown's, being regarded as more conversational and relaxed.
He was labelled "Chatshow Charlie" by some observers as a result of his appearances on the satirical panel game Have I Got News for You. In his first major campaign, the 2001 general election, along with his "election guru" Lord Rennard, targeted the Liberal Democrats' campaign on a limited number of seats in such a way as to turn a lower level of national support into a greater number of parliamentary seats, they won 52 seats with an 18.3% share of the vote. This was a 1.5% improvement in vote share over the 1997 election, but smaller than the 25.4% vote share the SDP/Liberal Alliance had achieved in 1983, which won it 23 seats. Kennedy led his party's opposition to the Iraq War, with all Liberal Democrats voting against or abstaining in the vote for the invasion of Iraq—the largest British party to do so. In July 2002, Jeremy Paxman publicly apologised after asking Kennedy about his drinking in a television interview. Reports emerged of Kennedy's ill-health in 2003 at the time
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop